7
Benchmarks and Metrics

INTRODUCTION

The Totally Integrated Munitions Enterprise (TIME) program defines “benchmarking” as the act of determining a state or characterizing something for use in making comparisons, achieving definition, or establishing a reference basis (e.g., capability or performance levels of a set of similar products offered by competing companies) (Raytheon 2000). The TIME program has, as a cornerstone philosophy, the use of up-to-date commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies whenever possible and development of new technologies only when such capabilities are not commercially available. Thus, benchmarking against both COTS and up-and-coming commercial technologies should be a critical and ongoing element of the TIME program. The committee believes this is a correct approach.

The architecture documents (Raytheon 2000) prepared by the TIME program can be thought of as an important first step in defining, through high-level descriptions—or benchmarks—the advancements that the integrated munitions enterprise will require to bring its capability to a par with commercial enterprises during the next 5 to 10 years. The program additionally makes clear that it intends to update these architectures as the capabilities of commercial systems and enterprises improve.

“Metrics” (typically defined as standards or measures) can serve either as a means to define or describe specific capabilities or as a set of specific defined goals and objectives against which an effort, such as the TIME program, can be measured. The TIME program appears to use detailed metrics primarily as a means to describe the capabilities of segments of proposed enterprise integration tools, as demonstrated under selected conditions (see Chapter 6).

The existing metrics for the TIME program are general and long term in nature. Although the metrics can be used as a means to define visionary concepts, the committee believes that they are of little value as tools to evaluate the progress of the program. These metrics include the following (Burleson 1999b):

  • Reductions in replenishment base or overhead,

  • Reductions in cycle time and acceleration of the acquisition cycle,

  • Reductions in life-cycle costs,

  • Success in capturing manufacturing process knowledge, and



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Munitions Manufacturing: A Call for Modernization 7 Benchmarks and Metrics INTRODUCTION The Totally Integrated Munitions Enterprise (TIME) program defines “benchmarking” as the act of determining a state or characterizing something for use in making comparisons, achieving definition, or establishing a reference basis (e.g., capability or performance levels of a set of similar products offered by competing companies) (Raytheon 2000). The TIME program has, as a cornerstone philosophy, the use of up-to-date commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies whenever possible and development of new technologies only when such capabilities are not commercially available. Thus, benchmarking against both COTS and up-and-coming commercial technologies should be a critical and ongoing element of the TIME program. The committee believes this is a correct approach. The architecture documents (Raytheon 2000) prepared by the TIME program can be thought of as an important first step in defining, through high-level descriptions—or benchmarks—the advancements that the integrated munitions enterprise will require to bring its capability to a par with commercial enterprises during the next 5 to 10 years. The program additionally makes clear that it intends to update these architectures as the capabilities of commercial systems and enterprises improve. “Metrics” (typically defined as standards or measures) can serve either as a means to define or describe specific capabilities or as a set of specific defined goals and objectives against which an effort, such as the TIME program, can be measured. The TIME program appears to use detailed metrics primarily as a means to describe the capabilities of segments of proposed enterprise integration tools, as demonstrated under selected conditions (see Chapter 6). The existing metrics for the TIME program are general and long term in nature. Although the metrics can be used as a means to define visionary concepts, the committee believes that they are of little value as tools to evaluate the progress of the program. These metrics include the following (Burleson 1999b): Reductions in replenishment base or overhead, Reductions in cycle time and acceleration of the acquisition cycle, Reductions in life-cycle costs, Success in capturing manufacturing process knowledge, and

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Munitions Manufacturing: A Call for Modernization Increasing ability and efficiency in transitioning process knowledge to industry. The committee believes that, although these are appropriate long-term, visionary goals, the TIME program should develop shorter-range, detailed subsidiary metrics to more precisely measure the progress of TIME. Metrics used by the Army ManTech organization to measure the progress of its projects have been proposed as one set of metrics to be used to measure TIME. The committee was asked to benchmark the TIME program against the findings of two previous NRC Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design studies, Visionary Manufacturing Challenges for 2020 (NRC 1998) and Defense Manufacturing in 2010 and Beyond (NRC 1999). The committee believes that this is appropriate because the efforts of the TIME program are intended to result in changes to the munitions industry that will remain in place, with minor upgrades, for decades to come. The committee considered only those recommendations that pertain to the munitions industry. VISIONARY MANUFACTURING CHALLENGES FOR 2020 The purpose of this section is to assess the goals and accomplishments of the TIME program in relation to the findings of the Visionary Manufacturing study. The objective of the study was to identify the technical challenges that would be faced by manufacturers in 2020 and the technologies that would be required to enable them to remain productive and profitable. “Manufacturing” was defined in the Visionary Manufacturing report, in broad terms as “the processes and entities required to create, develop, support, and deliver products” (NRC 1998, p. 9). The Visionary Manufacturing study committee developed a scenario of the environment for manufacturing in 2020 and from it identified six visionary grand challenges that the manufacturing community would need to address to achieve success. The following sections will use these grand challenges as long-term benchmarks against which the goals and accomplishments of the TIME program will be compared. Grand Challenge 1: Concurrent Manufacturing This challenge calls for implementation of integrated business systems that enable concurrent conceptualization, design, and production of products and services to reduce time-to-market, encourage innovation, and improve quality. Enterprises practicing concurrent manufacturing will consider product support, including delivery, servicing, and end-of-life disposition (recycling, reuse, demilitarization, or disposal) during the entire life cycle of the product, especially in the design and production phases.

