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Index A Acid rain, 150, 163, 165, 180 American Institute of Steel Construction, 121 American Iron and Steel Institute, 121 B Bethlehem Steel, construction research, 121 Biochemical engineering biocatalysis/bioreactors, 10, 26, 87, 97-98, 106 bioprocess instrumentation and control, 86, 99, 108 economic opportunities from, 87 faculty and graduate student shortages, 108 human resources, 108-109 important/emerging areas of research, 88, 9~99 separation/purification processes, 98-99, 106, 256 Bioengineering systems research accomplishments, 19, 77, 86 applications/products, 87, 90 coordination of, 60, 78 economic potential, 78, 83, 87, 99-100, 104 federal policy impact on, 100-104 foreign competition in, 78, 98, 100, 106 funding, 38, 48, 54, 78-79, 81-83, 100-103, 107, 109-111 321 human factors engineering, 297-298 important/emerging areas, 87-88 industry involvement in, 79, 100, 104-106 modeling of biological processes, 85-86 nature of, 77-78, 84-86, 100 recommendations, 82-83, 109-111 Biomedical engineering accomplishments, 27, 81, 90-94 applications/products, 79, 87, 92-94, 105 artificial organs, 81, 86, 92, 94, 96 biomaterials, 10, 32, 92-93, 255 biomechanics, 91-92 biosensors, 80-81, 93-94, 99 funding, 105 graduate student enrollments, 107 human resources, 107 important/emerging areas of research, 88 industry involvement, 105 interdisciplinary doctoral programs, 107 laser applications, 95 metabolic imaging, 81, 94-95 minimally invasive medical procedures, 95 neural prostheses, 90-91 opportunities and needs in, 12, 80, 88, 91-94 percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, 81, 95 scope of, 85 systems physiology and modeling, 80, 89-90

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322 Biotechnology applications, 19, 36 definition, 85 graduate students, 81 human resources, 38, 81-82, 100, 106-110, 161 Ph.D. shortages, 54, 107-108 Process Engineering Center, 38 processes for commercialization, 36 product market, 10, 26 university faculty and program shortages, 55, 70, 81 C Carnegie-Mellon University Software Engineering Institute, 201 Ceramics applications, 10, 19, 32, 189, 244, 246-248 composite processing labs, costs, 51 electronic, 247 faculty shortages in, 274 funding, 53 graduate program development, 273 Ph.D. production and demand, 41, 271-272 structural, 247 Civil engineering graduate enrollments in, 124-125, 161 em also Construction research; Structural design Coal funding for research on, 155 future roles, 150, 295 new technologies for, 29, 144, 154, 169~ 170 research needs on, 148, 177, 180 Colleges and universities collaborative research encouragement, 66-69, 203-205 computer-based instructional resources, 206-207 construction and structural design research, 38-39, 117-118, 127-128 deficiencies in research, 31 energy, mineral resources, and environmental engineering enrollments, 39, 161-163 enrollment shortages, 38, 40, 107 EPA-sponsored research in, 39 equipment depreciation, 209 facilities and equipment, 50-51, 184, 264, 267 faculty, sec University faculty INDEX foreign graduate students, 54-55, 126, 212, 270-271 funding for engineering research at, 20-21, 42, 58, 61-62, 65-66, 79, 100, 105, 122-124, 143, 148-152, 200-201, 265 graduate student recruiting, 70-71, 117, 272-273 industry cooperation with, 203-204 interdisciplinary doctoral programs, 107 manufacturing engineering education and research, 40, 70, 217-218, 228-229, 231-232 materials research enrollments, 41 multidisciplinary research at, 4, 6, 8, 6068, 184 part-time graduate study programs, 71, 274 Ph.D. production, 52-55, 107-108, 117, 125, 265, 271-272 postdoctoral research abroad, 274 quality of engineering education, 5 role in engineering research, 62-63, 152 training of researchers, 61, 72 transportation engineering research role and education programs, 316-318 sec ago specific colleges and . . universities Columbia University Engineering Research Center for Telecommunications, 200 Combustion technology, 29, 166-167, 170, 179-180, 295 Communications research on devices and components, 190-191 engineering research contributions to, 17 facilities, 200 funding, 40, 45 future possibilities in, 18 on networks, 192-193, 224-225 ecc also IC3 systems research Composites applications and research needs, 244, 253-254 faculty shortages in, 275 Computer-Aided Manufacturing International, 230 Computer-aided design aerodynamic/hydrodynamic, 297 of computer logic and memory circuits, 190

