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Materials Systems Research in the United States: An Overview Executive Summed Leadership in the materials field is essential to compete suc- cessfully in areas of both conventional and high technology. Thus, the economic well-being and security of the United States require that actions be taken to ensure world leadership in the devel- opment of materials systems that can meet the demands of a technology-intensive future. This report describes the results of a study conducted by the Engineering Research Board's Panel on Materials Systems Re- search.* The study encompassed identification of the important classes of materials, emerging areas for future research, and the national climate and infrastructure governing the conduct of ma- terials systems research. In the United States the science of materials has developed into a recognized discipline with its own group of practitioners, facilities, societies, meetings, and publications. Large amounts of money are spent on basic scientific research in the materials field. *We use the term "materials systems to denote advanced materials re- quiring highly tailored design and specialized processing. "Materials systems research refers to the closely interlinked science and engineering research that underlies the development of these complex systems. 239
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240 DIRECTIONS IN ENGINrEERING RESEARCH The result is a greatly increased understanding of the relationship between the structure and properties of materials. However, we have failed to place a comparable emphasis on research directed at the application of this knowledge. Because of the economic importance of those applications, that shortcoming has placed the nation at considerable risk. Other countries have spent com- paratively little on expensive basic scientific research, and have concentrated their effort instead on the relatively inexpensive en- gineering research needed to bridge the gap between pure science and applications. Thus, they have been able to capitalize econom- ically on the scientific knowledge for which we have paid a high price. By comparison, our ability to put fundamental knowledge to work in order to devise optimal designs for the processing of materials remains seriously inadequate. We are suffering the con- sequences in terms of declining international competitiveness not only in the mineral, metal, automobile, and textile industries, but now across an even broader spectrum of manufacturing. If this trend is to be reversed, we must make at least as much use of our basic material science as others `do. That will require a focused and interdisciplinary effort on materials systems research comparable to the investments made earlier in materials science. We must attend not only to specific materials with special characteristics important for our economic well-being and for our national defense, but also to activities important to more than one specific material. Thus, among the conclusions reached in the report the following seven are particularly important: 1. We must increase the emphasis on engineering research in: advanced ceramics; semiconducting materials; magnetic materials; polymers; high-performance composites; performance-driven metallic materials; and biomaterials. 2. There must be a recognition, through special research pro- grams, of the importance of the following subjects that are generic to materials research as a whole: · processing; durability and lifetime prediction; tribology (friction, lubrication, and wear);
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MATERIALS SYSTEMS 241 computer modeling; and . materials property data base. 3. Research on materials systems—especially research di- rected at the engineering application of basic knowledge and the processing of materials is seriously underfunded relative to the opportunities and potential benefits that current basic knowledge presents. Engineering research on problems in this area would produce knowledge of immediate economic importance, but its po- tential cannot be adequately tapped without substantially greater federal funding for such research. 4. Expenditures on the order of $150 million are required for materials processing research facilities of various kinds. This amount could purchase roughly a dozen each of facilities for re- search on composites processing, semiconductor processing, and molecular beam epitaxy or organometallic chemical vapor deposi- tion. 5. Individual-investigator, single-discipline research must con- tinue to be nourished even as we provide a better climate and facilities for multidisciplinary approaches to materials systems re- search. 6. The stability of federal agency funding policies is vital if we are to obtain the maximum benefit from the modest support for fundamental engineering research and if we are to ensure the needed continuity of valuable research programs. Introduction and Background INTRODUCTION THE NEED As a result of dramatic technological advancements in many fields over the past two decades, the discovery and development of new materials has become a national imperative not only for the United States, but also for our major foreign competitors and adversaries. To give just one example, the United States is now engaged in fierce international competition to maintain our supremacy in electronics, the loss of which to the Japanese or others might be a more serious blow to national productivity
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242 DIRECTIONS IN ENGINEERING RESEARCH and security than were the earlier setbacks in the automobile and steel industries. Electronic materials are a key element in this competition. Without the continued development of a leading position in semiconductor materials and fabrication technology, the United States will not even have the opportunity to compete in the information and computer fields (see, for example: General Accounting Once, 1985~. Materials are equally fundamental to many other commercial areas in which our econorn~c fortunes are at stake. They constitute a "gateway" technology; that is, advances in materials open up a cascade of new possibilities in other technologies. A few examples from the past, such as plastics, semiconductors, and the whole range of useful metal alloys, suggest how sweeping the impact of new materials can be. SCOPE OF THE REPORT Materials systems research involves the development of new materials and the ~rnprovement of existing