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Munitions Manufacturing: A Call for Modernization The TIME program has addressed the issue of concurrent manufacturing in its Enterprise Architecture report (Raytheon 2000) that serves as a guideline for execution of the TIME program. The report contains an extensive discussion of the use of integrated product teams. Although the report identifies the integrated product teams as essential, it is not clear from the architecture how they will actually function across multiple contractors with diverse contracts. Furthermore, the TIME committee noticed a lack of consideration for life-cycle costs and environmental concerns as part of the concurrent design and manufacturing process. Presentations to the TIME committee by program representatives outlined a vision in which future munitions manufacturing systems must be totally integrated, encompassing all of the elements of agile manufacturing as well as employing Web-based management of a virtual enterprise structure. There was insufficient detail supporting these concepts to enable an effective evaluation, although as an outline for an integrated munitions enterprise it appears to present a state-of-the-art vision that is similar to those being implemented in today’s commercial industry. Although a good strategy was presented to the committee, a detailed plan for implementing concurrency has yet to be developed by the TIME program. However, it is TIME’s intent to use a product realization process model adopted from the work of DoE’s Technologies Enabling Agile Manufacturing (TEAM) initiative. It is claimed by the TEAM initiative that the TEAM process and TEAM models force the concurrent definition of product, process, and resource issues and manage their current resolution. A detailed plan is essential if TIME is to achieve its long-term objectives. It was not made clear to the TIME committee how the projects currently under way will assure or even incorporate concurrency, as communicated by the enterprise architecture. However, a high level of computer-integrated manufacturing is essential. This is addressed conceptually in the architecture. The shop floor control projects associated with TIME are only a small piece of the integrated manufacturing system. The focus of the TIME program may be driven by the large quantity of machine tools in a mothballed state and the difficulty of maintaining their control systems in any state of readiness. Likewise, the architecture document does not disclose a plan for implementing concurrent engineering in the complex, government-driven environment that will exist as contracts are negotiated with commercial firms for replenishment. The committee believes that there should be a strong commitment on the part of the military to implement fundamental changes in its approach to munitions acquisition. Encouraging signs in this regard are found in a June 30, 1998, Industrial Base Policy Letter by Paul J.Hoeper, Assistant Secretary of the Army (Hoeper 1998), which advanced the following: Manage ammunition using DoD’s life-cycle acquisition process. Use acquisition reform initiatives to stabilize the business environment and provide incentives for private investment in the production base.

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Munitions Manufacturing: A Call for Modernization Rely on the private sector to create and sustain ammunition production assets in response to production and replenishment contracts. To the maximum extent feasible, transition government-owned ammunition production assets to the private sector while preserving the ability to conduct explosives-handling operations safely. The committee believes that the TIME program should adopt this approach and plan for a virtual, reconfigurable munitions industry that will deeply involve the private sector. The TIME committee saw no evidence that such plans had been formalized or that implementation had begun, and there were no details about which government-owned resources should be transferred into the private sector and what kind of relationships should exist regarding their operation. The TIME committee believes that concurrency can drastically shorten the time between the conception of a product and its realization. However, there is little evidence in TIME program materials that suggests how these concepts will be applied to munitions manufacture or how they will relate to new weapons deployment. Readiness in the military sense may not directly map onto the concept of concurrency in the same way that it does in bringing new commercial products to market. Recommendation: As recommended in the Visionary Manufacturing report, the TIME program should adopt concurrency as a central tenet of its plans for upgrading the munitions industry and implement its use throughout the product realization cycle, with appropriate consideration of the full life cycle economic and environmental impacts. Grand Challenge 2: Integration of Human and Technical Resources The Visionary Manufacturing study found a compelling need for industries in 2020 to become effective in integrating their advanced technical resources with their workforce. However, the issues surrounding the integration of human and technical resources have barely been addressed by the TIME program. Human resources will be an essential ingredient in a modern munitions industry. It was made evident to the TIME committee that the United States has adequate munitions production capacity, although at present many mothballed systems could not be rapidly deployed because in today’s employment market, the necessary employees are simply not available. A process for recruiting and educating an expanded workforce with the proposed technologies, in a short period of time, must be developed and a realization plan put in place. The TIME program and its enterprise architecture appear to assume the ready availability of required human resources.

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Munitions Manufacturing: A Call for Modernization Recommendation: A human resource plan is needed to parallel the technology plans and enterprise architecture of the TIME program. The Visionary Manufacturing study also found that teamwork of the future involves interactive computer networks linking workers from all aspects of the business. New social relationships and communication skills will be necessary, as well as new corporate and enterprise cultures in which success will require not only expertise and experience but also the ability to use knowledge quickly and effectively. The TIME program has not addressed this global view of the team environment of 2020. To address this issue, it is necessary to define employee education and skill requirements; methods for developing continuing education programs; software, hardware, and communications system support; and supply chain relationships and requirements. In a general manner, however, the TIME architecture outlines appropriate system requirements. It is also safe to say that many workers in the future will already have extensive computer and modern communications skills when hired. Recommendation: The committee recommends that the TIME program prepare detailed plans for (1) upgrading the munitions workforce so that it may interface effectively with the proposed technologies of the totally integrated munitions enterprise of the future, and (2) rapidly expanding and training the new workforce in the event of a national emergency. Grand Challenge 3: Conversion of Information to Knowledge Like commercial enterprises of 2020, future munitions operations must successfully address two related challenges: (1) capture and storage of large amounts of data and information “instantaneously” and transformation of it into useful knowledge, and (2) making this knowledge available to users (human and machine) “instantaneously” wherever and whenever it is needed in a familiar language and form. Achieving this challenge identified by the Visionary Manufacturing study assumes that the prior education of the workforce will prepare them to deal with information in new forms and that the data-to-knowledge relationship will be well defined. The TIME program literature implies this to some extent, but it is not clearly defined as part of the project. It does not appear that any specific projects are under way to prepare the munitions enterprise to perform, using up-to-date systems, in this new information-based environment. The TIME program is correctly assuming that the majority, if not all, of the software for these relationships can be purchased off-the-shelf. However, at present, commercial software falls far short of creating the information sharing and manipulation capabilities suggested by the Visionary Manufacturing report, although extensive commercial sector work is under way in these fields. Furthermore, the TIME enterprise architecture provides few details regarding the required capabilities of the new software that is needed to achieve the