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INDEX coordination of analysis and experiment, 134 fabrication, 135 interactive graphics, 135 of manufactured products, 223 materials research applications, 244, 254 of mining and extraction processes, 12, 30, 173-174 nonlinear behavior and analysis, 133-134 Ph.D.s in, 211 proportioning of elements of structural systems, 134 realism in design analysis, 134-135 of structures, 13, 28, 39, 118, 132-135 synthesis of alternatives, 135 in testing of computer hardware and subsystems, 190 em also IC3 systems research; Modeling and simulation Computers architecture and algorithms, 192-197, 211, 224, 258 artificial intelligence, 14, 31, 40, 194-196, 200, 211, 244 bipolar silicon logic, 30-31, 185, 188 bubble memories, 252 control systems, 191-192, 197, 200 devices and circuits, research needs on, 14, 187-190 engineering research contributions in, 17-18 evolution of, 2 expert systems, 195-196, 223-224 future possibilities with, 18-19 high-den~ity structures and fabrication, 188-189 integrated systems for manufacturing, 10, 31, 35-36, 216, 220-225, 229 interactive graphics, 135 interconnection structures, 31 knowledge-based systems, 196 natural language understanding by, 196 packaging, 189 parallel computation, 194-195 research needs on, 14, 34-35 rule-based systems, 195-196 sensors for control of systems, 191-192, 197 storage media, 14, 31, 180190, 251 supercomputers, 194, 258, 295, 297 testing of hardware and subsystems, 190 user-friendliness, 184, 196 323 JCC also IC3 systems research; Modeling and simulation; Software, complex systems Computer science human resources, 161, 206, 211 university faculty shortages in, 206-207 Construction Industry Institute, 128 Construction research accomplishments, 119, 121-122, 135 applications, 131-133, 137 attitudes of practitioners and public, 129-130 collaborative, 117 equipment and facilities, 116-117, 119, 121, 123 foreign graduate students in, 126 funding, 38-39, 48, 50, 71, 115-118, 122-124, 126-131 future possibilities in, 19 history of sponsorship, 121 human resources, 39, 115, 124-126 industry sponsorship of, 128-129 marine construction, 118, 138-139 mathematical modeling in, 128 mixed steel/concrete elements, 118, 137-138 needs, 116, 118, 132, 136-139 Ph.D. researchers, 117-118, 125 policy issues on, 122-124 product nature, 127 professional societies/trade associations, role in, 117-118, 121, 129 robotics, 1~11, 27-28, 39, 115, 117-118, 125, 131-132 tunneling and other rapid excavation, 118, 135-137 university status, 127-128 D Data processing, JCC Information and data processing systems Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 201, 243, 265 Defense systems materials development, 32 software development for, 30 [)esign, sec Computer-aided design; Structural design EElectronics faculty shortages in, 274

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324 human resources, 161, 272 Cc also Microelectronics Energy research alternative fuel sources, 11, 29, 144, 150, 154, 179 control technology, 145 conversion and generation facilities, 172 current, 154-155 efficient use of energy, 144, 155, 171, 295, 299 engineering research contributions in, 17 environmental control systems, 145, 17~171 fossil fuels, 144, 147-148, 150, 154-155, 169-170, 177, 179, 295 funding, 39, 151-152, 155-156, 180 importance of, 146-147 low-grade, low-quality fuels, 171-172 needs and opportunities, 144-145, 148, 168-172, 177 nuclear power, 147-148, 150, 154-155, 170, 172, 179 objectives, 153, 168 petroleum production systems, 169-170 Ph.D. researchers, 54 policy issues, 140152 recommendations, 14~150, 153-154 risk assessments, 145 solar power, 29, 155, 169, 171, 179 storage systems, 172 Engineered materials, research opportunities and needs, - 10, 32 Engineering research accomplishments, 2-3, 17-18 activities and interests encompassed by, 3 advisory