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topic (102). Another question is how cargo and KIF dissociate. To enable cargo proteins to function properly, this dissociation is indispensable.

Concerning how each KIF recognizes and binds to their specific cargo molecules, one significant method is the formation of a receptor-adaptor (scaffold/scaffolding protein)-motor complex as in the case of KIF3, KIF17, and KIF13A (8, 9, 63). Alternatively, KIFs can bind to membrane proteins through light chains (49, 50). These adaptor proteins may contribute in increasing the variety of cargoes a KIF can convey. Thus, it is rapidly becoming clear that the cell uses a number of KIFs and tightly controls the direction, destination, and velocity of transports for various important functional molecules.

We are grateful to members of the Hirokawa laboratory, especially Dr. T.Nakagawa. This work was supported by a grant for Center of Excellence (COE) from the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture (to N.H).

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