Click for next page ( R2


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
DIRECTIONS IN GEN INFER NC RESEARCH AN ASSESSMENT OF OPPORTUNITIES AND NEEDS Report of the Engineering Research Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council Washington, D.C. NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1987

OCR for page R1
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciencea is a private, nonprofit, aelf-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matter . Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciencea. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciencea the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also Sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the avarices of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the reponsibility given to the National Academy of Scienece by its congresaional charter to be an ad~riaer to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify isauea of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Reaearch Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and Odorizing the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciencea and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and Rice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This report and the study on which it is based were supported by the National Science Foundation, the Department of the Air Force, the Department of the Army, the Department of the Nary, the Department of Energy, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. CPE-8406141 and by the Department of Commerce-National Bureau of Standards under Contract No. 50SBNB4C3137. Library of Congress Cataloging-in Publication Data Directions in engineering research. Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. EngineeringReaearchUnited States. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Engineering Reaearch Board. TA160.4.D57 1987 620'.0072 87-20410 ISBN 0-309-03747-6 Printed in the United States of America First Printing, September 1987 Second Printing, March 1988 Third Printing, May 1989

OCR for page R1
ENGINEERING RESEARCH BOARD ALLEN E. PUCKETT (Chairman), Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Hughes Aircraft Company JACK ~ . KERREBROCK ~ Vice- Chairman), R. C. MacLaurin Professor and Head, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology WILLIAM G. AGNEW, Technical Director, General Motors Research Laboratories GEORGE S. ANSELL, President, Colorado School of Mines JOHN A. ARMsTRoNG, Vice President for Logic and Memory, IBM Corporation ARDEN L. BEMENT, JR., Vice President, Technical Resources, TRW, Inc. DANIEL C. DRUCKER, Graduate Research Professor of Engineering Sciences, Department of Engineering Sciences, University of Florida THOMAS E. EVERHART, Chancellor, University of Illinois Urbana/Champaign RICHARD H. GALLAGHER, Vice President and Dean of Faculty, Worcester Polytechnic Institute EDGAR 3. GARBARINI, Senior Executive Consultant, Bechte] Group, Inc. DAVID A . HoDGEs, Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California at Berkeley PERRY L. MCCARTY, Chairman and Silas H. Palmer Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford University JOHN A. QUINN, Robert D. Bent Professor and Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania WILLIAM R. SCHOWALTER, Professor and Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering, Princeton University l:Eo J. THOMAS, JR., Director of Research 1,aboratories, Eastman Kodak Company . ~

OCR for page R1
commiBBion on Engmeer~ng and Technical Systems Liaison Comm~sionere ROBERT R. POSSUM, Dean, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Southern Methodist University PETER W. LIKINS, President, Lehigh University WILLIAM R. SCHOWALTER, Professor and Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering, Princeton University Staff RALPH D. COOPER, Executive Director VIVIANE SCOTT, Administrative Assistant/Buf~get Analyst JANET ~ . CROOKS, A Ministrative Secretary ROBERT J. BURGER, Consultant ~ EFFREY P . COHN, Consultant STANLEY W. DOROFF, Consultant COURTLAND S. LEWIS, Consultant 1V

OCR for page R1
PANEL ON BIOENGINEERING SYSTEMS RESEARCH (1984-1985) JOHN A. QUINN (Chairman), Robert D. Bent Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania LEO J . THOMAS, J R. ~ Vice- Chairman), Director of Research Laboratories, Eastman Kodak Company JAMES BASSINGTHWAIGHTE, Professor, Center for Bioengineering, University of Washington STEPHEN W. DREW, Director, Biochemical Research & Development, Merck and Company YUAN-CHENG B. FUNG, Professor, Applied Mechanics and Bioengineering, University of California at San Diego ARTHUR E. HUMPHREY, Vice President and Provost, Lehigh University ROBERT W. MANN, Whitaker Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ROBERT PLONSEY, Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Consult ante JEFFREY P . COHN STANLEY W. DOROFF THEODORE ESDERS COURTLAND S. LEWIS

OCR for page R1
PANEL ON CONSTRUCTION AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN SYSTEMS RESEARCH (1984-1985) RICHARD GALLAGHER (Chairman), Vice President and Dean of Faculty, Worcester Polytechnic Institute EDGAR J. GARBARINI (Vice-Chairman), Senior Executive Consultant, Bechte! Group, Inc. STEVEN J. FENVES, University Professor of Civil Engineering, Carnegie-Mellon University BENC. G ERWICK,JR.,ProfessorofCivilEngineering, University of California at Berkeley JOHN W. LEONARD, Vice President Engineering, Morrison-Knudsen Company, Inc. WILLIAM MCGUIRE, Professor of Civil Engineering, Cornell University EDWARD O. PFRANG, Executive Director, American Society of Civil Engineers LELAND J. WALKER, Chairman, Board of Directors, Northern Engineering and Testing, Inc. Comultants STANLEY W. DOROFF COURTLAND S. LEWIS V1