body recommended for, 83, 111 budget stability for agencies, 6-7, 107 collaborative, 4-5, 69, 117 coordination of activities in, 7, 5060, 78, 82, 100110 cross-cutting needs, 34 cross-disciplinary, 4, 6, 8, 66-68, 81, 110, 163-164, 200210 data exchange, 73, 75 directions and methods, 61 encouragement in industry, 64 expenditures, 43-48; ace Funding for engineering research foreign commercialization of U.S. research, 20, 36 future possibilities, 18-19 INDEX graduate study encouragement, 70, 110, 117-118 high-risk, long-range projects, 7, 6~61, 63-64, 79, 83, 103, 111, 117, 201 history, 17 human resources for, 5, 8, 38, 52-55, 72-73, 81-82 importance to U.S. competitiveness, 6, 1020 individual, 4-5, 7, 61-62, 117 industry support for, 7-8, 20-21, 41, 45-47, 71-73 institutional considerations, 5-6, 70; Cc also Facilities and equipment multidisciplinary, 8, 81, 110, 163-164, 201 nature of, 1-3, 14-17, 25 objectives, 15-16 opportunities and needs, 9-14, 23-26 policies, Cc Policies on engineering research problems in information technologies, 183 professional development in, 73-74 recruitment of new talent, 8, 54, 117 science research contrasted with, 2, 43 sectoral cooperation in, 43, 45, 73-75 status currently, 20-23 systems concept, 24-25 team, 4-5, 7 transfer of results, 8-9, 73 undersupport in United States, 1 value of, 17-20 em also specific disciplines Environmental engineering research accomplishments, 18 assimilative capacity of global environment, 144, 167-168 on biotechnology, 144 combustion technology, 29, 166-167, 170, 179 on energy utilization, 145 funding, 39, 55, 149-151, 156-159, 180 health of, 153, 160 human resources, 161, 163 importance of, 146-147 microbial transformations, 29, 167 needs and opportunities, 144, 148, 165-168, 177, 179-180 Ph.D. researchers, 54 physical and chemical processes, 144 policy issues, 149-151 recommendations, 166-168 sensors and measurement techniques, 144, 168, 180

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INDEX in transportation field, 295 waste management, 165-167 Equipment, ecc Facilities and equipment Europe bioengineering research, 36, 38, 78, 98, 100, 106 biotechnology commercialization, 36 construction research applications, 130 manufacturing systems education, 40 parallel architecture research, 195 postdoctoral materials research in, 274 transportation systems research, 310 F Facilities and equipment accelerated obsolescence, 51 adequacy, 5, 40, 50-51 Biotechnology Process Engineering Center, 38 categories of facilities, 263 for communications research, 200 for construction and structural design research, 110117, 110121, 123, 137 costs, 51, 69, 241, 26~264 energy conversion and generation, 172 federal and national laboratories, 62-63, 142, 154, 180, 200-201 foreign, 110120 funding for, 52, 116-117, 20~201, 209, 263 gifts, 208 for ICY research, 184, 208-209 industry-university cooperative centers, 204 materials research, 51, 241, 243, 262-264, 267-268 multidisciplinary, 4, 61, 72, 74, 79, 82, 101, 110, 116, 123, 180, 199, 204, 217, 226-227, 232, 243, 264 recommendations, 7, 51-52, 69, 82, 110, 116-117, 209, 263-264 sharing, 51, 68~9 for transportation research, 295, 317 university, 50-51, 184, 264, 267 Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology Committee on Materials, 60 Federal Highway Administration, 121 Fluid dynamics of separated Bows, 295-295 Fluid mechanics, computational, 297 Fuels alternative sources of, 11, 29 325 conversion options, transportation- related , 295 for transatmospheric propulsion, 300 ace also Energy research Funding for engineering research basis for, 57-58 coordination of, 59-60, 78, 10~101, 107, 109 dilution of, for basic research, 266-267 factors affecting, 48, 126-131 federal, sec Mission agencies; and ~ - SpeCl' 1C agenCle5 fellowships, 63, 67, 201, 207-208, 212 field variation in, 49-50, 53 foreign, 106 forgiveable loans, 54, 275 graduate student enrollments and, 53-54, 117-118, 163 impediments to, 43 individual project grants, 61-62, 117, 199 matching grant programs, 52, 70, 72 outlook, ~5 overall, 160 policy issues regarding, 55-58, 61-62, 79, 100, 122-124, 148-152, 198-204, 307-312 quick-response initiatives, 144, 151 R&D limited partnerships, 104 RED total, 42-43 stability needed in, 58-59, 107, 109, 123, 143, 151, 241, 267 status currently, 20-21, 38-41 stipends for graduate students, 54, 67, 70, 83, 110, 118, 126, 212 to federal and national laboratories, 62-63, 154, 180 ecc also specific agencies and disciplines G General Electric Company loans to doctoral candidates, 54, 275 General Motors Manufacturing Automation Protocol, 233 Genetic engineering, 86-87 Greenhouse effect, 150 Groundwater contamination, 165, 175, 180 H Hazardous materials assimilation by global environment, 167-168 conversion techniques, 28-29, 165-167

