2-5

 

Trends in aircraft noise regulation: Number of airports worldwide imposing various constraints and charges as a function of time,

 

22

2-6

 

NASA technology readiness levels,

 

24

2-7

 

Federal investments to reduce source noise,

 

24

2-8

 

Federal investments in noise abatement,

 

25

2-9

 

Ratio of federal funds spent on local noise abatement projects to funds spent by the FAA and NASA on noise research and technology,

 

25

2-10

 

Historical trends in aircraft noise compared with NASA’s noise goals,

 

26

2-11

 

Changes in the composition of the commercial fleet, 1994 to 2011,

 

28

3-1

 

Funding for emissions research,

 

32

3-2

 

Allocations of NASA’s emissions research funding,

 

32

3-3

 

Radiative forcing caused by the global fleet of commercial subsonic aircraft as of 1992,

 

37

5-1

 

Comparison of federal expenditures for noise abatement (by the FAA) with expenditures for noise and emissions research and technology (by the FAA and NASA),

 

43

BOXES

1-1

 

Federal Responsibilities,

 

8

2-1

 

Example of Delays in Runway Expansion Due in Part to Aviation Noise,

 

16

2-2

 

Examples of Flight Delays and Cancellations Directly Caused by Aircraft NoiseRestrictions,

 

16

2-3

 

Aviation Noise Challenges,

 

19



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