materials for appli- cation in a wide range of advanced engineering systems. The term "materials systems" recognizes the complex interrelation- ships among structure, properties, processing, performance, and reliability when viewed in the context of an engineering appli- cation. It encompasses the activities of materials science and engineering, which are "concerned with the generation and ap- plication of knowledge relating the composition, structure, and processing of materials to their properties and uses" (National Research Council, 1974~. In examining the engineering research opportunities and is- sues associated with materials systems, the pane! addressed topics related to the availability, application, and fundamental under- standing of present and future engineering materials such as met- als, ceramics, polymers, composites, sern~conductors, magnetic and biomaterials. In addition, the pane] addressed questions im- portant to the overall health of the materials field, including policy, research funcling, and human resources issues. BACKGROUND At the outset, it is important to emphasize that the field of materials science and engineering has undergone a fundamental
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MATERIALS SYSTEMS 243 and dramatic change over the past two decades. As characterized by William Baker and Morris Cohen in the 1974 COSMAT report of the National Academy of Sciences, the central element of this change has been the emergence of the science- of the solid state as a field of major importance in the latter half of the twentieth century. Also contributing to this change has been the joining of technologies from the ancient fields of metallurgy and ceramics with the more recent fields of synthetic polymers (e.g., rubbers, plastics, and fibers) and modified bioorganic substances. In order to stimulate the exchange of ideas among experts in these fields and to accelerate the development of new materials, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) of the Department of Defense (DOD) established several interdisciplinary laboratories in materials sciences and engineering at major American universi- ties over two decades ago. These Materials Research Laboratories, with the continuing support of the National Science Foundation (NSF), have had a significant influence in unifying the subfields of materials science at universities over the past 20 years. Perhaps the most dramatic change has been a stronger sys- tems orientation in the materials research community at large. Instead of the formerly dominant focus on structure-property relationships (i.e., understanding how structure controls specific material properties), a greater integration of design, performance, and processing requirements with materials properties and mi- crostructures has occurred. As a result, a more rational tailoring of final microstructures to specific applications has been achieved. Materials themselves can now be designed (within limits) to fit the desired use. A dramatic example is seen in large-scale integrated circuits, in which, in addition to the circuit elements, materials structures and transport properties are intricately integrated. The ability to tailor applications to the properties of new materials has also given new degrees of freedom to the product designer- "direct replacements is not the only option. In commercializing the new developments in materials, a higher order of functional integration, involving still more dis- ciplinary groupings, has been necessary. New requirements for materials performance and reliability have emerged not only from society's gradual shift from a consumption to a conservation ori- entation, but also from world competitive forces that increasingly place high market premiums on quality, reliability, and low oper- ating and maintenance costs over the product's expected lifetime.
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244 DIRECTIONS IN ENGINEERING RESEARCH The additional requirements for greater productivity, man- ufacturability, and profitability have demanded a broader tech- nology base and detailed attention to a number of new technical considerations. For example, productivity gains and cost advan- tages have been achieved by some American manufacturers by tailoring their processes to an optimal equipment design rather than by insisting on customized equipment to accommodate an optimal process design. Advances in quantitative nondestructive evaluation have not only facilitated in-process inspection but have also sometimes led to viable rework and recycling strategies for high-value materials and components. These advances have been further spurred by the advent of computer-aided design and manufacturing, which have presented the design engineer with new flexibilities for patterns of materials use, as well as opportunities for design optimization based on new materials or improvements of existing materials. Artificial intelligence-based systems are emerging to improve the quality of decision modeling and to reduce human error in production, inspection, and testing activities. New and improved materials have a vital effect on the na- tion's welfare. The ability to maintain a competitive edge in most engineering technologies depends on the development of am propriate materials. Ceramics and coatings for use in adiabatic diesel engines, advanced gas turbines, Stirling engines, and fuel cells are pacing the rate of development of those systems; inter- national competition is fierce (see, for example: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1984; National Research Council, 1986a). Com- posite materials are the key to developing lighter, stronger a~r- frames and ground vehicles. Near net-shape processing combined with advanced nondestructive evaluation methods and automated process control are leading to cheaper and more reliable struc- tures. New materials can contribute (along with construction de- sign and codes) to upgrading the nation's infrastructure of roads, bridges, railroads, and buildings through their characteristics of high strength, low weight, and resistance to harsh environments. Emerging requirements in manufacturing, computation, en- ergy development, and defense are all based on the greater com- plexity of technologies; these higher requirements will not be re- aTized without new materials. Therefore, it ~ essential to the nation's general welfare that a strong national materials technol- ogy base be maintainer!. In addition, the bright young talent and .