OCR for page R1
PANEI, ON ENERGY, MINERAI,, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS RESEARCH (1984-1985) PERRY L. MCCARTY (Chairman), Chairman and Silas H. Palmer Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford University ALONZO W . LAWRENCE ~ Vice- Chairman), Vice President, Science and Technology, Koppers Company, Inc. DOUGLAS W. FUERSTENAU, Professor of Metallurgy arid Director, Institute of Mining and Mineral Resources, University of California at Berkeley ENEAS D. KANE, Retired Vice President of Technology and Environmental Affairs, Standard Oil Company of California WALTER R. LYNN, Director, Program on Science, Technology & Society and Professor, School of Environmental Engineering, Cornell University EDwARD S. RUBIN, Professor, Mechanical Engineering and Director, Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, Carnegie-Mellon University P ONISSERIL S OMASUNDARAN, La van Duddleson Krumb Professor of Mineral Engineering, Columbia University ROBERT UHRIG, Vice President, Advanced Systems and Technology, Florida Power and Light Company Consultants STANLEY W. DOROFF COURTLAND S. LEWIS V11

OCR for page R1
PANEL ON INFORMATION, COMMUNICATIONS, COMPUTATION, AND CONTROL SYSTEMS RESEARCH (1984-1985) THOMAS E . EVERHART ~ Co-Chairman), Chancellor, University of Illinois Urbana/Cha~npaign JOHN A . ARMSTRONG ~ Co- Chairman), Vice President for Logic and Memory, IBM Corporation JOSE B. CRUZ, JR., Associate Head of Department, and Professor of Electrical Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana/Champaign WILLIAM G. HOWARD, JR., Senior Vice President and Director of Research & Development, Motorola Corporation ERNEST S. KUH, Professor of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California at Berkeley ROBERT W. LUCKY, Executive Director, Research Communications Science Division, Bell Laboratories JOEL MOSES, Head, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MAX T. WEISS, Group Vice President, Engineering Group, Aerospace Corporation Consultants ROBERT J. BURGER STANLEY W. DOROFF COURTLAND S. LEWIS . . V111

OCR for page R1
PANEL ON MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS RESEARCH (1984-1985) DAVID A . HODGES ~ Chairman), Professor, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California at Berkeley G EORGE S . ANSELL ~ Vice- Chairman), President, Colorado School of Mines G . F REDRIC BOILING, Director, Manufacturing Process Laboratory, Ford Motor Company JoHN G. BOLLINGER, Dean, College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin Madison JOHN A. DECAIRE, Defense and Electronics Center, Westinghouse Electric Corporation JAMES F. LARDNER, Vice President, Component Group, Deere and Company M. EUGENE MERCHANT, Director, Advanced Manufacturing Research, Metcut Research Associates, Inc. RoGER N. NAGEL, Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Director of Institute of Robotics, Lehigh University MORRIS A. STEINBERG, Vice President of Science, Lockheed Corporation Consultants ROBERT J. BURGER STANLEY W. DoRoFF COURTLAND S. LEWIS 1X

OCR for page R1
PANEL ON MATERIALS SYSTEMS RESEARCH (1984-1985) WILLIAM R. SCHOWALTER (Chairman), Professor and Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering, Princeton University ARDEN L. BEMENT, JR. (Vice-Chairman), Vice President, Technical Resources, TRW, Inc. HAROLD W. PAXTON, Vice President for Corporate Research and Technology Assessment, United States Steel Corporation R. BRYON PIPES, Dean, College of Engineering, University of Delaware BEN G. STREETMAN, Director, Microelectronic Research Center, College of Engineering, University of Texas at Austin JoHN B. WACHTMAN, Director, Center for Ceramics Research, Rutgers University JAMES C. WILLIAMS, Carnegie Institute of Technology, Carnegie-Mellon University KURT F. WISSBRUN, Senior Research Associate, Celanese Research Company ConsuItants ROBERT J. BURGER STANLEY W. DOROFF COURTLAND S. LEWIS