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326 maritime transport of, 301 microbial transformation of, 167 nuclear waste, 170 research needs on, 12,179-180 I IC3 systems research applications, 17-18,182,200 cross~isciplinary approach, 20~210 facilities and equipment, 184, 208-209 funding, 40 health of, 205-212 human resources for, 199-200,210-212 importance, 184-186 industry-university cooperation, 203-205 needs, 183-184,186-197 policy issues on federal support, 198-205 sec also Computer-assisted design; Communications; Computers; Information and data processing systems; Software, complex systems Imaging technologies, 27, 81,94-95 Industry bioengineering research by, 79, 104-105 construction and structural design research by, 128-129 electronics research, 128 encouragement of research in, 64, 202-203 funding for engineering research, 8, 20-21,41,45-47, 71-72,104,117, 150 inhibition of innovation, 130 manufacturing systems research, 128-129 materials research, 128 stimulation of engineering research by, 7-8, 71-73 use of experienced researchers, 72-73 Information and data processing systems components, 183 hardware elements, 187-192 sec ago Communications; Computers; IC3 systems research; Software, complex systems Integrated circuits bipolar, 185,188 in neural prostheses, 90-91 research needs on, 14, 91, 185,188 very large scale, 30, 188,200,211,243 INDEX J Japan bioengineering research, 36, 38, 78,98, 100,106 construction research and applications, 1 19-120,130, 136 doctoral degrees in engineering, 5 electronics competition with United States, 241 fifth-generation computers, 195 integrated circuit research, 188 magnetic materials research, 251 manufacturing systems education, 40 materials research, 262 product development time, 59 RED participative planning, 152 transportation systems research, 310 Joint Services Electronics Program, 201 M Manufacturing engineering consortia for research, 230,232 graduate student recruitment to, 70 human resources, 217,230-232 Ph.D.s in, 54 problems in, 227-230 professional tradition and standards, 227,232 scientific base, 227-228 university faculty shortages and development programs, 55, 233-234 university programs, 40,70,217, 228-229, 233-234 Manufacturing systems access to, for study, 229-230 adoption of technology for, 218 communications networks, 224-225 compute~integrated, 10, 31,35-36, 216,220-225,229 control, 223-224 costs of implementing, 229 engineering research contributions to, 15-16 history of development, 217-218 ICE applications in, 185,191, 196-197 industry sponsorship of research, 128-129 modeling and simulation of processes, 13,31-32,35,223 offshore production, 71 recommendations for research, 218-225 robotics in, 223-224 software development for, 30

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INDEX support for research, 40, 217,226-227 technical standards, 233 unit processes research, 225 Massachusetts Institute of Technology bioengineering research center, 79,101 women graduate students in engineering, 270 Materials and metallurgy college enrollments in, 39 educational programs, adequacy, 273-274 foreign students in, 27~271 graduate degrees, 271-272 graduate student recruitment to, 70, 272 materials property data base, 258-259 quality of students in, 269-271 student enrollments in, 41,162, 270-272 university faculty adequacy, 55, 274-276 women in, 270, 272 Materials research applications, 19, 240,243-244,246, 248, 250-251 basic, dilution of, 266 on biomaterials, 255 changes in, 243-244 on composites, 244, 253-254 computer modeling, 