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MATERIALS SYSTEMS 245 scientific discoveries needed to advance this technology base must be nurtured through support of university education and research in materials science and engineering. Especially linport ant or Emerging Areas of Materials Systems Research RATIONALE FOR SELECTION Out of the enormous range of possibilities that materials sys- tems research represents, it seems almost presumptuous to identify a few "especially important or emerging research areas. It is the very pervasiveness of materials throughout a large fraction of en- gineering that has caused the field of materials research to be fragmented, duplicative, and difficult to codify. Despite these im- pediments, we believe that the exercise of identifying important areas for future research can actually have a unifying result, as we shall point out next. Out of the large number of valid candidates for research em- phasis, we have selected those that appear particularly promising in terms of three criteria: (1) a present or perceived future market for the ultimate products of that research; (2) a current state of the underlying science such that an advance of appropriate magni- tude appears realistic; and (3) a sense of national priority for the product. Given those criteria, we can list the high-priority areas that, in our opinion, are especially well positioned for immediate and intensive engineering research. EMERGING RESEARCH AREAS Seven classes of materials that lead to specific end uses need the focused attention of the engineering research community. A failure to focus that attention will prevent the nation from realizing the potential for commercialization of products emanating from a science base in which it has long held a position at or near the forefront. With no ranking implied, the seven product-specific materials research areas are
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246 DIRECTIONS IN ENGINEERING RESEARCH 1. advanced ceramics; 2. semiconducting materials; 3. magnetic n~aterials; 4. polymers; 5. high-performance composites; 6. performance-driven metallic materials; and 7. biomaterials. The pane! strongly believes that there should be a greater uni- fication of effort in materials systems research. This integration can be accomplished by recognizing that it is wasteful and dan- gerous to neglect areas of research that transcend specific product or application lines. These five "generic" research areas, ranked in order of importance for progress in materials, are 1. processing (including sensor research); 2. durability and lifetime prediction; 3. tribology; computer modeling; and materials property data base. The remainder of this section is devoted to a discussion of these research areas. MATERIALS FOR SPECIFIC END USES Advanced ceramics Advanced ceramics are a rapidly evolving class of materials whose usefulness is based on their ability to fill both functional and structural roles. They can be tailored to have combinations of electrical, mechanical, and chemical properties that make them essential and irreplaceable in many new engineering applications. Functional roles include (1) semiconductor device components such as coupling capacitors and substrates, optical communica- tion waveguides, optoelectronic modulators and demodulators, magnetic components, and sensors and transducers; and (2) uses in chemical processes for separations and catalysis. Structural roles include service as load-carrying and wear-resistant compo- nents, especially in circumstances requiring corrosion resistance and high-temperature service. Ceramic materials (like other advanced materials) are a "gate- way" technology; rather than being an end in themselves, they
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MATERIALS SYSTEMS 247 open up new potentials in other technologies, thereby achieving high degrees of leverage. The competitive performance of many devices and large systems depends on ceramic components that may make up only a small but vital part of the total. The fact that many ceramics involve nonstrategic or nonimported materials is another factor in their attractiveness. Electronic ceramics are a large family of crystalline and glassy materials serving as dielectric, semiconducting, magnetic, and op- tical materials and components. Current limitations in both the performance of devices and the growth of the field as a whole are in many cases due to insufficient research on the actual ceramic materials or components. The impetus for the development of structural ceramics and ceramic composites has been the promise of higher efficiencies through the use of ceramics in heat engines. There are, however, many other applications, both military and civilian, for struc- tural ceramics that take advantage of their good specific strength (strength-to-density ratio), specific stiffness, hardness, and wear and corrosion resistance. Ceramics present special requirements for successful applications under high stress because they charac- teristically undergo brittle failure. Extreme control of processing to minimize flaw size is required, which presents a special challenge for large parts and complex shapes. Areas of advanced ceramics more closely allied to process technology than to ceramics per se may play additional func- tional roles. For example, improved control over pore structure has opened up new routes for selective catalysis, as well as novel separations based on selective adsorption. New classes of zeolites offer promise as shape-selective catalysts for reactions heretofore limited to a small scale with homogeneous catalysts or biological systems. One example is a new catalyst used for selective iso- merization of xylenes. [n addition, the combination of ceramic materials with organometallic complexes is leading to a new class of catalysts with the selectivity of homogeneous catalysts and the robustness of heterogeneous catalysts. Despite the great diversity of applications for ceramics, a few common technical themes stand out. In almost all cases one is dealing with the behavior of materials near interfaces. Thus one may be concerned with tnin-fiIm coatings to provide proper wear resistance for ceramics, or with the behavior of coatings and layer structures that in turn determine the behavior of ceramics
