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DESIGNING FOODS Animal Proctuct Options in the Marketplace Committee on Technological-Options to Improve the Nutritional Attributes of Animal Products Board on Agriculture National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988

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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use of the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government of scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This project was supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, under agreement 59-3159-5-25. Preparation of the publication was supported by funds from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation; the American Meat Institute; the American Sheep Producers Council, Inc.; EXCEL Corporation; IBP, Inc.; Monfort of Colorado, Inc.; the National Cattlemen's Association; the National Live Stock & Meat Board; the National Pork Producers Council; Swift Independent, Corp.; and Val-Agri, Inc. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Technological Options to Improve the Nutritional Attributes of Animal Products. Designing foods: animal product options in the marketplace / Committee on Technological Options to Improve the Nutritional Attributes of Animal Products, Board on Agriculture, National Research Council. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-309-03798-0. ISBN 0-309-03795-6 (pbk.) 1. Animal products-United States. 2. Nutrition. I. Title TS 1955. N38 1988 641.3'06-dc19 Copyright ~ 1988 by the National Academy of Sciences 88-2065 CIP No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor, may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use, without written permission from the publisher, except for the purposes of official use by the U.S. government. Printed in the United States of America

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Committee on Iechnologica1 Options to Improve the Nuthtiona1 AtthFutes of Anima1 Products DAVID L. CALL, C6~ir~~n, Corn~ll [niversKy C. ELCENE ALLEN, [niver~ty of ~inn~sota HENRY A. FIlZNECH, Winrock Internabona1 HICHARD H. FOBSYTHE, [ampLeN Inshtute [r Reseurch and Technolo~y HICHARD D. GOODRICH, [niversHy of ~innesota SCOU ~. CHUNDY, [niver~ty of Texas Heabh Scienc~ Cent~r TI~OTHY HA~ONDS, Food ~arkedng Inshtute CAL~H HANSEN, L~ S~ [nKe=# NORCE W. JERO~E, [niverdty of Kunsas ~edica1 [enter JOHN KINSELLA, CorneD [niver~ty KBISTEN W. ~CNCO, Consumer Cho~es [nUmited, Inc. CARY C. S~ITH, Texas A~ Lniver~ty ^LCHN C. SPEER, Io~ St~e LnKe~i~ JOHN H. VENABLE, Colorado State [niversHy WIL#HD J. VISEK, Lniversi~ of DUnois THO~AS E. WACNEH, Ohio Lniversity Sta~ BARBAHA LEKE, Pr~~ ~or PATHICIA LOCACCIATO, Sf~nf~ ALICE JONES, Srnior Socr~f~, * Througb ~ecember lg86 . . . 111

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Board on Agriculture WILLIAM L. BROWN, Chairman, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. JOHN A. PING, Vice Chairman, National Research Council PERRY L. ADKISSON, Texas A&M University C. EUGENE ALLEN, University of Minnesota EDWIN H. CLARK II, The Conservation Foundation ELLIS B. COWLING, North Carolina State University JOSEPH P. FONTENOT, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University ROBERT M. GOODMAN, Calgene, Inc. RALPH W. F. HARDY, Boyce Thompson Institute and BioTechnica International, Inc. CHARLES C. MUSCOPLAT, Molecular Genetics, Inc. KARL H. NORRIS, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Marylanc] VERNON W. RUTTAN, University of Minnesota CHAMP B. TANNER, University of Wisconsin THOMAS D. TRAUTMAN, General Mills, Inc. JAN VAN SCHILFG^RDE, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado VIRGINIA WALBOT, Stanford University CONRAD I. WEISER, Oregon State University CHARLES M. BENBROOK, Executive Director JAMES E. TAVARES, Associate Executive Director CARLA CARLSON, Reports Officer and Senior Editor GRACE JONES BOBBINS, Assistant Editor V