258; ace To Computer-assisted design; Modeling and simulation coordination lacking in, 60 deviations from ongoing research, 267 on durability and lifetime prediction, 257 emerging areas, 225, 240-241,245-259 facilities and equipment, 51,241, 243, 262-264, 267-268 funding for, 41, 48, 50, 53,159, 241, 260-262, 265,267 human resources, 269-276 importance, 239,241-242 by individual investigators, 241 industry sponsorship, 128 on magnetic materials, 25~252 on metallic materials, performance-driven, 254-255 mission agency orientation and overmanagement, 265-266 nature of, 242, 260 on polymem, 252-253, 256 prioritization, need for, 259-262 on processing, 50, 256-257 program selection process, 259 327 publication and dissemination of data, 268 relation to other disciplines, 244 on semiconducting materials, 248-250 sensor development, 256-257, 257-258 status, 240 on tribology, 257-258,296-297 Metallurgy, Cc Materials and metallurgy; Materials research Microelectronics biosensor applications, 93 foreign Pb.D. candidates in, 54 process design and control needs, 36-37 sectoral collaboration in research, 204 Microelectronics and Computer Research Opportunities program, 204,234 Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation, 73, 203-204,217,230 Microelectronics Center of North Carolina, 204 Microorganisms engineered, in mining, 30,175 hazardous materials transformation by, 29,167 Mineral resources research colloidal and biological processes for low-quality ores, 145,175 funding, 39,151-152,159-160 human resources, 54,153, 161 importance of research, 147 in-situ leaching and burning, 174-175 needs and opportunities, 148, 173-176 objectives, 153 Ph.D. researchers, 54,161 policy issues, 150 sensors, instrumentation, and equipment for exploration, mining, and processing, 145,174 separation technologies, 11-12, 2030 size reduction methods for fines, 175-176 systems analysis and control for mining and extraction, 174 Mining computer-aided design of processes for, 12,30 future possibilities in, 19 research funding for, 39 Mission agencies construction and structural design research through, 116 coordination of research among and within, 7, 59-60, 78, 82,109-110

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328 energy, mineral, and environmental research funding, 143-144, 151 instability in funding to, 58,151 materials research support, 265-266 orientation and overmanagement, 60-61,265-266 training of researchers, 59, 72,151 university research allocations, 151 ecc also specific agencies Modeling and simulation in structural design, 116; sec To Computer-assisted design of biological processes, 85-86 of bioprocesses, 99 environmental, 19 of linear collapse of structures, 296 of manufactured products, 31-32 of manufacturing processes, 13, 31-32, 35,223 of materials processing, 258 of physiological systems, 8~90 research needs, 35 of transportation networks, 293-294 three-dimensional, 35,134-135,295 N National Academies of Science and Engineering, bioengineer representation in, 103 National Aeronautics and Space Administration aerospace research, 310 bioengineering research, 78 construction research, 121 energy, environmental, and mineral resources research, 154 manufacturing systems research, 226-227 materials research, 256-257, 260-261, 265 National Bureau of Standards bioengineering research support, 78, 109 construction research centers, 119 manufacturing systems research programs, 40,226-227 National Critical Materials Council, 262 National Institutes of Health bioengineering research support, 38, 79,81-83,102,107,110-111 Intramural Research Program, 102 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, environmental systems research, 156-157 National Science Foundation INDEX bioengineering research support, 79, 81-83, 101, 106-107,109-111 construction and structural design research support, 116-117,121, 123-124 energy, mineral, and environmental research support, 143-144, 156-157,159-160 Engineering Directorate budget, 6-7, 47-48, 52,101,157,159 engineering research support, generally, 59, 72,160 Expedited Awards for Novel Research, 123 IC3 systems engineering research support, 198-200,204 individual research