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248 DIRECTIONS IN ENGINEERING RESEARCH for functional applications (e.g., electronics or catalysis) and other aspects of surface modification. Whenever one is faced with joining ceramics, the preparation and properties of surface layers are, of course, critical. These questions of interface behavior may apply either at a near-atomic level (e.g., in assemblies of components for microcircuitry) or on the bulk scale (e.g., in the manufacture of large monoliths). There is an urgent need to learn how to optimize collections of properties simultaneously rather than a single property at a time. Because of the dependence of all of these properties on the fundamental constitution of a given material, there is also the need to develop predictive methods that are rooted in a basic understanding of material behavior. Ceramic processing is in a state of rapid change. This change is clue to improvements in the predominant technology based on powder processing and to new chemical routes that combine or by- pass some of the traditional steps. Ceramic processing increasingly needs to be studied as a system extending from the raw material to the finished product, with product design requirements taken into account by the processor and processing limitations taken into account by the designer. Semiconducting Material Over the past three decades, no single field of science or engi- neering has had a greater impact on the national productivity and quality of life in the United States than has semiconductor mi- croelectronics. Semiconductors have revolutionized the communi- cation, entertainment, and transportation industries, and created the computer industry. Further advances that will have profound consequences are possible through the development of optoelec- tronics and lightwave technology. There must be an increased emphasis on materials for use in aclvanced generations of computers, optical storage elements, and high data rate transmission and processing, because these new materials may be critical for specialized applications involving high-speed processing, optoelectronics, and resistance to radiation. The following discussion summarizes briefly some of the most important areas of research on semiconducting materials.
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MATERIALS SYSTEMS 249 Material for Optoelectronic and Microwave Devices Materi- als for these uses, such as the binary compounds gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium phosphide (InP) must be improved in conduct- ing and semi-insulating forms, and grown in large (at least 3-in. diameter), single-crystal ingots. Specific research areas needing emphasis are . . . Improved growth methods need to be developed for semi- ~nsulating GaAs and InP ingots. This effort will require better modeling of the growth techniques. . A determination of the necessary technology for produc- ing ultra-flat polished GaAs wafers should be pursued. All as- pects of wafer preparation should be included. Modern struc- tural/analytical techniques should be extensively used to assess wafer quality. Compound Semiconductor Helerostructures This is one of the most promising new materials technologies that has emerged in recent years. It offers a high probability for truly revolution- ary discoveries. In the area of optoelectronics, for example, ITI-V quantum-well heterostructures and superiattices promise to have a profound effect. With the advent of advanced crystal growth tech- niques such as molecular beam epitaxy and organometallic chem- ical vapor deposition, radically new structures have become avail- able, with profound device applications. For the first time, crystals can be synthesized layer by layer to yield entirely new compositions of matter. Such structures, typified by superIattices, metastable films, and complex multimaterial/multilayer sandwiches, are fre- quently called artificially structured materials. In many cases these structures possess unusual properties that offer promise for future electronic and optoelectronic devices. Considerable research in crystal growth, characterization of layers and interfaces, carrier transport, and processing methods will be required. Silicon Silicon is still the basic, largest-volume semiconduc- tor material. Despite our considerable experience with it, many problem areas still need research attention. In addition to im- proving the art of crystalline growth generally, there are also more specialized needs. For example, high-purity, floating-zone sili- con serves a segment of the device market in which compositional