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Preface Animal products have always been a mainstay of the American diet, and thanks to new procluction technologies, a wider range of products are available today than ever before. About 36 percent of the food energy and between 36 and 100 percent of each of the major nutrients in the foot! supply come from animal products. But they also contribute more than half the total fat, nearly three-fourths of the saturated fatty acids, and all the cholesterol~ietary components that may increase the risk of heart disease and cancer for some individuals. The link between diet, the maintenance of health, and the development of chronic disease has become increasingly evident in recent years. The advice from national health organizations has become more focused, identifying dietary excesses of calories, fat, saturated fatty acids, and cholesterol and deficiencies of iron and calcium as adversely affecting the health of the people in the United States. Although fecleral surveys show that healthful trends in diet are improving, many individuals still must make substantial changes to meet current recommendations. New technologies and production methods appear to hoIcT promise for improving the nutritional attributes of animal products. Recent research has shown that the use of growth hormone in beef and pork may result in increased feed efficiency in the live animal and an improved lean to fat ratio in the carcass. Producers may soon be using the latest biotechnology methods to enhance growth and improve carcass quality, and processors are aIreacly applying new techniques such as restructuring, ultrafiltration, enzymatic modification, and supercritical fluid or solvent extraction to the manufacture of new animal products. In January 1985, the U. S. Department of Agriculture asked the National Research Council's Board on Agriculture to evaluate the effectiveness of new technologies, their possible current and future applications, their effect on regulatory policies, and their potential benefits to the consumer. Specifically, the board's charge was to- ~ Identify the targets for preferred nutritional characteristics of animal products, based on dietary recommendations of national health organizations; v

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PREFACE Quantify current consumption patterns of animal products using fecleral dietary surveys and food supply (lata; Assess current options available to consumers and existing technologies to alter the characteristics of animal products; Develop a strategy for constructive change consistent with contemporary dietary recommendations; and Develop a strategy to foster widespread adoption of economical and practical innovations, taking into account existing ant! possible future economic incentives and disincentives for adherence. To accomplish these objectives, the board convened the Committee on Technological Options to Improve the Nutritional Attributes of Animal Products. The committee held nine meetings between December 1985 and February 1987 to gather information and hear testimony from experts. One meeting was held as a public session to solicit input from organizations, special interest and consumer groups, and indivicluals. In addition, scientific papers presenter] at two workshops provided the committee with new information and research results on improved production practices and technologies to alter growth. This report contains the committee's analyses of food supply and dietary data on consumption patterns; identification of targets for change in the nutritional composition of animal products; ant] recommendations on marketing and policy issues and research imperatives. The reader shouIc3 note that throughout the report, the committee defines the term animal products as all foods derived from animals. Chapters 1, 2, and 3 define the role of animal products in the diet, review dietary recommendations from the major health organizations, and identify specific levels, or targets, of nutrients for a healthful diet. Chapter 4 presents data from national surveys on changing consumer attitudes toward nutrition and food practices. It also describes traditional ant] nutritionally modifier} versions of ciairy products, meats, poultry, and fish ant] applies these options in example flirts to meet the target levels of nutrients defined in Chapter 1. Chapter 5 identifies policies and programs that either impe(le further progress or that should be refocused to maximize the benefits of dietary choice. Chapter 6 defines promising technologies in production and manufacturing for creating animal products that would better match the targeted levels of nutrients. The committee's recommendations will require the efforts and cooperation of many groups, whether the issues relate to providing consumers with better nutrition information, consolidating data bases, or developing advertising and promotional guidelines. Current cooperative efforts are to be commended; however, the committee believes that federal agencies, private industry, and academia can work together more effectively by seizing new opportunities to jointly address many of the issues discussed in this report. The American marketplace is a dynamic forum in which producers have historically responded to consumer demand by providing an ever-growing array of products. It is clear that consumers are willing to try new kinds of foods, including highly processed or newly fabricated products that differ from traditional versions. As scientific evidence mounts implicating specific dietary components in the development of major diseases, the food industry must respond by providing new products that match current scientific knowledge. The committee hopes this report will aid both private and federal sources in meeting this challenge. DAVID 1~. CALL Chairman