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Munitions Manufacturing: A Call for Modernization architecture of the future as they relate to conversion of information to knowledge. It is the opinion of the committee that the integration of the munitions enterprise and the production of conventional munitions of the types in production today are highly unlikely to require information systems with capabilities beyond those that will be used in the commercial sector. However, as in the commercial sector, it is likely that extensive use of intelligent agents will be required to fully convert large amounts of data into useful knowledge. At a minimum, all participants must have compatible, interoperable software and must participate in a well-planned Internet strategy to achieve concurrency with complex engineering systems. Finding: The TIME program is focused on the information gathering, conversion, and transfer process but has yet to address the ultimate issues of converting information to knowledge. Recommendation: The TIME program should develop a plan for establishing a unified central knowledge base for the munitions industry. Grand Challenge 4: Environmental Compatibility The Visionary Manufacturing report (NRC 1998) points out that the following must occur to achieve “near zero” production waste and product environmental impact: (1) Manufacturing enterprises must develop cost-effective, competitive products and processes that are produced without harming the environment, and (2) as much recycled material as possible should be used for feedstock and no significant waste created in terms of energy, material, or human resources. The TIME program does not address issues of past, present, or future environmental problems associated with munitions manufacturing. Passing mention was made in presentations to the TIME committee of achieving near zero waste and “green bullets,” however, no supporting detail was provided. Through a recent Executive Order, all future weapon systems must be evaluated to determine their full life-cycle costs and environmental impacts throughout all life-cycle stages, from feedstock production and manufacturing to operations and service and eventual demilitarization. Unfortunately, TIME has not integrated design-for-environment or life-cycle assessment methodologies or tools into any of its program elements. Recommendation: Issues associated with the environmental impact of the production, storage, demilitarization, disposal, and recycling of munitions should play a key role in the TIME program’s long-range plans.

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Munitions Manufacturing: A Call for Modernization Recommendation: The TIME program should work closely with other DoD programs that are working toward cleaner, greener, safer armed forces and those that address issues of health and safety. Grand Challenge 5: Reconfigurable Enterprises The Visionary Manufacturing study identified the need for rapid reconfiguration of manufacturing operations and stressed the importance of being able to rapidly form and modify complex business alliances in the rapidly changing manufacturing environment of the early 21st century. This challenge suggests new organizational concepts including the following: Intraorganizational and interorganizational structures based on flexible, transient cooperation models, Focus on opportunity-specific enterprises rather than on self-preservation and growth, Sharing of information and technology among competitors, and Resolution of issues related to worldwide patents and equitable sharing of the rewards of collaboration and other intellectual property rights. The TIME enterprise architecture identifies elaborate structural relationships between the constituent participants in the munitions design and manufacturing enterprises. The proposed models are traditional, published concepts that have been used in many businesses. What is needed is a vision for the future as to how these enterprises may be reconfigured in a rapidly changing environment, as may occur under replenishment conditions. For example, the current labor market has created near zero unemployment. How will a sudden demand for munitions replenishment be met in a short period of time should national defense demand such a response? TIME needs to address many such questions relative to the proposed virtual enterprise. In some presentations, the TIME program made a major point of the need to develop a “reconfigurable,” virtual enterprise but provided no details regarding how this will be achieved. Detailed business relationship models have yet to be developed. In addition, TIME has encountered difficulties in early demonstration projects with regard to intellectual property rights and technology transfer. These issues must be successfully addressed prior to or early in the implementation phase. Recommendation: The TIME program should develop appropriate detailed plans that will enable rapid reconfiguration of the munitions industry as needed to meet changing national priorities.