OCR for page R1
PANEL ON TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS RESEARCH (1984-1985) DANIEL C . DRUCKER (Chairman), Graduate Research Professor of Engineering Sciences, University of Florida WILLIAM G. AGNEW (Vice-Chairman), Technical Director, General Motors Research Laboratories DAVID E. BOYCE, Professor of Transportation and Regional Science, University of Blinom Urbana/Champaign WILLIAM J. HARRIS, JR., Vice President, Research and Test Department, Association of American Railroads JAMES A. HIGGINS, Stanley Associates THOMAS D . LARSON, Secretary of Transportation, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania HERBERT H. RICHARDSON, Vice Chancellor and Dean of Engineering, Texas A & M University A. RICHARD SEEBASS, Dean, College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Colorado JOHN E. STEINER, Retired Vice President, Corporate Product Development, the Boeing Company Consultants ROBERT J. BURGER COURTLAND S. LEWIS STANLEY W. DoRoFF X1

OCR for page R1
XX11 A CKNO BLED GMENTS Pane] on Materials Systems Research This report was strengthened by the helpful comments and contributions of many individuals and organizations represent- ing the materials engineering research community. The pane! thanks in particular those individuals who gave invited presen- tations on aspects of materials research: Louis C. lanniello, of the Department of Energy; Robert Reynik, of the National Science Foundation; Benjamin Wilcox, of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; and Klaus Zwilsky, of the National Materials Advisory Board. We are also grateful for the participation and expert counsel of those who joined us in pane! meetings, includ- ing Bernard Budiansky of Harvard University, Lyle Schwartz of the National Bureau of Standards, and both Tap an Mukerjee and Robert Reynik of the National Science Foundation. In addition, the assistance of Darrell Reneker, of the Office of Science and Tech- nology Policy, Ward Winer, of the Georgia Institute of Technology, and Jay Benziger, of Princeton University, is much appreciated. The input provided by the many individuals and organiza- tions among them engineering schools, professional societies, fed- eral and national laboratories, and Presidential Young Investi- gators responding to the Engineering Research Board's survey of the research community was an invaluable aid in the prepa- ration of the report. The institutions and the affiliations of the respondents are iclentified in the Appendix. In particular, we are most grateful to the members of an Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers task force, chaired by Professor Gregory E. StilIman, which prepared An IEEE Opinion on Research Needs in Electronic Materials" for the panel. That document was extremely useful in the panel's deliberations.

OCR for page R1
A CKNO WLEDGMENTS . . . XX111 Finally, we wish to express our appreciation to consultant/ writer Courtiand Lewis for his outstanding support and assistance in assembling and organizing material for this report, and to the staff members of the Engineering Research Board, especially Ralph D. Cooper, Executive Director; Viviane Scott, Administrative As- sistant and Budget Analyst; Janet J. Crooks, Administrative Sec- retary; and Michael Resnick, Administrative Secretary, for their expert assistance during this study. William R. Schowalter Chairman Arden L. Bement, Vice-Chairman L ~

OCR for page R1
XXIV A CKNO WLEDGMENTS Pane} on Transportation Systems Research This report was strengthened by the helpful comments and contributions of many individuals and organizations representing the transportation engineering research community. The pane! thanks in particular those individuals who gave invited presen- tations on aspects of transportation research: Howard 3. Dugofl:, Science and Technology Advisor for the U.S. Department of ~ans- portation; Raymond Siewert and Jack Bachkosky of the Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Research and Engineering; Allen J. Dowd of the Joint Military Traffic Management Com- mand; Robert C. Waters of the George Washington University; William E. Roper, Director of Engineering Research Programs for the Army Corps of Engineers; Jack W. Boller, Executive Direc- tor of the National Research Council's Marine Board; and A. 3. Evans of the National Research Council's Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board. We are also grateful for the participation and expert course! of those who joined us in pane! meetings, including Gifford Albright of the National Science Foundation, Severino L. Koh of the U.S. Department of Energy, Paul Brockman of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, James Spates of the U.S. Department of the Army, and Robert E1wood of the U.S. Department of the Navy. The input provided by the many individuals and organiza- tions among them engineering schools, professional societies, fed- eral and national laboratories, and Presidential Young Investi- gators responding to the Engineering Research Board's survey of the research community was an invaluable aid in the prepa- ration of the report. These organizations and the affiliations of individual respondents are identified in the Appendix. l

OCR for page R1
A CKNO BLED GMENTS XXV Finally, we wish to express our appreciation to consultant/ writer Courtiand Lewis for his outstanding support and assistance in assembling and organizing material for this report, and to the staff members of the Engineering Research Board, especially Ralph D. Cooper, Executive Director; Viviane Scott, Adrn~nistrative As- sistant and Budget Analyst; Janet J. Crooks, Administrative Sec- retary; and Michael Resnick, Administrative Secretary, for their expert assistance during this study. Daniel C. Drucker, Chairman William G. Agnew, Vice-Chairman