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Acknowledgments A report of this magnitude represents the combined efforts of many individuals and organizations. The committee thanks all those inclivicluals who gave of their time and talents to contribute to this report, especially those who wrote papers includecT in the Appendix, testified, gave presentations, or wrote supporting documents for the study. The committee acknowledges Karen Bunch and her associates at the Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, for contributing to the analysis of food supply data and trends; Catherine Wotecki and her staff at the National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, for providing nutritional status anti health Vista; and Katsuto Ono, Anthony Kotula, and Brad Berry of the Meat Science Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. De- partment of Agriculture, for verifying meat composition data. Many inclividuals in private industry and academia contributed to the development of this report. Scientists in the animal science department at Texas A&M University deserve special thanks for their contributions, and the Food Marketing Institute and the National Live Stock & Meat Board are acknowledged for providing valuable data for the committee's analysis. The committee also thanks the Center for Science in the Public Interest for providing Michael [acobson's Nutrition wizard _ computer software program. The committee especially thanks Betty B. Peterkin, former associate administrator of the Human Nutrition Information Service (HNIS), U. S. Department of Agriculture, and her s ted members for their exceptional assistance in gathering ant! verifying data from the dietary and food supply surveys, and for providing aciclitional analysis of Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Inclivicluals data, cited as FINIS unpublishec! data, 1987, in the tables. . . vat

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Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY, 1 DATA SOURCES, KEY NUTRIENTS, AND SELECTION OF TARGETS FOR CHANGE ................................................... Sources of Data en c} Their Limitations, 9 Identification of Key Food Components, 12 Target Levels for Caloric Intake an(l Selecte(l Nutrients, 13 2 CURRENT TRENDS IN CONSUMPTION OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS . Nutrients in Animal Products an] Their Bioavailability, 18 Trencis in Individual Commodities, 30 3 TARGET LEVELS AND CURRENT DIETARY PATTERNS Calories, 45 Total Fat as Percentage of Calories, 47 Saturatecl, Monounsaturate], and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids as Percentage of Calories, 50 Cholesterol, 52 Calcium, 54 Iron, 57 4 CONSUMER CONCERNS AND ANIMAL PRODUCT OPTIONS .... Changing Consumer Attitudes an] Industry Responses, 63 Options in the Marketplace, 69 Using Animal Product Options to Meet Target Levels of Nutrients in the Diet, 88 IX 9 .... 18 45 .. 63

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x 5 POLICIES AFFECTING THE M ARKETPLACE Production Policies, 99 Gracles, 99 Labeling and Standards of Identity, 104 Point-of-Purchase Information, 106 Sources of Data, 108 Government's Role in Nutrition Education, 109 Integrated Research and Education Programs, 110 Regulations ant! Biotechnology, 111 Recommendations, Il2 CONTENTS 98 6 EXISTING TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH NEEDS Il5 The New! to Modify the Nutritional Attributes of Animal Products, 115 Current Status of Technology Management, 117 Assessing Current ant! Future Technologies, 118 Target Levels of Nutrients and Related Research Priorities, 118 Recommendations, 130 APPENDIX BIOLOGY OF GRO W TH Hormonal Regulation of Growth ........................ F. C. Leung, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories Muscle Cell Growth and Development .................................. Ronald E. Allen, University of Arizona The Role of Growth Hormone in Fat Mobilization ....................... H. Maurice Goodman, University of Massachusetts The Use of Bioassays to Detect and Isolate Protein or Peptide Factors Regulating Muscle Growth in Meat-Producing Animals ..... William R. Dayton, University of Minnesota H OPTIONAL REGULATION OF G RO W TH Effects of Beta-Adrenergic Agonists on Growth and Carcass Characteristics of Animals ............................................ .. 135 142 163 173 184 Larry A. Muir, AL Laboratories Anabolic Effects of Porcine Somatotropin on Pig Growth 194 Terry D. Etherton, Pennsylvania State University Immunization of Beef Cattle Against Somatostatin G. T. Scheduling and F. M. Byers, Texas A&M University Lactation Biology and Methods of Increasing Efficiency Ronald C. Gorewit, Cornell University Factors Affecting the Composition of Milk from Dairy Cows I. G. Linn, University of Minnesota 200 208 224