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Munitions Manufacturing: A Call for Modernization Grand Challenge 6: Innovative Processes This challenge outlines the need to develop innovative manufacturing processes and products with a principal focus on decreasing volumes of increasingly customized products and decreasing dimensional scale. The challenge is to apply totally new concepts to manufacturing unit operations, which will enable dramatic changes in production capabilities. The design and development of defense systems has for decades focused on the theme of decreasing dimensional scale. Many of the developments in microelectronics had their origins in defense research and development. The focus of the TIME program on agile manufacturing will address issues relating to short runs of semicustom munitions. However, TIME has yet to address the need to explore manufacturing at decreased dimensional scale. Advanced energetics, smart weapons technology and innovative warhead and submunitions designs are likely to combine in a trend toward smaller volumes of semicustom, high-performance, and, in some cases, miniaturized munitions and submunitions. Although the committee is of the opinion that most, if not all, of the new munitions should be produced by private industry, history would indicate that the entire conventional munitions industry, as addressed by this study, should prepare itself in anticipation of an eventual role in the production of these advanced weapons. Clearly, innovative, flexible processes and process modeling and control will be essential for future munitions manufacturing and should be addressed. The Visionary Manufacturing report suggests that manufacturing operations during the next 20 years will likely need to become proficient in the following: Development of “designer materials” by varying material composition throughout fabrication, joining, and assembly operations. These materials could create demand for some aspect of reconfigurable munitions manufacturing systems. Creation of self-directed processes that will simplify tooling and programming requirements and provide greater operational flexibility. This has not been addressed by TIME other than through work on the open modular architecture controller (OMAC). Manipulation at the molecular or atomic level that will lead to the creation of new materials and may eliminate some separate parts. This issue has not been addressed by the TIME program, as there are no identified needs in the munitions industry of which the TIME committee is aware. However, if research work on nanostructured energetics, which attempts to optimize material performance on a scale slightly higher than the molecular level, is successful, the TIME program must be prepared to efficiently address the realization of munitions containing these advanced materials.

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Munitions Manufacturing: A Call for Modernization Recommendation: Research efforts in the field of nanoenergetics may yield practical results in the near future. The TIME program should actively involve itself in efforts to realize products using these technologies and should strongly consider using these projects as opportunities for the implementation and measurable demonstration of integrated enterprise technologies. Nine technology areas were identified in the Visionary Manufacturing report as the most important for meeting the grand challenges: Adaptable, integrated equipment, processes, and systems that can be readily reconfigured. These technologies are correctly viewed as critical by the TIME program. However, TIME must begin by conducting assessments of current processes to evaluate what is obsolete, what is fundamental and can be changed, and what should be discarded in lieu of supplier dependency through new supply chain relationships. Manufacturing processes that minimize waste and energy consumption. This is becoming increasingly important for munitions manufacturing, but TIME has yet to address these subjects with detailed plans and guidelines. Innovative processes for designing and manufacturing new materials and components. These will be of critical importance with the increased use of electronics for precision-guided munitions and the potential for advanced energetics. Although lacking details, the TIME program has prepared an architecture for product realization that compares favorably with state-of-the-art approaches of commercial U.S. industry. System synthesis, modeling, and simulation for all manufacturing operations. These will be critical for upgrading munitions development and manufacturing capabilities. To date, the TIME program has addressed these topics only in general terms. Significant benefits can accrue to the Army if modeling and simulation tools used in research laboratories for development and validation of initial materials concepts can be made interoperable with computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) tools required for detailed design, and process development and control. Technologies to convert information into knowledge for effective decision making. These technologies, including intelligent agents, are exhibiting improved performance and are gradually becoming commercially available. They will be critical for effective operation of the integrated munitions enterprise. The TIME program has yet to address these issues.

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Munitions Manufacturing: A Call for Modernization Product and process design methods that address a broad range of product requirements. These technologies, including advanced CAD, and modeling and simulation programs that run on high-performance computers are increasingly being used by designers of munitions and advanced energetics. They are essential to achieve an effective munitions enterprise and are being addressed by the TIME program as part of their product realization architecture. Enhanced human-machine interfaces. This topic was not discussed in presentations by the TIME program, but it will be an important part of the integrated munitions enterprise. New educational and training methods that enable the rapid assimilation of knowledge. This topic was briefly mentioned in TIME presentations. It must be a focal point if the U.S. integrated munitions enterprise is to succeed in the current employment marketplace and if the U.S. replenishment capabilities are to perform effectively when called upon. Software for intelligent collaboration systems. This software will be essential for TIME, but it is not commercially available to meet industry needs. This lack of current availability should not inhibit TIME program efforts to begin implementation of the integrated enterprise, and the Army should not invest in development of this software. The committee predicts that commercial developers will have validated packages available by the time the munitions industry is ready to implement them. Summary Manufacturing in 2020 will be exciting, dynamic, and competitive. The military must take advantage of this environment on behalf of the U.S. taxpayer. TIME has the potential for setting the U.S. munitions enterprise on a new course, although to date many issues remain to be defined and addressed regarding how the transition will or could occur. The Visionary Manufacturing study was intended to look two decades into the future. The TIME program is doing such now, and it appears evident to the committee that there is a national need to apply serious effort and resources to begin to resolve the problems facing the U.S. munitions enterprise. Given severe budgetary constraints, the TIME program cannot be expected to be immediately and fully responsive to all of the challenges posed in the Visionary Manufacturing study. However, the committee believes that it is essential that the TIME program seriously address each of the six grand challenges. Concurrent manufacturing, integration of human and technical resources, conversion of information to knowledge, environmental compatibility, reconfigurable enterprises, and innovative processes should be thought of as cornerstones for TIME program