support, 117,124 industry-university cooperative research centers, 204 Industry-University Cooperative Research Project, 101 manufacturing systems research programs, 40,217,226-227,232 materials research support, 260-261, 265 multidisciplinary engineering research centem, 4,61, 72, 74, 79,82, 101, 110,116,123,180,199,204, 217, 226-227,232,243, 264 Office of Biotechnology Coordination, 60, 79,101 supercomputing program, 194 transportation research support, 284, 315 Nondestructive testing, 13,34,244, 294,297,304 Nuclear engineering, graduate enrollments, 161-163 Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, 81,94 Nuclear power current research, 154 funding for research, 155 future of, 147 plant lifetimes, 172 problems with, 150,170 recommended research on, 145,148, 70,172,179 o Office of Science and Technology Policy coordination of engineering research activities by, 7,60

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INDEX p Patents and property rights, 64, 75 Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, 81,95 Petroleum extraction and processing technologies, 29 Pharmaceutical industry, applications of biotechnology, 104 Policy issues on engineering research continuity of programs, 58-59 cross-disciplinary research and education, 4,6,8,66-68,81,110, 163-164 data exchange, 73, 75 direction and methods of projects, 60-61 graduate study, 70-71 industry-supported research, 64, 71-72,149 interaction among government, industry, and universities, 71, 73-75 patents and property rights, 64,75 single investigator grants, 61-62 university faculty flexibility, 65-66 use of experienced researchers, 72-73 Polymers applications and research needs, 252-253, 256 graduate program development, 273 Portland Cement Association, 121 Positron emission tomography, 81, 94 Presidential Young Investigator Awards program, 8,72,207,231,234,276 Prestressed Concrete Institute, 121 Professional societies and trade associations, promotion of construction and structural design research, 117-118,129 Publication and dissemination of research on cross-disciplinary work, 67 on manufacturing systems, 40 restrictions on, 41, 63-64,201,268, 309 Reinforced Concrete Research Council, 121 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Center for Industrial Innovation, 204 Robotics ambulatory systems for the disabled, 92 329 construction, 10-11, 27-28,39,115, 118,125,131-132 faculty shortages in, 40 IC3 applications in, 185,196-197 in manufacturing, 223-224 modeling and simulation in, 13 Ph.D.s in, 211 S Science research, engineering research contrasted with, 2,15, 17,43 Semiconductor Research Corporation, 74, 204,217,230 Semiconductors compound semiconductor heterostructures, 249 computer modeling of, 258 materials for optoelectronic and microwave devices, 249 metal-oxide-, 265-266 processing facilities, costs, 51 silicon, 249-250 small geometry effects, 250 U.S. competition in, 242,248 Simulation, ace Modeling and simulation Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 227 Software, complex systems communications networks, 192-193 distributed, 193 manufacturing, 31 needs, 9, 10, 184 productivity in development, 30,193 real-time processing of data, 194,197, 225 reliability, testing and verification, 193 Solar power, 29,155,169,171,179 Solid mechanics, computational, 297 Structural design accomplishments, 122 aerodynamic, 299-300 computer-aided, 13,28, 39, 118, 132-135 engineering research contributions 17 funding for research on, 50 history, 120-121 human resources for research, 115 industry interest in research, 121 nature of, 122 nonlinear collapse of structures, 296 research needs, 116,133-135 for space structures, 19 university research status, 128