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CONTENTS ASSESSING BODY CO MPOSITION x Methodologies for Measuring Bocly Composition in Humans 242 Hwai-Ping Sheng, Baylor College of Medicine Utilization of Total Body Electrical Conductivity in Determining Body Composition R. A. Boileau, University of Illinois 251 Live Animal and Carcass Composition Measurement 258 David G. Topet, Auburn University, en c! Robert Kauffman, University of Wisconsin, Madison Altering Carcass Measurements and Composition of the Pig 273 V. C. Speer, Iowa State University PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OPTIONS TO ALTER COMPOSITION Processing Options for Improving the Nutritional Value of Animal Products Robert E. Rust, Iowa State University Integrated Nutrition, Genetics, anc] Growth Management Programs for Lean Beef Production F. M. Byers, H. R. Cross, and G. T. Schelling, Texas A&M University Processing Technologies for Improving the Nutritional Value of Dairy Products David H. Hettinga, Lanc] O'Lakes, Inc. Technological Options for Improving the Nutritional Value of Poultry Products Roy Gyles, University of Arkansas 278 283 292 Processing Options for Improving the Nutritional Value of Poultry Meat and Egg Products M. G. M ast and C. S. C7Iouser, Pennsylvania State University Policy Possible Impacts of Changes in USDA Grade Standards and Labeling/Identification Procedures ................................ G. C. S with, Texas A&M University The Role of Fat in the Palatability of Beef, Pork, and Lamb . . . l. W. Savell and H. R. Cross, Texas A&M University INDEX ...... 332 345 357

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Tables and Figures TABLES Summary of National Dietary Guidelines, 14 Selected Nutrients Provided by Animal Products, 1985 (in percent), 19 Contribution of Animal Products to Total Calories in the Diet Based on 3-Day Intake (in percent), 21 Percentage of Contribution of Essential Amino Acids from Animal Products to Total Essential Amino Acids in the U.S. Food Supply, 22 2-4 Sources of Food Energy in the U.S. Food Supply for Selected Years (in percent), 22 2-5 Contribution of Animal Products to Protein in the Diet Based on 3-Day Intake (in percent), 23 2-6 Calories from Protein and Fat (in percent), 24 2-7 Selected Fatty Acids in the U.S. Food Supply (in percent), 25 2-8 Fatty Acic} Composition of Selected Fats and Oils, Expressed as Percentage of Total Fatty Acids, 25 2-9 Contribution of Animal Products to Fat in the Diet Based on 3-Day Intake (in percent), 26 2-10 Contribution of Animal Products to Mean Intake of Fat and Percentage of Fat Based on 1-Day Intake, 27 2-11 Percentage of Fat, Fatty Acids, and Cholesterol in Diets of Women, Ages 1~50 Years Based on 1-Day Intake, 28 2-12 Estimated Percentage of Contribution of Fat, Saturated Fatty Acids, and Cholesterol by Animal Products in Diets of Women, Ages 1~50 Years, 29 2-13 Contribution of Animal Products to Selected Vitamins and Minerals in the Diet Based on 3-Day Intake (in percent), 30 2-14 Contribution of Animal Products to Iron in the Diet Based on 3-Day Intake (in percent), 31 x~