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Munitions Manufacturing: A Call for Modernization success. The TIME program staff must maintain an in-depth, up-to-date understanding of the rapidly evolving commercial tools and concepts in all of these six areas, so that the TIME program can support and enable the rapid introduction and integration of these technologies as needed by the munitions industry. One of the grand research challenges identified in the Visionary Manufacturing study (NRC 1998) was to “integrate human and technical resources to enhance workforce performance and satisfaction.” The report stated, “Individuals and teams will have to be agile to maintain control over time and technology, and to capitalize on both.” Agility in teams and individuals is accomplished by extensive cross-training and rapid learning throughout the enterprise, thus allowing for the rapid assimilation of new technologies. The report concluded that “enterprises that can teach workers new skills quickly will have a competitive edge.” In the munitions industry, the emphasis is on readiness instead of competitiveness, but the means to achieve both are, for all practical purposes, the same. The organization must assess its training and skills needs; the readiness state must be monitored continuously; and the impact of any changes in workforce or training needs must be determined, communicated, and corrected as quickly and automatically as possible. The TIME program does not have formal programs identified, established, or planned in any of these important areas. It must work closely with other DoD programs to coordinate efforts to assure that appropriate skills can be made available as needed in response to national needs that can change rapidly. However, many of the skills required for replenishment will be resident in the workers who, in normal times, will be using the dual-use equipment to make commercial parts. DEFENSE MANUFACTURING IN 2010 AND BEYOND The findings, challenges, and recommendations of the Defense Manufacturing study (NRC 1999) are found in the Executive Summary of that report. The portions of the study that are appropriate as benchmarks for the TIME initiative are found under the headings “Required Defense Manufacturing Capabilities” and “Advances in Commercial Manufacturing.” Other portions of the report are directed at DoD and ManTech, not at specific initiatives such as TIME. The two sections of the Defense Manufacturing report selected as benchmarks include those technical and organizational capabilities and commercial advances that TIME program managers are in a position to pursue or acquire if they so choose. Required Manufacturing Capabilities The Defense Manufacturing study identified six broad categories of defense manufacturing capabilities that are defense unique or defense critical:

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Munitions Manufacturing: A Call for Modernization Composites processing and repair; Electronics processes; Information technology systems; Weapons system sustainment; Design, modeling, and simulation; and Production processes. Detailed elements under each of these categories are listed in Table 2–2 of the Defense Manufacturing report (NRC 1999) and are reproduced here as Table 7–1 for easy reference. The sections that follow provide discussion of these defense manufacturing capabilities within the context of the TIME program. Composites Processing and Repair Although “composite materials” is listed as a technology area in the TIME presentation materials (McWilliams 1999), the program has not yet addressed composites. The initial phases of TIME instead focus on metal parts; energetics (propellants, explosives and pyrotechnics); load-assemble-pack; fuses; and submunitions (Osiecki 1999), the traditional categories of conventional munitions making. It is increasingly likely, however, that new munitions designs will take advantage of the performance opportunities available from advanced composites. Thus, the committee feels that it is appropriate to benchmark the approaches of the TIME program against the recommendations regarding composites processing and repair. Electronics Processes Although the early phases of the TIME program are focusing on the product realization environment of mechanical piece parts, the TIME master plan includes the development of a product realization process for electronic parts and assemblies, which are of increasing importance for smart munitions. The Defense Manufacturing report identified numerous specific advancements needed in electronics processing, whereas TIME will correctly be concerned with a more generic product realization environment for munitions manufacturing and sustainment. In the opinion of the committee, if all of TIME’s stated objectives are eventually achieved, the resulting product realization environment would facilitate the attainment of the specific advances in electronic processes identified in the Defense Manufacturing report. Information Technology Systems The recommended manufacturing requirements for information technology systems are presented below, along with discussion of how the TIME program has addressed each requirement.

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Munitions Manufacturing: A Call for Modernization TABLE 7–1 Broad Categories of Required Defense Manufacturing Capabilities Category Manufacturing Capabilities Composites processing and repair Design methods and processes for low-cost structural composites Design methods for low-cost composite materials Composite materials for advanced propulsion systems Low-cost composite surfaces for tactical missiles Automated composite repairs On-system, on-site composite repair technologies that are affordable and efficient Electronics processes Intelligent health monitoring systems Electronic systems able to withstand high g loads and severe vibration environments High-density packaging for functional elements using monolithic microwave integrated circuits Electronics packaging with increased structural reliability Built-in test diagnostics Commercial programmable network protocols to replace existing buses and networks Software engineering tools to facilitate upgrades Lightweight chip-on-board technology for miniaturization High-precision, high-reliability connectors, back planes, and traces Interruption-free connector systems Optical interconnections for ultra-high data rates Designs to prevent dendritic growth in high-density electronics Manufacturing technology for liquid crystal displays Information technology systems Commercial software systems to replace proprietary systems Systems architecture that permits secure use of commercial off-the-shelf computers, software, and networks Defense logistics systems that are interoperable with the diverse systems used by suppliers Network management and control protocols to ensure data security in distributed design and manufacturing operations Databases containing weapons systems life-cycle costs for integration into design systems Production process capabilities and cost databases for integration into design systems Product data models and storage and retrieval architectures capable of handling data seamlessly Product structure directories that are open and meet commercial standards Intelligent agents for locating and retrieving information Automated reverse-engineering systems based on scanning of the actual part