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330 Structural Stability Research Council, 121 T Tax legislation to promote engineering research, 7, 51-52, 64, 69, 198, 203, 315 Transportation systems and services air, 310-311, 313-314 aspects subject to research, 288-289 computer modeling of, 293 cross-modal interface, 292 definition, 286-288 engineering research contributions in, 17 issues of concern, 29~291 problems during national emergency, 312 surface, 308-310, 312, 314 U.S. gross national product, 33, 281, 286 waterway, 301-302, 307-308, 314 Transportation systems engineering accomplishments, 286 aerospace, 283, 298-300 automotive/highway, 283, 302-303, 308-309 computational fluid and solid mechanics, 297, 29~300 defense implications of, 284, 311-312 energy conversion and pollution control, 295 fluid dynamics of separated flow, 295-296 future possibilities in, 19 gas turbine engines, 299 interaction among components, 300 laminar flow control, 299 maritime, 283-284, 298, 30~302, 307-308 mechanics of slowly deteriorating systems, 13, 33-34, 294 Ph.D. output, 316-317 pipelines, 283-284, 305-306, 311 propulsion, 300 railroads, 283-284, 294, 298, 303-305, 310 structural design, 299-300 traffic control, 293-294, 309 turbulence suppression, 299 university faculty and programs, 285, 31~318 vehicle/guideway integration, 11, 33, 36, 41, 292 Transportation systems research INDEX cross-modal, 292-296, 313-314 expenditures, 288 facilities, 295, 317 fundamental, 296-298, 306 funding, 41, 50, 55, 71, 284-285, 302, 307-315 importance, 287 mode-specific, 298-306 needs, 282-283, 285, 291-306 policy issues on support, 307-312 safety-related, 303, 309-310 selection criteria for, 291 selection strategy for, 291 university role in, 316 U Ultrasound, 94 Universities, ecc Colleges and Universities; and specific institutions University faculty development programs for manufacturing engineering, 233-234 flexibility in research, 65-66 for materials research studies, 274-276 loss of, to industry, 275 quality of working environment, 205-208 recruiting of new Ph.D.s as, 276 salaries, 207 shortages and obsolescence, 313, 40, 52, 55, 81, 108, 206-209 in transportation field, 285, 317 University of Arizona industry-university cooperative research center, 204 University of California at Berkeley Center for Advanced Materials, 264 University of California at Santa Barbara Center for Robotic Systems in Microelectronics, 200, 264 University of Delaware engineering research center, 264 University of Maryland Center on Systems Research, 200 University of Wisconsin manufacturing systems engineering graduate program, 233 U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research, 201, 265 structural design research, 121 U.S. Army

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INDEX Research Office, 201, 265 structural design research, 121 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers construction research, 119,121 waterways research, 307 U.S. Bureau of Miner, mineral resources research funding, 150160 U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 121, 307 U.S. competitiveness in construction and structural design, 13~131 decline in, 4 engineering research importance to, ~7, 18, 20, 55-56 foreign student/faculty contributions to 55, 212 in ICY technologies, 182,184-185, 188 in manufacturing, 216, 218-219, 225-226 process development and, 3~37 U.S. Department of Agriculture bioengineering research support, 101 U.S. Department of Defense bioengineering research support, 101 energy, environmental, and mineral resources research, 154, 156 IC3 systems research role, 198, 20~202 manufacturing systems research, 226 materials research, 243, 260-261 Office of the Deputy Undersecretary of Defense for Research and Advanced Technology, 201 policies on research, 63 64 research collaboration program, 74 U.S. Department of Energy bioengineering research support, 101 energy, environmental, and mineral resources research, 39, 154-157 materials research support, 26~261, 264 restrictions on exchange and publication of data, 268 U.S. Department of the Interior, materials research support, 26~261 U.S. Department of Transportation support for engineering research, 284, 315 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, research funding, 39,156,158, 26~261 U.S. Navy construction and structural design research, 119, 121 331 Office of Naval Research, 201, 265 U.S. Steel, construction research, 121 V Veterans Administration, bioengineering research support, 78, 101 W Waste management, 165-167, 173 Welding Research Council, 121 X-ray computed tomography, 94

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