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TABLES AND FIGURES 2-15 Contribution of Animal Products to Calcium in the Diet Based on 3-Day Intake (in percent), 32 2-16 Per Capita Disappearance of Red Meat, Poultry, and Fish by Edible Weight (in pounds), 33 2-17 Meat, Poultry, and Fish: Trends in Consumption and Mean Intake, 35 2-18 Estimated Average Daily Consumption of Cooked Red Meats in the U.S. Diet, 1984, 36 2-19 Nutrient Contribution of Total Cooked Red Meat Ingestion by Consumption Level in the U.S. Diet, 1984, 36 2-20 Per Capita Trends for Selected Milk, Milk Products, and Eggs, 37 2-21 Intake of Eggs, 39 2-22 Milk, Milk Products, Eggs, Fats, and Oils: Trends in Consumption and Mean Intake, 40 2-23 Per Capita Disappearance of Separated Fats and Oils (edible weight in pounds), 41 3-1 Obese Individuals, 197~1980 (in percent), 46 3-2 Percentage of Low-Income Children Screened with Weight-for-Height Above the 95th Percentile, 31 States, United States, 1984, 46 3-3 Distribution (Percent) of Individuals by Percentage of Calories from Fat and Reductions Needed to Meet Target Level, 49 3-4 Distribution (Percent) of Women and Children by Percentage of Calories from Fat and Reductions Needed to Meet Target Level, 49 3-5 Calories from Fat and Fatty Acids, 1985 (in percent), 51 3-6 Distribution (Percent) of Women and Children by Percentage of Calories from Saturated Fatty Acids and Reductions Neecled to Meet Target Level, 52 3-7 Distribution (Percent) of Women and Children by Percentage of Calories from Monounsaturated Fatty Acids and Reductions Needed to Meet Target Level, 53 3-8 Distribution (Percent) of Women and Children by Percentage of Calories from Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Reductions Needed to Meet Target Level, 54 3-9 Mean Daily Cholesterol Intakes in Relation to Target Level, 54 3-10 Mean Daily Cholesterol ant! Calorie Intakes, 1985, 55 3-11 Distribution (Percent) of Women and Children by Cholesterol Intakes and Reduction Neecled to Meet Target Level, 55 3-12 Distribution (Percent) of Individuals by Calcium Intakes and Increases (as a percentage of RDA) Needed to Meet Target Level, 56 3-13 Mean Daily Dietary Calcium Intakes for Individuals, 56 3-14 Use of Vitamin and Mineral Supplements, 57 3-15 Prevalence of Impaired Iron Status, 197~1980, 58 3-16 Percentage of Low-Income Children Screened with Hematocrit Values Below the 5th Percentile, 31 States, United States, 1984, 59 3-17 Distribution (Percent) of Individuals by Iron Intakes and Increases (as a percentage of RDA) Neecled to Meet Target Level, 60 3-18 Mean Daily Iron Intakes for Individuals, 60 . . . x'~' 4-1 Eating Occasions per Day (in percent), 68 4-2 Nutritional Composition of Selected Milk, Milk Products, and Eggs (in a 100 g, edible portion), 70 4-3 Nutritional Composition of Traditional and Selected Newly Formulated Milk and Milk Products (100 g, edible portion), 74

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xtv TABLES AND FIGURES 4-4 Nutritional Composition of Beef (100 g, separable lean only, edible portion), 76 4-5 Distribution of Barrow and Gilt Carcasses (in percent) Among Cutability Grades for Selected Years Using 1968 USDA Grading Standards, 80 4-6 Comparison of Nutrient Composition Between 1963 and 1983 Market Hogs, 81 4-7 Nutritional Composition of Pork (100 g, separable lean only, edible portion), 82 4-8 Nutritional Composition of Cooked Lamb (100 g, separable lean only, edible portion), 83 4-9 Nutritional Composition of Cooked Veal (100 g, separable lean only, edible portion), 84 4-10 Nutritional Composition of Poultry (100 g, edible portion), 85 4-11 Nutritional Composition of Fish (100 g, separable lean only, edible portion), 87 4-12 Nutritional Composition of Selected Calorie- and Portion-Controllec! Frozen Entrees (100 g), 90 Application of Animal Product Options to Meet Target Levels of Nutrients for Women, Ages 2~50, 92 Portion Changes in Traditional and Modified Diets for Women, Ages 2~50, 93 Application of Animal Product Options to Meet Target Levels of Nutrients for Men, Ages 51 and Older, 94 4-16 Portion Changes in Traditional and Modified Diets for Men, Ages 51 ant! Older, 95 FIGURES 4-1 2-1 Selected nutrients provicled by animal products (in percent), 20 2-2 Fat from animal versus vegetable sources in the U.S. food supply for selected years (in percent), 24 2-3 Total fat content of the food supply, 1985, 42 Winslow of acceptability for fat content of meat (palatability versus grams of fat, two servings), 79 Schematic of interactions among animal, food, en c] human dimensions affecting human health, 116 The S-curve of technical progress versus effort, 117 A hypothetical S-curve for broiler chicken growth performance, 118

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DESIGNING FOODS

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