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Munitions Manufacturing: A Call for Modernization Information technology systems Nonrecurring manufacturing process control with single view management, single numbering system, and visual statusing system Sustainment Repair techniques for aging systems Nonintrusive, real-time monitoring techniques for flight loads and damage Maintenance and upgrade technologies for aging systems Automated validation tools to replace flight testing Avionics packaging with increased structural reliability and reduced connector problems for aging systems Built-in-test diagnostics for aging systems Modular components to facilitate maintenance of aging systems Software engineering tools to facilitate upgrades Design, modeling, and simulation Product models that enable accurate life-cycle performance versus cost trade-offs Integrated product and process development Virtual prototyping System designs based on common subsystems Process simulations based on finite-element analysis of materials characteristics during forming Product models that enable stealth versus other performance characteristics trade-offs Designs for affordable, high-performance radomes and infrared windows Designs for affordable, easy-to-install electro-optical systems with minimum drag and signature Product models with multiple levels of resolution to enable simulation-based designs Parametric modeling to enable design trade-offs Integrated product, tool, and manufacturing process designs Design methods that incorporate tolerance stack-ups Computer-aided design systems that integrate design, production processes, measurement processes Production processes Affordable processing methods for launch equipment with reduced drag and signature High-yield, robust fuse production process Methods for precise filling of explosives in munitions Automated filling of explosives in munitions to increase safety, improve process yield, and ensure performance Methods to reduce cycle time and nonrecurring costs in production processes Precise, automated methods for applying low observability coatings Affordable manufacturing techniques, processes, and tools that can form complex shapes Conformal mold line technology Manufacturing processes for multilayer boards

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Munitions Manufacturing: A Call for Modernization Production processes Conformal coating techniques to prevent dendritic growth Glass manufacturing technology for liquid crystal displays Flexible production lines Adaptive process controls to enable 100 percent first-time yields Manufacturing processes and assembly sequences that determine tolerance stack-ups for modular construction Measurement systems that provide highly accurate electronic information on as-built parts Computer-aided visualization techniques Noncontact inspection during manufacturing operations Automated system for accurate location of assembly tools and components Nondestructive inspection for inclusions in titanium castings Process for producing titanium 15–3 honeycomb Source: NRC 1999. Commercial software systems to replace proprietary systems. The TIME program has expressed a strong preference for use of COTS software and has stated clearly that it will develop its own software only to the extent that enterprise needs cannot be served using commercial software. However, the TIME program has yet to clearly define the details of enterprise needs and standards. Systems architecture that permits secure use of commercial off-the-shelf computers, software, and networks, and network management and control protocols to ensure data security in distributed design and manufacturing operations. The TIME program is beginning to address the issues of computer security and “need-to-know,” using COTS hardware, software, and networks wherever possible. LCMS (1999) addresses this issue to a limited degree, but substantial additional work appears to be required to define munitions industry needs and systems requirements. Defense logistics systems that are interoperable with the diverse systems used by suppliers. TIME appears to recognize only generally the importance of developing this capability. Many difficulties will have to be overcome. More TIME program emphasis should be directed toward achieving this capability, as recommended by the committee in Chapter 3. Databases containing weapons systems life-cycle costs for integration into design systems. The TIME program intends to create and implement database and networking capabilities that will enable weapons system integrated design teams to access a wide variety of design-related information including, potentially, the life-cycle cost history of previous weapons systems.

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Munitions Manufacturing: A Call for Modernization Production process capabilities and cost databases for integration into design systems. The TIME program is striving to develop and implement database and networking capabilities that will enable distributed concurrent engineering teams (design, process development, etc.) to access in real time huge amounts of design, process, cost, and production data as needed for analysis and design decision making. Product data models and storage and retrieval architectures capable of handling data seamlessly. TIME clearly recognizes the importance of this capability, and the enterprise architecture outlines, at a high level, a means for achieving it. There are several product data management (PDM) systems available in the market today, and TIME recognizes the need to use commercial systems. However, little information was presented regarding the nature of the data that the TIME program will be trying to model, store, and retrieve. Selection of a PDM system is complex and is based on the problem that needs to be solved. PDM systems tend to be time consuming, costly, and difficult to implement and maintain. It will be hard to implement a PDM system within the scope of the entire integrated munitions enterprise. Product structure directories that are open and meet commercial standards. Product design definition utilizes several different file formats within which a product directory structure is created. The product directory structure refers to assemblies, components, design and manufacturing features, geometry and process information, all stored in an associative network. Such a structure can be stored in a Standard for the Exchange of Product model Data (STEP) file format. The TIME program is investigating the use of STEP to enable exchange of product data with its suppliers. However, it should be pointed out that, short of using the same CAD/PDM systems that suppliers use, there is currently no seamless solution to data exchange. Intelligent agents for locating and retrieving information. “Intelligent agents” are mentioned in TIME, but no details are provided. The capabilities of intelligent agents are increasing rapidly and appropriate commercially available and proven software should be employed by TIME as it becomes available. When currently available agents are used to locate and retrieve information, the capability to develop information from historical situations, activities, and subject areas needs to be well demonstrated. Changes in terminology and methods may create difficulties in reprogramming currently used software to perform agency successfully. Automated reverse-engineering systems based on scanning of the actual part. This capability is not mentioned in the TIME program description. Nonrecurring manufacturing process control with single view management, single numbering system, and visual statusing system—Parts of the TIME program description are directed to parts