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270 DIRECTIONS IN ENGINEERING RESEARON number coming from science disciplines such as physics and chem- istry. As in other fields of engineering, attractive salaries in indus- try draw many of the most talented students into the workforce at the B.S. level, so that relatively few continue on toward a Ph.D. and research. Materials researchers must have strong backgrounds in both science and engineering. Thus, one disincentive for many top students is the substantial time and effort involved in pursuing a doctoral program in this field. Because of the wide range of knowledge ant] skills required for success in materials research, materials science and engineering students tend to be very broad in their background and inter- ests. Indeed, some enter the materials field through double-major programs in conjunction with mechanical, aerospace, or other en- gineering majors. Students who pursue advanced study tend to proceed entirely through the Ph.D. program and to do produc- tive work. However, it is generally apparent to faculty members that the best students are not choosing to enter materials pro- grarns, with the exception of certain well-publicized fields such as electronic materials. It is difficult to compete with fields such as computer science and bioengineering, which receive more fa- vorable press than does materials science and engineering. There is an image problem to be overcome in attracting the brightest students at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Certainly one positive note is the influx of women into the materials field in recent years. Indeed, the rise in the percent- age of female students is the largest in any engineering discipline. Women now make up about 14 percent of all graduate students in materials and metallurgy (the closest relevant category) (En- gineering Manpower Commission, 1985a). At some schools the percentage of women is even higher 17 percent at MIT, for ex- ample (Engineering Manpower Commission, 1985b, 1986~. These women seem to perform well in materials graduate programs and as researchers. A continuing dilemma in materials research is the high per- centage of non-U.S. citizens who are enrolled. Often these students are superbly qualified from a technical standpoint, but are not able to provide the level of interaction with faculty, graduate students, and undergraduate students that leads to a healthy discipline. After receiving an advanced degree, these foreign students often, for economic or political reasons, return to their homeland. As a result, we frequently train personnel who in turn are at the leading
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MATERIALS SYSTEMS 271 edge of technology in countries with which we are, or will be, in direct economic competition. ISSUES OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND General Concerns The output of materials science and engineering graduates is adequate on average but inadequate at times of peak industrial expansion. A central problem is the cyclical nature of the demand and the long lead time in the university's response to changes in the demand for engineers from a particular discipline or specialty area. In particular, the longevity of tenured faculty appointments leads to inertia in the ability to change emphasis within a disci- pline. (This is also true in other rapidly developing fields besides materials.) As a result, university administrators are cautious when responding to the call from industry to increase the degree- granting capacity of or shift the emphasis of a program relative to a current "hot" discipline or area such as electronic materials. This cautious attitude has been legitimized in recent years by a growing tendency of employers to treat engineers (in research as well as applications) more like a commodity than a resource. If there is to be a better match of supply and `demand, positive action must be taken. First, an improved method for forecasting the need for engineering graduates at all degree levels must be developed. Second, longer term commitments by employers are needed. Third, some methods for protecting universities against the Downside are required. The resources to implement this protection should come from industry, but probably will have to be provided by government before any real prospect of achieving a better balance between supply and demand is to be achieved. Graduate Degrees The supply of M.S. and Ph.D. graduates in the materials field is, as is suggested earlier, quite low. Even in the burgeoning field of ceramics, for example, annual degree production nationally in 1984 was 87 at the M.S. level and 18 at the Ph.D. level (Engineering Manpower Commission, 1985~. Ceramics is the only specialty of materials for which data on degree production are readily available. In the broader field of materials and metallurgical engineering, in the same year there were 578 M.S. and 241 Ph.D. graduates