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
Preface Engineering ResearEh Board Over the past 40 years the United States has emerged as the preern~nent nation in scientific research. We also enjoy one of the most entrepreneurial environments in the world. Despite these advantages, however, our national competitiveness has eroded in a number of major industries. Although many factors contribute to that eroding competitiveness, it is now widely recognized that a major factor is the lack of adequate attention to engineering research. This is a key link in the chain that includes science research, development, design, production, and service. Today scientific and technical knowledge, along with invest- ment capital, flow freely across national boundaries. With only 6 percent of the worId's population, the United States cannot as- sume that its leadership in any field is secure. U.S. citizens are legitimately concerned with how the country can best maintain its international competitiveness, improve the quality of life for its people, and provide reasonably for their defense. All three of these goals can be met only by reinvesting a portion of the na- tion's resources to improve the prospects for the future. Because resources are finite, a thoughtful, balanced analysis of the current XXV11

OCR for page R1
~ XXV111 PREFACE situation and a blueprint for action are essential. To that end, the Engineering Research Board of the National Research Council was formed with these goals: to study the condition of engineering research in the United States and to identify areas requiring priority attention; to evaluate the role of engineering research in contributing to national objectives; and to make recommendations for changes in public policy that would advance these objectives. This report summarizes the results of that study. Contri- butions from hundreds of industrial, academic, and government experts were analyzed in the course of preparing the report. In- terdisciplinary panels made up of leading engineering researchers from academia and industry examined seven carefully chosen ar- eas of engineering systems. Thus, this report represents a major effort by the engineering research community to project its future and clarify its role in meeting major national goals. It is our hope that those concerned with industrial competitiveness, defense, and the public welfare will find it useful as they map the future of the nation. Allen E. Puckett Chairman Jack L. Kerrebrock. Vice- Chairman

OCR for page R1
PREFACE XX1}C Panel on Bioengineering Systems Research The Engineering Research Board was created by the National Research Council in response to a request from the National Sci- ence Foundation (NSF) for a study of engineering research. In particular, the NSF sought advice on important and/or emerging areas of engineering research. Early in its deliberations, the Engineering Research Board identified seven cross-cutting areas of research to serve as focal points for the study. Separate panels were appointed, each chaired by a board member, to study those research areas. As one of the seven, the Pane! on Bioengineering Research was specifically asked by the Engineering Research Board to: . describe the scope and character of bioengineering re- search; identify important or emerging areas of bioengineering re- search; study policy issues affecting the federal government's sum port of bioengineering research; assess the adequacy of government and industry funding for academic research programs; evaluate the adequacy of mechanisms for attracting young people to bioengineering and related areas; and recommend actions that will improve the overall health of bioengineering research in the United States. . The eight members of the panel were equally divided between those with backgrounds in biomedical engineering and those who are biochemical engineers (see the introduction for definitions of these fields). This division represents the panel's view that the two components of modern bioengineering both have important and distinct research needs and are of vital importance to the nation. The pane] was wed aware that both components of bioengi- neering are subjects of public controversy. The social, ethical, and philosophical questions surrounding such topics as genetic engineering, organ transplantation, artificial organs, human re- productive technology, and life-support technologies are profound and sometimes heatedly debated. Nevertheless, the pane} chose not to address these issues. Our subject is engineering research per se. backing any expertise on these legal, sociological, and even

OCR for page R1
xxx PREFACE theological matters, we felt we could add nothing of substance to the debate. In conducting the study, the panel used several data sources. In addition to insights provided by panel members, contributions were sought by the Engineering Research Board from 15 profes- sional engineering societies; 20 federal and national laboratories; 80 Presidential Young Investigators; deans of engineering, medi- cal, and dental schools; and selected key officials of the National Institutes of Health and the NSF. Those institutions and the affi~- iations of individuals that responded to the survey with comments and information pertinent to the needs of this pane] are listed in the Appendix. Recent authoritative studies of the bioengineering field were also examined. This report is thus a highly focused effort to characterize bio- engineering research and the environment in which it is carried out. Along with the other members of the panel, ~ hope that the report will help to focus the attention of policymakers, federal re- search agency officials, academic adrn~nistrators, and the research community on matters of critical importance to this dynamic field. . John A. Quinn, Chairman

OCR for page R1
Contents 1. Directions in Engineering Research: An Assessment of Opportunities ant] Needs 1 2. Bioengineering Systems Research in the United States: An Overview.............................................. ~ . . .77 3. Construction ant] Structural Design Systems Research in the United States: An Overview 115 4. Energy, Mineral, and Environmental Systems Research in the United States: An Overview 142 5. Information, Communication, Computation, and Control Systems Research in the United States: An Overview............................................... 6. Manufacturing Systems Research in the United States: An Overview............................................... 7. Materials Systems Research in the United States: An Overview............................................... 8. Transportation Systems Research in the United States: An Overview............................................... Index . XXX1 182 216 239 281 321

OCR for page R1