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Munitions Manufacturing: A Call for Modernization of this capability but only in a general way. TIME should employ commercially available and proven systems for this aspect of its overall architecture. Sustainment In general, the manufacturing capabilities required for sustainment of weapon systems are as follows: Application of advanced production processes and practices to maintenance, repair, and upgrade operation; Technology insertion for new and existing systems; Self-diagnostics for mechanical and electronic systems; New technologies for remanufacturing; and Design methods that improve sustainment. Although integration of the munitions industrial base will enable more cost-effective sustainment of finished products, TIME has not explicitly considered sustainment issues. However, the program anticipates working closely with managers of the various munitions programs during the product life cycle. Due to the high cost impact, serious consideration should be given to making the above sustainment practices a high priority in the TIME program’s work with these individual munitions programs. Design, Modeling, and Simulation Manufacturing capabilities for design, modeling, and simulation are discussed below: Product models that enable accurate life-cycle performance versus cost trade-offs. The TIME program intends to implement systems that facilitate and enable “design optimization,” including access to life-cycle cost databases that will enable trade-offs such as performance versus life-cycle costs. Integrated product and process development. TIME places heavy emphasis on concurrent engineering and integrated product and process development, as detailed in Raytheon (1999). Virtual prototyping. Virtual prototyping refers to a broad array of activities, including collision detection within assemblies, interference detection, visual mockups, animation, and so on. TIME intends to incorporate this feature, as described in Raytheon (2000) and in Chapter 4 of this report. System designs based on common subsystems. TIME incorporates this capability.

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Munitions Manufacturing: A Call for Modernization Process simulations based on finite-element analysis of materials characteristics during forming. TIME intends to incorporate this capability. Commercially available software should be used for this purpose. Product models with multiple levels of resolution to enable simulation-based designs. This is an important capability, which should be made more explicit and prominent in the TIME initiative. This capability is available in commercial software. TIME needs to focus on the selection and implementation of COTS CAD systems that can be made interoperable with the advanced modeling and simulation systems being used to develop advanced munitions concepts at the research laboratories of the armed forces. Parametric modeling to enable design trade-offs. Parametric modeling is an activity that is part of today’s commercial CAD systems. This capability is available to the TIME program through use of a commercial system, so TIME will incorporate this capability. Design trade-offs follow naturally from using parametric modeling. Integrated product, tool, and manufacturing process designs. TIME has prepared an integrated architecture that will incorporate this capability. Design methods that incorporate tolerance stack-ups. TIME incorporates this capability. Computer-aided design systems that integrate design, production processes, measurement processes. The TIME program’s approach to enabling integrated design teams performing concurrent engineering will appropriately address this requirement. In particular, the Design Cockpit and Web Integration Manager (WIM) support this capability. Production Processes Production-process manufacturing capabilities are presented below: High-yield, robust fuse production process. Although not an explicit program element, the successful attainment of the objectives of the TIME initiative will contribute to the achievement of this capability. Methods for precise filling of explosives in munitions. The enhanced product realization process integral to the TIME initiative would contribute to the achievement of this capability. One of the TIME demonstration projects is directed to this issue. Automated filling of explosives to increase safety, improve process yields, and ensure performance. The enhanced product realization process integral to the TIME initiative would contribute to the achievement of this capability. One of the TIME demonstration projects is directed to this issue.

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Munitions Manufacturing: A Call for Modernization Methods to reduce cycle time and nonrecurring costs in production processes. Much of the TIME initiative is directed toward this issue, with more emphasis placed on reducing cycle time than nonrecurring costs. Affordable manufacturing techniques, processes, and tools that can form complex shapes. Although typically not required in the munitions industry and not an explicit goal of the TIME initiative, the enhanced product realization process integral to the TIME initiative would contribute to the achievement of this capability. Flexible production lines. This will be increasingly important if trends toward short runs of semicustom designer munitions and smart munitions continue. A key component of TIME is the employment of commercial dual-use facilities for munitions stock replenishment. Adaptive process controls to enable 100 percent first-time yields. This is a key goal of the TIME program. Manufacturing processes and assembly sequences that determine tolerance stack-ups for modular construction. Although not explicitly mentioned, TIME program efforts to enable and support concurrent engineering should make this readily attainable. Measurement systems that provide highly accurate electronic information on as-built parts. This capability is not highlighted in TIME materials, but it should be an integral part of the enhanced product realization environment being developed. The real-time networking capabilities that are envisioned by TIME will make this data very valuable to product realization teams. Computer-aided visualization techniques. This is an integral component of TIME. The plan includes three-dimensional CAD systems and visualization packages, the “design cockpit” concept, and WIM. Noncontact inspection during manufacturing operations. The TIME program is establishing networking links that can be used to make noncontact inspection data available in real time to all participants. This capability is perhaps not applicable to all aspects of munitions manufacture but is critical in certain areas. Automated system for accurate location of assembly tools and components. Although not explicitly mentioned in TIME program materials, the committee anticipates that this will be part of the machine control capabilities. Advances in Commercial Manufacturing The Defense Manufacturing study (NRC 1999) identified several recent advances in commercial manufacturing that have potential for benefiting defense manufacturing. These are listed on page 2 of the Executive Summary of that report. These advances and an assessment of TIME’s corresponding program elements are summarized below.