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272 DIRECTIONS IN ENGINEERING RESEARCH nationwide. It is not possible to determine how many of these students were specialized in the advanced materials systems areas addressed in this report. The balance between supply and demand for those with ad- vanced degrees in materials research appears to vary considerably across specialties. Whereas the demand for Ph.D.s in electronic materials and related fields is very strong, the hiring needs in some other fields are static or declining. For example, virtually all M.S. and Ph.D. graduates in ceramics are hired to fill positions related to electronic and structural ceramics, rather than those related to conventional ceramics. The pane! believes that the growing dependence of the na- tion's economy on new materials ensures a long-term increase in demand for doctoral-level researchers in every area of the materi- als field, for both industry and academe. Therefore, it is necessary to take steps that will encourage more of the brightest undergrad- uate students to enter graduate programs in material science. Students should be counseled on the advantages of graduate edu- cation in materials, particularly regarding the Ph.D. as an entree to a research career. Undergraduate students in relevant disci- plines should be exposed to materials engineering research. At universities with strong graduate programs this could be done by offering undergraduates (especially entering freshmen) opportuni- ties for part-time and/or summer employment in such programs, and by organizing undergraduate thesis programs. A large pool of potential talent also exists at smaller schools unable to offer such opportunities. Undergraduate seminars should be given at these schools by academic and industrial researchers to acquaint students with materials systems research fields. In addition, summer jobs in industrial and academic research centers should be made available to interested students. Federal and in- dustrial funding ought to be provided to support these recruitment activities. Because a lack of awareness of the materials field is a large factor in restricting the supply of graduates, the pane! believes that efforts to increase students' interest should be made as early as possible in the educational experience. Therefore, the existence, importance, and challenge of materials systems research as a disci- pline should also be communicated to high school students. Steps should be taken to ensure that the materials field catches the in- terest of young women as well as young men. Possible mechanisms
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MATERIALS SYSTEMS 273 to do this include industry sponsorship of engineering fairs (analo- gous to science fairs); production of suitable video or film programs by professional societies; and tours of academic, government, and industrial laboratories engaged in materials research. ADEQUACY OF GRADUATE PROGRAMS This section deals with two factors perceived to be at the heart of quality graduate programs in materials, namely, new programs and the adequacy of the faculty. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW PROGRAMS There are relatively few established formal graduate programs in materials. In ceramics, for example, only 10 schools produce any advanced degrees at all, and only one program is accredited at the master's level (Engineering Manpower Commission, 1985a). In composites there are five formal graduate programs; in polymers there are even fewer programs. New programs are needed in the materials field to meet the emerging demand. For new graduate programs to be most elective, they should generally be specialized. Such programs should expect to build on a student's strong grounding in fundamentals, and should fo- cus their resources on achieving quality education in a single area such as composites or ceramics. In any field of engineering the development of a high-quality, broad-based program takes con- siderable time and requires extensive resources. It seems unlikely that many new broad-based programs will be able to compete with established programs for full-time graduate students, espe- cially in coming years, when there will likely be fewer students. Without an adequate supply of full-time graduate students, strong research programs of the type that characterize the great research universities in the United States cannot develop. There is probably adequate overall capacity in universities to conduct materials research, at least in a time-averaged sense, but sheer research capacity is not the sole motivation for developing new programs. In fact, the development of new programs in engi- neering is motivated as much by the need for graduate education- especially part-time programs—as it is by research needs. That driver seems to be closely tied to the shifting geographic locations of the "market." This is especially true in the case of part-time
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274 DIRECTIONS IN ENGINEERING RESEARCH graduate study, in which case the university program must be near the workplace to enable part-time students to commute from school to work. In many cases, the new locations of industry are not near well-established universities; thus, there is a tendency for new programs to develop at regional universities and colleges. The deceptive aspect of this is the time required for these new pro- grams to achieve adequate academic stature. If the employers in the new location recognize the need for new technology, then this "quality issue becomes a major barrier to acceptance of the de- veloping programs. That is, employers who recruit bachelor-level engineers from the best schools in the country find that these peo- ple have little interest in continuing their education on a part-time basis at institutions of distinctly lower stature than those at which they studied as undergraduates. Thus, whereas the development of some new programs is inevitable, it may be more productive for the existing established institutions to work harder at delivering part-time graduate programs off-site using such means as visiting faculty, teleconferencing, or videotaped instruction. There are a number of prototype off-site programs that could be mentioned in this context. The degree of success that these programs have achieved is as variable as their formats. Therefore, the need for programs offering part-time graduate study in materials in areas where high-tech industries are locating can best be served by established, first-rank institutions offering such programs off-site. . ADEQUACY OF THE FACULTY In the major existing programs the supply of faculty is gener- ally adequate, with the possible exception of new directions within these programs. Two examples of such directions are advanced ce- ramics and electronic materials. Even in the few institutions in which these relatively new activities began and are now expand- ing, there are not enough faculty. Moreover, those new faculty that are available come from only a few schools, so that a degree of inbreeding inevitably occurs. (Here, programs of postdoctoral research abroad offer some opportunity for ~cross-fertilization~; France and West Germany in particular have attractive university research programs.) Similar problems also occur in other emerg- ing areas of materials research. There are probably fewer than
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MATERIALS SYSTEMS TABLE 2 Materials Processing Faculty in the U.S., by Speciality 275 1978 1984 Speciality No. Percent No. Percent Casting/solidification 22 32 16 17 Deformation processing 15 22 18 20 Design/systems 4 6 10 11 Powder metallurgy 13 19 14 15 Welding 14 21 16 17 Ceramic processing O O 10 11 Polymer processing 0 0 8 9 Total 68 92 PA different and probably more reliable census yielded numbers of 28 and 36 in this category for 1978 and 1984, respectively. Source: American Society for Metals, 1985. 40 full-time-equivalent faculty involved in composites research, for example. Table 2 shows a recent estimate of the specialization of all U.S. faculty in materials processing (American Society for Metals, 1985~. The absolute numbers cannot be assumed to be accurate (see, for example, the notation regarding ceramic processing), but their magnitudes and relative figures are probably reasonable. One sees that even in this currently much-emphasized field, the overall numbers are still quite small, and that the fields showing high relative growth rates are in highly publicized speciality areas within materials science. There is some concern about the loss of faculty to industry, especially in shots areas. This has become less troublesome since universities began to realize that they must offer more competitive salaries. However, improvements have been most marked in the first-rate schools; qualified faculty members are still leaving many institutions for better paying industrial jobs. To help alleviate these problems, industry should be encouraged to support the entry of new graduates into acacleme. The "forgiveable loans program for graduate students sponsored by General Electric is an example of such encouragement. In this program, loans of up to $5,000 are made to Ph.D. candidates, and repayment is forgiven if
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276 DIRECTIONS IN ENGINEERING RESEARCH on graduating the student pursues an academic career for at least 4 years. It is particularly hard for developing institutions to compete for high-quality faculty, both on the basis of the environment they can provide (facilities, colleagues, etc.) and on the basis of salary. Therefore, in general it is probably true that quality is a bigger problem than quantity in these programs. In the most competitive areas of materials specialization, it may be difficult for emerging programs to compete for any of the limited number of qualified faculty candidates. In these areas, both quality and quantity are a problem. New Ph.D.s are especially hard for universities to recruit. There are many disincentives that a recent Ph.D. graduate must face as a new faculty member. Some candidates are uncertain about widely publicized issues such as "publish or perish," ob- taining research support, and the promotion and tenure decision processes. The NSF's Presidential Young Investigator Awards help somewhat to ease the question of research support, even though the required industrial matching money has been difficult to oW fain in many instances. In addition, it appears that university administrators are beginning to recognize the need to provide a transition period for young faculty to adjust to the spectrum of ac- tivities they must learn to deal with simultaneously. The bottom line is that outstanding young faculty can adjust to the university climate ancI thrive. The ones who have succeeded serve as role models for others and are a source of encouragement. Programs that have no such role models often find it harder to present a convincing case for their environment being "penetrable." These programs may have more difficulty recruiting young faculty. Continuing efforts should be made by universities to improve the attractiveness of academic life for entry-levelfaculty, especially in emerging or high-priority areas such as electronic materials, advanced ceramics, and processing. The Presidential Young Inves- tigator Awards or comparable long-term research grants represent one effective mechanism for doing this. Government and indus- try should both be willing to fund this type of grant in targeted specialized areas.