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Munitions Manufacturing: A Call for Modernization Advanced approaches to manufacturing accounting, including activity-based accounting and cost-as-an-independent-variable accounting. TIME does not select the accounting methods but rather provides technologies that can enable communication between systems, standardized databases, and real-time access for those with a need-to-know. Advanced approaches to product design, including life-cycle design, integrated product and process development, three-dimensional digital product models, simulation and modeling, and rapid prototyping. All of these approaches are integral parts of the TIME product realization architecture. Hardware and software systems are commercially available that are quite adequate for most munitions industry needs. The Army is already using three-dimensional modeling and simulation techniques on high-performance computers to develop concepts for advanced munitions. TIME should focus on the implementation of interoperable COTS CAD/CAM/CAE systems to seamlessly create product and process design documentation from the high-performance models. Rapid prototyping, as needed, can probably be performed most cost-effectively through contract rapid prototyping services. Advanced approaches to manufacturing processes, including generative numerical control, adaptive machine control, predictive process control, high-speed machining, flexible tooling, soft tooling, tool-less assembly, and nanotechnology. Some of these advances are outside the scope of TIME. TIME should continue to focus its efforts on enterprise integration but must work closely with other DoD efforts to upgrade munitions manufacturing processes. For example, COTS tools and technologies, as already defined by the TIME program, should be implemented to enable faster realization by the Army of advanced energetics involving nanotechnologies. Advanced approaches to business organization, including teaming across organizations, virtual enterprises, long-term supplier relationships, high-performance organizations, cross-functional teams, lean enterprises, adaptive enterprises, agile enterprises, and knowledge-based and learning enterprises. Many of these issues are being appropriately addressed as key pieces of the TIME program. However, the plan does little to address some of the issues, particularly those involving people. Efforts to date have focused primarily on high-level architectures, design capture and translation, and machine tool controllers. Information and communications technologies, including electronic commerce, virtual collocation of people, data interchange standards, internet technologies, intranet technologies, browser technologies, intelligent agents, seamless data environments, telecommunications, and distance learning. TIME places great emphasis on these issues. Most of these specific technologies are undergoing rapid development

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Munitions Manufacturing: A Call for Modernization and change, and these changes will continue for a long time. The TIME program materials reviewed were somewhat lacking in specifics of the program’s overall approach to these technologies, strategies for making selections, and means for staying current with commercial developments. The TIME program plans to incorporate available Web-based tools. These tools will undergo substantial change over the next few years. The TIME program should devote additional effort to define the needs of the munitions industry in detail, to translate those needs into detailed specifications for COTS information and communications technologies, and then begin implementation based on well-defined priorities. It is advisable that acquisition and integration of tools be part of a larger strategy because integration of such tools can consume substantial resources. Summary and Recommendations The NRC study Defense Manufacturing in 2010 and Beyond (NRC 1999) was a broad, high-level analysis of the overall U.S. defense industrial base. While the study included munitions manufacturing, the conclusions and recommendations were quite general. Nevertheless, the TIME program can benefit by using appropriate elements of this study as a frame of reference. Overall, the TIME program measures reasonably well against the key recommendations of the Defense Manufacturing study. Major areas in which TIME should increase its efforts are as follows: Electronic component manufacturing. TIME has intentionally focused its early efforts on mechanical piece parts and intends to address electronics manufacturing in a later phase. It is important to accelerate this portion of the program in order to respond to the challenges faced in producing ever-more-sophisticated munitions. Information technology systems. The TIME program should place much more emphasis and devote a larger share of its budget to this critically important area. While some progress has been made (e.g., design cockpits and WIM), TIME should make greater use of commercially available information technology. Strong capability should be developed in the areas of Internet communications, e-commerce, and supply chain integration. Design, modeling, and simulation. TIME recognizes the importance of this area, but its overall emphasis on this capability is perceived by the committee to be inadequate, including a lack of consideration of product life-cycle costs and environmental impacts. Special emphasis should be placed on enlarging and upgrading munitions industry technical personnel in this critically important area. Production processes. The committee believes that TIME has erred in focusing so much of its attention and resources on the OMAC. TIME should be increasing its capability to implement and manage

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Munitions Manufacturing: A Call for Modernization commercially available CAD/CAE/CAM systems, controllers, and networks. It should also begin to prioritize the acquisition of production equipment and processes that are capable of producing high-quality munitions. Consideration of the human element. The TIME program should pay increased attention to the importance of the workforce. It mentions training but does not have an action item directed to this need. The human element issues in advanced manufacturing systems and replenishment are much broader than just training. Enterprise business systems. The TIME program has begun to define (at a high level), and demonstrate examples of, an “enterprise systems toolkit.” It is critically important that TIME develop a strong capability in this area and that of supply chain management and that the program be given sufficient funding to prioritize and begin to implement appropriate commercial systems. A WORD OF CAUTION The two previous NRC studies—Defense Manufacturing in 2010 and Beyond (NRC 1999) and Visionary Manufacturing Challenges for 2020 (NRC 1998)—were intentionally conceptual and futuristic, containing considerable speculation regarding possible advances in manufacturing processes, systems, and enterprises over the next 10 to 20 years. Some of the advances visualized in these reports may never materialize. Others may materialize but at a slower pace. Still others may prove to be impractical or not cost-effective. The committee adds these cautionary comments because it believes strongly that the Army should not attempt to reach too far, too fast, in its efforts to modernize its munitions manufacturing capability. In many cases, munitions manufacturing is several decades behind current commercial practices and today’s COTS technologies can offer substantial improvements in many areas. With careful prioritization of needs and potential returns, significant improvements can be made to the capabilities of the industry with a relatively modest, though significantly increased, budget. It would be expensive and potentially risky for the Army’s munitions facilities to attempt to leapfrog from their current state of technological immaturity to the futuristic environment described in these two NRC studies. Consequently, while these studies can serve as general visions of desired long-term objectives, they should not serve as realistic near-term targets. It is important that the TIME program update its architectures, goals, and metrics on a regular basis, benchmarking them against evolving COTS capabilities, commercial best practices, and these visionary reports, to guide the munitions industry toward meeting military needs with an appropriate level of taxpayer investment.