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A~4TERIALS SYSTEMS References 277 American Society for Metals. Mctallurgy/Matcr~als Education Ycar6001c. Metals Park, OH: American Society for Metals, 1985. Committee on Materials. Inventory of Federal Materials Research and Tech- nology: FY82. Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology. Washington, DC: Office of Science and Technology Policy, June 1983. Engineering Manpower Commission. Engineering and Technology Degrees, 1984. Part III: By Curriculum. Engineering Manpower Commission of the American Association of Engineering Societies, Inc., 1985a. Engineering Manpower Commission. Engineering and Technology Degrees, 1984. Part II: Minorities. Engineering Manpower Commission of the American Association of Engineering Societies, Inc., 1985b. Engineering Manpower Commission. Engineering and Technology Degrees, 1985. Part I: By School. Engineering Manpower Commission of the American Association of Engineering Societies, Inc., 1986. Federation of Materials Societies. R&D in Materials Science and Engineering. March 1986. Government Accounting Office. Support for Development of Electronics and Materials Technologies by the Materials Technologies by the Gov- ernments of the United States, Japan, W. Germany, France, and the United Kingdom (GAO/RCED-85-63~. Washington, DC: Government Accounting Office, September 1985. Margolin, S. V. ROD in Materials Science and Engineering. Report prepared by Federation of Materials Societies, May 1985b. National Research Council. Mat Trials and Marie Needs: Mat Trials Scicnec and Enginecnug. National Research Council Committee on Strategic Materials. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1974. National Research Council. Science Base for Materials Processing: Selected Topics (NMAB-355~. National Materials Advisory Board of the National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1979. National Research Council. High-technology Ceramics in Japan (NMAB- 418~. National Materials Advisory Board, Committee on the Status of High-technology Ceramics in Japan. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1984c. National Research Council. Major Facilities for Materials Research and Related Disciplines. National Research Council Committee on Major Materials Facilities. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1984b. National Research Council. Magnetic Materials (NMAB-426~. Report of the Committee on Magnetic Materials, National Materials Advisory Board. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1985. National Research Council. Surface Modification of Electronic Materials in the United States and Japan: A State-of-the-Art Review (NMAB-443~. Report of the Panel on Materials Science, National Materials Advisory Board. Prepared for the National Science Foundation, March 1986. National Science Foundation. In lieu of the original. Mosaic 2~33:18-25, 1971.
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278 DIRECTIONS IN ENGINEERING RESEARCH National Science Foundation. Trends and Opportunities in Materials Re- search. Report of the Materials Research Advisory Committee, Division of Materials Research. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation, 1984. U.S. Department of Commerce. A Competitive Assessment of the U.S. Advanced Ceramics Industry (NTIS-PB84-162288~. Industry Analysis Division, Office of Industrial Assessment. Washington, DC: National Technical Information Service, March 1984.
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MATERIALS SYSTEMS Appendix Responses to the Engineering Research Board's Request for Assistance from Universities Professional Societies, and Federal Agencies and Laboratories 279 Requests for assistance were sent by the Engineering Research Board to a number of universities, recipients of Presidential Young Investigator Awards, professional societies, and federal agencies and laboratories in order to obtain a broader view of engineering research opportunities, research policy needs, and the health of the research community. Some of the responses included comments on engineering research aspects of materials systems research; these were reviewed by this panel to aid in its decision-making process. The pane! found the responses most helpful and wishes that it were possible to individually thank all those who took the time to make their views known. Because that is not practical, we hope nevertheless that this small acknowledgment might convey our gratitude. Responses on aspects of materials systems research were re- ceived from individuals representing 46 different organizations, listed in Table A: 22 universities (including 9 represented by re- cipients of NSF Presidential Young Investigator Awards), 11 pro- fessional organizations, and 13 federal agencies or laboratories. Some comments covered specific aspects of the panel's scope of activities, whereas others provided input on a variety of subjects. Although most of the responses addressed priority research needs, several respondents did reflect on policy issues. Many of the research needs and issues of policy and health addressed by the respondents were similar to those noted by pane} members. The broadened! perspective provided by the responses to the survey was most beneficial in the panel's deliberations.
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280 DIRECTIONS IN ENGINEERING RESEARCH TABLE A-1 Organizations Responding to Information Requests Relevant to Materials Systems Research UNIVERSITIES Clarkson University Lehigh University Massachusetts Institute of Technology North Carolina State University Northwestern University Ohio State University Oregon State University Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute State University of New York, Buffalo Texas A&M University University of Connecticut University of California, D avis University of California, Los Angeles University of Florida University of Illinois—Urbana/Champaign University of Kansas University of Michigan University of Oklahoma University of Pennsylvania University of Texas at Austin University of Utah Washington University at St. Louis PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS American Chemical Society American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics American Institute of Chemical Engineers American Society of Civil Engineers American Society of Mechanical Engineers Council for Chemical Research Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Institute of Industrial Engineers Industrial Research Institute Society of Automotive Engineers Society of Engineering Science, Inc. AGENCIES AND LABORATORIES Air Force Institute of Technology Air Force Office of Scientific Research Army Materials and Mechanical Research Center Army Research Office Brookhaven National Laboratory Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory NASA Langley Research Center NASA Lewis Research Center Naval Research Laboratory Office of Naval Research Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sandia National Laboratory
Representative terms from entire chapter: