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Current Trends in Consumption of Animal Products NUTRIENTS IN ANIMAL PRODUCTS AND THEIR BIOAVAILABILITY Data on the nutrient content of the food supply provide information about the con- tribution of various food groups to nutrients available for consumption. This series is computed and reporter] by the U.S. De- partment of Agriculture (USDA). It is de- signecl to study trends in the levels of nutrients since the early part of the century and changes in food sources of these nu- trients. The data have the same limitations as the food supply data in that they are not adjuster] for spoilage, trimming, waste, or cooking loss. They measure the nutrients available for consumption by the population rather than nutrient intake. Except for a few processed fruits and vegetables, nu- trient values are based on raw food values. The nutrients consumed represent only a fraction ofthose present in the food supply. Numerous factors, including metabolic, physiological, and nutritional parameters, all influence the absorption, digestion, and ultimate utilization of nutrients within a food. The bioavailabflity of a nutrient may not be equivalent in all food sources due to 18 the nutrient s altered chemical state or to associated factors within the food or within the meal that cause the nutrient to be in a more available or less available form. For instance, in dairy products, calcium is pres- ent with lactose, a carbohydrate that en- hances calcium s absorption. Some vegeta- ble sources such as spinach also contain considerable amounts of calcium, but the presence of oxalates, which bind calcium as insoluble salts, prevents much of its absorp- tion. Animal products contribute significantly to the total nutrients in the foot! supply (Table ~1 and Figure 2-1~. They are a primary source of vitamins B12 and Be, riboflavin, niacin, zinc, phosphorus, and calcium and account for 68 percent of the protein available in the food supply. Calories Overall, animal products provide about 36 percent of the caloric content of the food supply while contributing more than a third of the iron, vitamin A, thiamine, and mag- nesium content; about half of the niacin, riboflavin, and vitamin Be content; more

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CURRENT TRENDS IN CONSUMPTION OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS TABLE 2-1 Selected Nutrients Provided by Animal Products, 1985 (in percent) Animal Product 19 Nutrient M ilk alla Milk Red ^~ Products Eggs Meata Poultry Shellfish Fats Total for Total from All Fish and Animal All Animal Foods (per Products (%) capita/day) Calories 10.0 1.6 15.5 3.5 0.9 4.2 35.63,560.0b Protein 20.9 4.2 27.6 11.2 4.6 0.0 68.5102.0 g Total fat 11.4 2.3 27.7 4.9 0.7 9.6 56.6172.0 g Saturated fatty acids 20.5 2.0 32.8 4.0 0.5 14.3 74.259.0 g Cholesterol 14.0 40.4 25.8 11.1 3.4 5.3 100.0480.0 trig Vitamins Niacin 1.6 0.1 27.3 14.3 5.3 0.0 48.626.() mg Riboflavin 34.6 4.5 16.3 4.9 1.1 0.1 61.49.4 mg Thiamine 8.8 1.4 23.5 1.8 0.6 0.0 36.12.2 Brag Vitamin A 9.6 1.9 12.5 4.3 0.3 1.9 30.59,900 IU Vitamin B6 11.0 2.0 25.6 10.3 3.7 0.0 52.82.1 nag Vitamin Be 20.0 6.3 51.5 8.4 12.1 0.0 98.38.8 lag M inerals Calcium 76.2 2.2 2.2 0.8 1.2 0.2 82.8920.0 nag Iron 2.4 4.0 23.1 4.7 1.5 0.0 35.718.3 nag Magnesium 20.0 1.3 9.0 3.8 2.1 0.0 36.3320.0 sing Zinc 19.8 4.1 36.2 8.1 3.3 0.1 71.512.3 mg NOTE: Values are based on disappearance of retail weight without correction for waste or other loss filch as nutrient losses during cooking. aRed meat is beef, veal, pork, and lamb. bThis figure may differ slightly from other published sources because of rounding. SOURCE: Human Nutrition Information Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, unpublished clata, 1987. The nutrient composition values for meats is not updated. A revision of procedures and data for estimating the nutrient contribution of meat is in progress. than 70 percent of the zinc content; more than 80 percent of the calcium content; and nearly 100 percent of the vitamin BY con- tent. Red meats account for the largest pro- portion of the calories (about 15 percent), followed by dairy products (10 percent), animal fats (4 percent), poultry (3.5 percent), eggs (1.6 percent), and fish and shellfish (0. 9 percent). From 1977 to 1985, the total calories available per capita in the food supply have increased by 7 percent, from 3,330 to 3,560. This parallels an increase in caloric intake indicated by dietary survey data from 1977 to 1985 for children ages 1 to 5 years of 8.3 percent, women ages 19 to 50 years of 5.6 percent, and men ages 19 to 50 years of 15 percent. In the 1977-1978 Nationwide Food Con sumption Survey (NFCS), animal products contributed an average of about 45 percent of total calories to the diets of all individuals, with dairy products accounting for about 14 percent; meat, poultry, and fish about 28 percent; and eggs 2.4 percent (Table 2- 2~. The meat, poultry, and fish group was the primary source of calories for adults, contributing 24 to 34 percent of total intake. Children of ages 3 to 14 years derived slightly fewer calories from this category (20 to 25 percent) and more from the dairy and grain products groups than did adults. It is possible that the fat, and therefore the calories, derived from meats, poultry, and fish is overstated in the NFCS analysis. In analyzing the dietary survey responses, if an individual did not specify whether he or she ate the separable fat on meat or the

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20 Nutrients Calorles Protein Total Fat Saturated Fatty Acids Cholesterol Vitamins A Thlamin Rlboflavin Nlacin B6 B12 Minerals Iron Calclum Zinc Magnesium DESIGNING FOODS 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percent FIGURE ~1 Selected nutrients provided by animal products (in per- cent). See also Table ~1. Source: Human Nutrition Information Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, unpublished data, 1987. (The nutrient composition values for meats are not updated. A revision of procedures and data for estimating the nutrient contribution of meat is in progress. ~ poultry skin, the methodology stipulated that it be assumed that all these components were eaten. The American Meat Institute study (Stanton, 1987) addresses this issue. Protein The protein from animal products (lifters in several respects from that from vegetable sources. First, animal products are richer than vegetable sources of the eight essential amino acids, those components of proteins that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be supplied in food. Animal products provide almost three-fourths of the eight essential amino acids in the food supply and contribute about 67 percent of the total protein, reflecting the greater concentration of these vital nutrients (Table 2~3) (Link- swiler, 1982). Few proteins from either animal or veg etabie sources are consumer! without some further processing, usually cooking. How this affects the bioavailability of the proteins for utilization by the body is important, particularly when estimating the amount of protein available in the foot! supply. Proper cooking facilitates digestion and utilization by partially breaking down the protein struc- ture. Excessive or prolonged heating, how- ever, may actually produce new chemical bonds, decreasing the cligestibility of the protein. An example is the clecreased phys- iological availability of lysine, tryptophan, ant! other amino acids in toasted cereal products (Love, 1982). Lysine, for example, under high heat, links with carbohydrate to form a bone! resistant to cleavage. Severe heating of animal proteins has also been shown to destroy cystine and result in re- duced digestibility and availability of amino acids (Cheftel, 1977~.

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CURRENT TRENDS IN CONSUMPTION OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS TABLE 2-2 Contribution of Animal Products to Total Calories in the Diet Based on 3-Day Intake (in percent) Animal Product 21 Number Milk Red Meat, of Survey and Milk Poultry, Group and AgeParticipants Products Eggs and Fisha Totalb Children <1421 57.2 1.0 6.7 64.9 1-21,035 24.9 2.9 20.3 48.1 ~51,719 20.1 2.3 21.4 43.8 6 81,841 20.3 1.6 22.1 44.0 Females ~111,011 19.4 1.6 22.7 43.7 12-141,148 17.9 1.6 24.8 44.3 1~181,473 15.7 1.7 27.5 44.9 1~221,317 13.0 2.4 29.4 44.8 23 343,879 11.9 2.4 30.3 44.6 3~503,759 10.2 2.9 32.2 45.3 51 642,936 10.9 2.7 31.0 44.6 6~741,376 12.3 2.7 28.4 43.4 75+751 14.1 2.7 25.2 42.0 Males ~11939 18.9 1.7 23.9 44.5 12-141,150 18.4 1.7 24.6 44.7 1~181,394 16.7 2.1 27.6 46.4 1~221,030 12.6 2.3 32.0 46.9 23 342,716 11.0 2.5 31.8 45.3 35 502,571 9.6 2.9 33.5 46.0 51 642,161 10.6 3.0 32.5 46.1 6~741,049 11.7 3.2 29.3 44.2 75+465 12.1 3.9 28.0 44.0 Total36,142 14.3 2.4 28.4 45.1 NOTE: Food groups include mixtures with main ingredient from the group; therefore, calories from some vegetable sources in such mixtures are included. Calories from small amounts of animal sources in mainly vegetable mixtures are excluded. a Red meat is beef, veal, pork, and lamb. bThe total is for the three groups of animal products shown. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1984. P. 64 in Nutrient Intakes: Individuals in 48 States, Year 1977-78. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey 1977-78. Report I-2, Human Nutrition Information Service. Hyattsville, Md.: U. S. Department of Agriculture. From the food supply data, about 102 grams of protein are available per capita, with 68.5 percent derived from animal prod- ucts. Of this amount, red meat contributes the largest percent (27.6), followed by dairy products (20.9) and poultry (11.2), with the fish/shellfish and egg groups contributing about 4.6 and 4.2 percent, respectively. The trend in the percentage of calories from protein, fat, and carbohydrate in the food supply from 1957 to 1984 is evident in Table 2 4. In line with the per capita disappearance data, animal products contributed about 70 percent of the protein in the 1977-1978 NFCS (Table 2-5). The red meat, poultry, and fish group was the largest source of protein, contributing 40 to 56 percent of

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22 TABLE 2-3 Percentage of Contribution of Essential Amino Acids from Animal Products to Total Essential Amino Acids in the U.S. Foo(l Supply Amino Acid Amino Acids from Animal Protein (% total) Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Phenylalanine Threonine Total sulfur-conta~ning Tryptophan Valine 74.2 72.8 83.6 66.7 75.4 74.9 71.5 73.7 SOURCE: Adapted from H. M. Linkswiler. 1982. Importance of animal protein in human nutrition. P. 270 in Animal Products in Human Nutrition, D. C. Beitz, and R. G. Hansen, eds. New York: Academic Press. the protein in the diets of adults and 35 to 39 percent of the protein in children's diets. Eggs accounted for roughly 3 to 5 percent of the total protein in the diets of most age and sex groups, except for elderly males, who cierivec] 6 percent of their daily protein from eggs. Table 2-6 compares NFCS and Continuing Survey of Foot] Intake by In- divicluals (CSFII) data in terms of the per- centage of calories from protein and fat. Fat, Saturated Fatty Acids, and Cholesterol Although animal products are important sources of many nutrients, they are also a significant source of fat. On a raw basis, animal products account for 57 percent of the fat available for consumption (Table 2- 14. However, the data based on nutrients in raw food may overstate the tat eaten as part of meat products because meats lose substantial amounts of fat during cooking. This is not true for foods like milk and milk products or grains. Waste is also an impor- tant consideration when trying to determine foot! sources of fat. For example, all the separable fat on meat may not be consumed. DESIGNING FOODS TABLE 2-4 Sources of Food Energy in the U.S. Food Supply for Selected Years (in percent) Source 1957 - 1959 1967-1969 1984 Protein 12 Fat 41 Carbohydrate 47 12 43 45 46 SOURCE: Adapted from N. R. Raper and R. M. Marston. 1986. Levels and sources of fat in the U.S. food supply. P. 131 in Dietary Fat and Cancer, C. Ip, D. F. Birt, A. E. Rogers, and C. Mettlin, eds. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc. ~. ~, . ~ L)ata from the tood supply indicate that the contribution of fat from animal sources has been decreasing, while that from veg- etable sources has been increasing (Figure 2-2~. Changes in the level and sources of fat in the food supply have also affected the fatty acid content. Table 2-7 presents trend data on the percentage of saturated fatty acids and two unsaturated fatty acids (oleic and linoleic) in the foot] supply. Knowledge of the fatty acid composition of dietary fats (visible/invisible) is important because different fatty acids, both saturated and unsaturated, exert different metabolic or physiological effects. Also, in some in- stances the effects of certain component fatty acids are not known. Except for milk fat (butterfat), most ani- mal fats contain palmitic and stearic acids as the major saturates] fatty acids. In addi- tion, milk fat contains significant amounts of short-chain (C4, C6) and medium-chain (C8, CIO, Cal) fatty acids (Table 2-8~. (The nomenclature used to describe a fatty acid includes carbon chain length and numbers of double bonds, if present. For example, an 18-carbon fatty acid with one double bond would be written as Cog i; an 18-carbon fatty acid] without double bonds, that is, completely saturated, would be written as Cage.) Current evidence indicates that clif- ferent dietary saturated fatty acids may have different physiological effects. For example, stearic acid (Cur) has negligible effects on serum cholesterol levels as compared to

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CURRENT TRENDS IN CONSUMPTION OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS TABLE 2-5 Contribution of Animal Products to Protein in the Diet Based on 3-Day Intake (in percent) Animal Product 23 Number Milk Red Meat, of Survey and Milk Poultry, Group and AgeParticipants Products Eggs find Fish'i Totali' Children <1421 62.9 1.6 13.0 77.5 1-21,035 32.7 4.5 34.9 72.1 ~51,719 26.9 3.7 38.0 68.6 6 81,841 26.7 2.6 39.4 68.7 Females ~111,011 25.0 2.6 40.2 67.8 12-141,148 22.4 2.5 43.9 68.8 1~181,473 19.9 2.8 48.2 70.9 1~221,317 16.4 3.7 50.7 70.S 2~343,879 15.4 3.7 52.0 71.1 3~503,759 12.9 4.3 54.1 71.3 51~42,936 13.9 4.2 52.6 7().7 6~741,376 15.8 4.3 48.9 69.0 75+751 18.2 4.4 45.0 67.6 Males ~11939 24.0 2.7 42.0 68.7 12-141,150 23.2 2.7 42.8 68.7 1~181,394 20.9 3.2 46.6 70.7 1~221,030 15.7 3.6 52.9 72.2 2~342,716 13.8 3.9 53.7 71.4 3~502,571 11.5 4.4 55.7 71.6 51 642,161 12.8 4.6 54.6 72.0 6~741,049 14.8 5.2 50.1 70.1 75+465 15.2 6.3 47.6 69.1 Total36,142 18.1 3.8 48.7 70.6 NOTE: Food groups include mixtures with main ingredient from the group; therefore, protein frown some vegetable sources in such mixtures is included. Protein from small amounts of animal sources in mainly vegetable mixtures is excluded. aRed meat is beef, veal, pork, and lamb. bThe total is for the three groups of animal products shown. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1984. P. 70 in Nutrient Intakes: Individuals in 48 States? Year 1977-78. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey 1977-78. Report I-2, Human Nutrition Information Service. Hyattsville, Md.: U. S. Department of Agriculture. paimitic acid (C160) (Hegsted et al., 1965; Keys et al., 1965~. Furthermore, the met- abolic effects of the short- and medium- chain fatty acids of milk fat have not been determined, and it is questionable whether they should be grouped (for nutritional considerations) with the saturated fatty acids with known hyperlipidemic effects, such as palmitic acid. Oleic acid (Cat if, a major fatty acid com- ponent of animal fats, has hypocholestero- lemic (cholesterol-lowering) effects (Grundy, 1986), and therefore in moderate amounts is not considered to be an undesirable dietary fatty acid. All animal fats contain polyunsaturated fatty acids, usually in rel- atively small amounts (Table 2-8~. The com- mon tendency to broadly categorize all an

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24 TABLE 2-6 Calories from Protein and Fat (in percent) Group and Age Protein 1977 1985 Fat 1977 1985 Children (1-5) Females (1~50) Males (1~50) 15.7 17.1 16.5 15.7 16.1 15.9 37.6 40.8 41.3 34.3 36.6 36.4 SOURCES: Adapted from U.S. Department of Ag- riculture 1985. P. 48 in Women 1~50 Years and Their Children 1-5 Years, 1 Day, 1985. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, Report 85-1, Human Nutrition Information Service. Hyattsville, Md.: U.S. Depart- ment of Agriculture. U. S. Department of Agriculture. 1986. P. 46 in Men 1~50 Years, 1 Day, 1985. Nation- wide Food Consumption Survey, Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Report 85-3, Human Nutrition Information Service. Hyattsville, Md.: U.S. Department of Agriculture. See these reports for information on changes in methods and data bases that may affect differences in results between 1977 and 1985. imal fats as high in saturated fatty acids is inaccurate; animal fats are made up of a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, as shown in Table ~8. The potential 100 cat DESIGNING FOODS physiological effects of animal fats containing significant amounts of stearic ACTS 0), oleic (Cal if, short-chain fatty acids, or all three need to be evaluated. Contrary to popular opinion, vegetable oils rank as one of the primary sources of saturates] fatty acids in the food supply. As shown in Table 2-8, vegetable oils such as coconut, palm, and palm kerned oils are as much or more saturated than most animal fats, and considerable amounts are used in commercial baking and as frying fats. Other vegetable oils contain a smaller percentage of saturated fatty acids, but contribute sub- stantially to the total because of the volume in which they are consumed. Data on the contribution of animal procl- ucts to total dietary fat from the 1977-1978 NFCS are presented in Table ~9. Dietary levels of fat averaged 41 percent of total calories for the survey population. More than 63 percent of the total fat was derived from three groups of animal products: 42 percent from reel meats, poultry, and fish; 17 percent from milk ant! milk products; and 4 percent from eggs. o Animal 70 ~ Vegetable ~- 1957 - 1959 1967 - 1969 1984 FIGURE ~2 Fat from animal versus vegetable sources in the U. S. food supply for selected years (in percent). Source: Data from N. R. Raper, and R. M. Marston. 1986. Levels and sources of fat in the U.S. food supply. Pp. 127-152 in Dietary Fat and Cancer, C. Ip, D. F. Birt, A. E. Rogers, and C. Mettlin, eds. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc.

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CURRENT TRENDS IN CONSUMPTION OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS TABLE 2-7 Selected Fatty Acids in the U. S. Food Supply (in percent) 25 Year Fatty Acid 190~1913 19_~1929 193.~1939 1947-1949 1957-1959 1967-1969 1975 1980 1984 Saturated 42 42 42 4() 40 37 35 34 35 Oleic 37 38 37 :38 :38 363 39 38 38 Linoleic 7 8 9 10 11 13 15 16 15 SOURCE: Adapted front N. R. Raper gild R. M. Slar.stoll. 19`ci~] l,`wels clll~l s<:lllces elf lilt in this U.S. food supply. P. 142 in Dietary Fat anal Cancer, C. Ip D. F. Birt? A. E. Rogers, a~! C. Mottling ads. New York: Algal R. Liss, Inc. TABLE 2-8 Fatty Acid Composition of Selected Fats awl Oils, Expressed as Percentage of Total Fatty Acids Fatts: Acrid Saturated Mollolllls;3t~lr;~ted Fat or Oil 'C1()() C12(), Cal) C 16() (~I`:() CCl(:l. Clan Polvullsatlll ated Other C 1S 2, (, 18::3 Coconut oil 14.0 74.5 2.5 6.5 1.5 0.1 Palm kernel oil S. 2 73.6 2. -I 13. ~2.0 0. 1 Butter oil 9.2 47.() 1_.5 3().1 3.4 Palm oil - 46.5 i. ~38.9 9.4 ().5 Beef fat 0.1 28.9 _1.6 42.1 2.8 4.6 Lard (pork) 0.1 26.4 12.3 48.2 ().() 3.() Chicken fat 24.7 6.4 48.1 0.2 ().6 Duck fat 23.4 5.5 47.() 5.5 Mutton fat 0.2 29.1 24.5 35.8 5.3 5.1 Cocoa butter 2.5.9 :34.5 35.6 2.9 1.1 Corn oil 12.2 2.2 77.6 3.7 Olive oil 13.7 2.5 72.3 1.5 Rapeseed oil 3.9 1.9 64.3 9.9 Sunflower seed oil 7.5 4.7 18.7 9.1 Soybean oil 11.1 4.0 23.5 1.4 Egg yolk 26.1 9.9 49.9 4.7 Salmon oil 15.1 3.S 42.5 X.6 Cod liver oil 3.2 3.7 34.6 7.3 1.2 Herring oil 8.0 1.4 35.2 2.4 3.0 NOTE: Fats and oils are listed frown most to least saturated. The numbers ifs the column headings indicate the length of the carbon chain of individual fatty acids gild the umber of double bonds. For example, a 10-carbon- chain fatty acid without double bonds is expressed as C~`,~,. SOURCES: Adapted front Durkee's Typical Col~positiol~s Slid Chemical Constants of Common Edible Fats and Oils. 1970. Cleveland, Ohio: SCM Corp. C. LellteI? ed. 1981. P. 264 ill Ceil Scientific Tables, 8th rev. ea., Vol. 1. Basel, Switzerland: CIBA-GEIGY Corp. In the 1977-1978 NFCS, red meats pro- vided the major source of fat (32 to 49 percent) in the diets of all age groups other than infants. The contribution of red meat, poultry, and fish to total fat was highest for men and women ages 35 to 50. However, males ages 15 to 18 derived a smaller proportion of fat from the red meat group and a greater proportion from milk and milk products than did adult males. These young males had the highest fat intake of any group. Grains, milk, and milk products contributed roughly comparable amounts of fat to the diets of adults (11 to 15 percent). These food groups were greater sources of fat for children and teenagers than for adults.

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26 DESIGNING FOODS TABLE 2-9 Contribution of Animal Products to Fat in the Diet Based on 3-Day Intake (in percent) Animal Product Number Milk Red Meat, of Survey and Milk Poultry, Group and AgeParticipants Products Eggs and Fisha Toted Children <1421 69.5 2.0 10.3 81.8 1-21,035 30.1 5.1 32.2 67.4 ~51,719 24.4 4.0 34.3 62.7 6 81,841 24.2 2.8 34.8 61.8 Females ~111,011 23.0 2.8 35.6 61.4 1~141,148 21.0 2.7 38.0 61.7 1~181,473 18.3 3.0 41.1 62.4 1~221,317 15.3 4.0 43.5 62.8 23 343,879 14.1 4.0 44.1 62.2 3~503,759 11.8 4.6 46.7 63.1 51 642,936 12.8 4.5 45.3 62.6 6~741,376 14.7 4.6 43.1 62.4 75+751 17.4 4.7 38.9 61.0 Males ~11939 22.2 2.9 36.8 61.9 1~141,150 21.4 2.9 37.6 61.9 1~181,394 19.1 3.4 41.3 63.8 1~221,030 14.9 3.8 47.0 65.7 2~342,716 13.1 4.0 46.7 63.8 3~502,571 11.1 4.6 48.8 64.5 51~42,161 12.4 4.7 47.3 64.4 6~741,049 14.0 5.3 44.1 63.4 75+465 15.0 6.2 42.7 63.9 Total36,142 16.9 4.0 42.4 63.3 NOTE: Food groups include mixtures with main ingredient from the group; therefore, fat from some vegetable sources in such mixtures is included. Fat from small amounts of animal sources in mainly vegetable mixtures is excluded. aRed meat is beef, veal, pork, and lamb. bThe total is for the three groups of animal products shown. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1984. P. 76 in Nutrient Intakes: Individuals in 48 States, Year 1977-78. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey 1977-78. Report I-2, Human Nutrition Information Service. Hyattsville, Md.: U. S. Department of Agriculture. Within the meats group, beef was the primary source of fat for most age and sex groups, particularly adult males (Table 2- 10~. Males ages 19 to 50 derived 17 percent of their dietary fat from beef, compared with 15.2 percent for females of the same age. Poultry was a slightly more important source of fat for women than for men. Pork contributed proportionately more to fat in take for children ages 1 to 5 than for other ages. This age group consumed a greater proportion of its meat in the form of proc- essecl pork, in particular, frankfurters and bologna (Pao et al., 1982~. Table 2-11 summarizes 1985 CSFII data on the fat and cholesterol in women's diets. The reel meat, poultry, en cl fish group (in- cluding mixtures) was the primary source

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CURRENT TRENDS IN CONSUMPTION OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS offal, fatty acids, and cholesterol in women's diets, with red meat providing about half of these components. Red meat was the most significant source of cholesterol, although the contribution Poultry was only slightly less than that of beef or other red meats. Shell eggs accounted for only 29 percent of total cholesterol intake because most eggs are consumed as ingredients in other foods, so that the cholesterol originating from eggs is distributed among other food groups such as grain products. The USDA is developing an automated system for classifying ingredients of mix 27 tures reported in its surveys into appropriate groups. For example, the beef and vegeta- bles in beef stew now classified as a mixture will be moved to the beef and vegetable groups. This classification system will be used to supplement the system now used, not replace it. The partly completed system was used to determine the proportion of fat and cholesterol in the 4-day diets of women surveyed in 1985. Commercially prepared bakery products such as bread, doughnuts, and snacks have not yet been separated into ingredients and some ingredients are in raw form. TABLE 2-10 Contribution of Animal Products to Mean Intake of Fat and Percentage of Fat Based on 1-Day Intake Animal Product Total Fat Milk Total Red Meat, Lamb, Intake arid Milk Poultry, Fish, Veal, and Group and Age (g/day) Products Eggs and Mixturesa Beef Pork Game Poultry (,hildre~l <1 30.4 67.9 2.4 12.9 3.0 1.6 0.7 1.5 1-2 48.9 30.3 5.5 29.9 8.5 10.5 0.1 4.7 3-5 61.0 24.5 5.1 32.9 9.7 10.3 0.04 4.7 6-8 72.4 24.3 3.2 34.7 11.3 11.2 0.2 4.4 Females ~11 79.1 21.8 2.6 35.4 11.8 10.8 0.1 5.1 12-14 85.3 21.3 3.3 36.6 12.6 10.7 0.2 4.4 15-18 80.5 18.5 3.1 38.1 13.0 9.7 0.8 5.4 1~22 75.9 17.1 4.8 42.2 14.3 13.0 0.3 5.2 2~34 73.7 15.1 4.8 42.3 14.3 11.7 0.3 5.3 35-50 70.8 12.2 4.3 45.4 16.5 11.9 0.6 5.4 51-64 71.2 12.3 4.7 43.9 16.3 11.4 0.7 5.6 6.474 65.8 15.6 4.2 39.8 11.9 13.1 0.9 6.2 75+ 59.0 19.8 4.4 36.6 12.5 11.4 0.8 4.7 Males 9-11 87.6 21.9 4.0 36.4 12.3 10.6 0.7 4.3 12-14 105.5 19.9 4.1 37.6 12.5 11.1 0.02 3.6 15-18 123.3 18.2 3.7 41.7 16.4 11.1 0.1 4.2 19-22 118.4 16.0 3.7 44.4 17.8 11.2 0.2 5.8 2~34 114.8 13.1 4.1 44.7 16.8 12.6 0.2 4.1 3.~50 109.3 12.2 5.2 46.8 16.8 12.8 0.2 4.5 51-64 101.6 12.0 4.8 46.3 16.0 14.6 0.5 4.7 65-74 92.8 13.9 5.5 42.2 15.0 13.6 0.4 4.8 75 + 86.2 15.2 6.2 42.7 13.0 18.3 1.1 5.7 aRed meat is beef, veal, pork, and lamb. SOURCE: Adapted from R. L. Ri7.ek and E:. M. Jackson. 1982. Current food consumption practices and nutrient sources ifs the American diet. Pp. 150-151 in Animal Products in Human Nutrition, D. C. Belt% and R. G. Hansen, eds. New York: Academic Press.

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28 DESIGNING FOODS TABLE 2-11 Percentage of Fat, Fatty Acids, and Cholesterol in Diets of Women, Ages 19-50 Years Based on 1-Day Intake Saturated Food Sourcea Total Fat Fatty Acids Cholesterol Milk and milk products 14.4 24.8 11.8 Eggs (as shell eggs) 3.8 3.0 29.2 Meat, poultry, and fish 32.2 31.3 37.7 Total red meaty 16.6 17.6 15.7 Beef 7.6 8.6 8.0 Poultry 3.6 2.7 6.1 Fish 1.7 1.2 3.7 Mixtures 10.3 9.7 12.3 Total animals 50.4 59.1 78.7 Fats and oils 12.8 9.4 2.4 Fruits and vegetables 9.3 7.6 2.5 Grain products 22.2 19.6 16.0 Legumes, nuts, and seeds 3.4 1.8 0.3 Miscellaneous 2.0 2.6 0.2 aFood groups include mixtures with main ingredient from the group; therefore, lipids from some vegetable sources in such mixtures are included. Lipids from small amounts of animal sources in mainiv veQ.~ahle mixt~'r`?c are excluded. bRed meat is beef, veal, pork, and lamb. In this case, the category also includes organ meats and processed meats. CThe total is for the three groups shown. Includes butter and other animal fats and oils in table fats and salad dressings. SOURCES: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1985. Women 19 50 Years and Their Children 1~ Years, 1 Day, 1985. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Report 85-1, Human Nutrition Information Service. Hyattsville, Md.: U.S. Department of Agriculture. Human Nutrition Information Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, unpublished data, 1987. O ~_, _ Preliminary results suggest that the red meat, poultry, and fish category provided about one-fourth of the fat and more than one-third of the cholesterol. Fresh, unpro- cessed red meat provided almost one-fifth of the total fat and cholesterol. Eggs pro- vided more than 40 percent of the choles- terol. Fats and oils provided about one- tenth of the fat, one-tenth of saturated fatty acids, and only 5 percent of the cholesterol, all of which was from animal sources. This information is summarized in Table 2-12. Vitamins Animal products contribute between 33 and 100 percent of avaflable quantities of specific vitamins in the food supply. They are good sources of most of the B vitamins, particularly riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, ant vitamin BE In the 1977-1978 NFCS, milk and milk products contributed 14 percent of calories but larger proportions of several nutrients. They were the primary source of riboflavin and vitamin B,2 in the diet, contributing an average of nearly 30 percent. Milk and milk products also contributed over 16 percent of vitamin A and smaller percentages of other vitamins. Eggs contributed over 4 percent of vitamin A and riboflavin. Table ~13 summarizes the contribution of animal products to the vitamin content of the diet, using data from the 1977-1978 NFCS. The category of red meat, poultry, and fish is the major source ofthe preformed niacin (44.3 percent), vitamin B6 (39.9 per- cent), riboflavin (24.2 percent), thiamine

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34 basis. The 185 pouncis of red meat, poultry, and fish available per capita in 1985 trans- lates to roughly 8.1 ounces per day, raw weight. The USDA estimates that cooking losses for meat, poultry, and fish range from 15 to 30 percent, depencling on the type of commodity and the method of preparation (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 19751. Using this adjustment for the conversion of the data indicates that roughly 5.7 to 7.0 ounces of cooked, edible rec! meat, poultry, and fish were available from the food supply per person per day in 1985. Spoilage, plate waste, and trimming during preparation further reduced the amount actually in- gested. Also, this estimate floes not take into account differences in intake by age ant] sex groups or variations that occur in daily intake. Dietary Survey Data In general, the dietary survey data reflect the decline in red meat consumption indi- cated by the foot] supply data (Table 2-171. Comparison of data from the 1977-1978 NFCS and the 1985 CSFII indicates that the average daily intake of beef by women ages 19 to 50 decliner] by 45 percent com- pared with 22 percent for pork and 19 percent for processed meats. In contrast to the food supply data, the survey of women's diets inclicatec] a 14 percent clecTine in chicken intake. Comparison of data from the 1977-1978 NFCS and 1985 CSFII in- dicate that the intake of fish increaser! 18 percent. Despite significant declines in the intake of red meat by women between 1977 and 1985, intake of the total re(l meat, poultry, ant] fish category cleclined only slightly. Mixtures accounted for half of the total intake of the rec] meat, poultry, and fish category in 1985, compared with one-thir(l in 1977. The shift to mixtures signifies that meats are being user! more as an ingredient in meals and less as a separate menu item. The 1985 CSFII data indicate that changes 1 DESIGNING FOODS in men's intake of meat were similar to those for women. Mixtures that may have in- clucled foods other than meats (such as grains) accounted for two-thirds of the total intake of red meat, poultry, and fish. National Live Stock ~ Meat Board Study The National Live Stock & Meat Board study, "Contribution of Red Meat to the U.S. Diet" (Breiclenstein ant] Williams, 1987), estimated meat intake using per capita (lis- appearance data and private survey data (Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., 1985~. The private survey segmented the popula- tion into different user levels (light, mod- erate, or heavy) on the basis of telephone interviews of 1,211 inclivicluals identified as the primary food shopper for the household. This analysis differs from recall data from dietary surveys in that estimates for "in- gested" and "available" red meats are rec- oncilec! numerically. The surveyors esti- mated that dally per capita cooked rec] meat intake for light users was 41.4 grams (1.45 ounces); for moderate users, 117 grams (4.14 ounces); and for heavy users, 216.31 grams (7.66 ounces). The estimated breakdown by different types of meat is given in Table 2- 18. The nutrient contribution of rec] meat by use level is summarized in Table 2-19. The committee believes that the data pro- vide a useful analysis of reel meat consump- tion in the Unitec] States. Milk, Milk Products, and Eggs Food Supply Data (1965-1985) Historically, milk and milk products have been an important part of the U.S. diet. But as for real meats, trencis for individual milk and milk products differ greatly (Table 2-20~: low-fat milk, yogurt, and hard cheese have increase<] the most of all products in this category from 196S to 1985, whereas

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CURRENT TRENDS IN CONSUMPTION OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS TABLE 2-17 Meat, Poultry, and Fish: Trends in Consumption and Mean Intake Number of Survey Participants Mean Intake (g/day) 35 Percent Consuming Group and Food19771985 1977 1985 1977 1985 Children, 1-5690548 Beef 21 14 29.1 17.5 Pork 7 7 20.5 16.2 Lamb, veal, and dance Z. 1 0.3 1.4 Organ meats l' b 0.7 0.3 Frankfurters, sausages, and luncheon meats 15 12 33.1 28.2 Chicken 17 16 17.0 19.6 Fish and shellfish 5 5 7.0 8.1 Mixturesa 45 45 34.7 32.0 Fences, 19-502,2281,503 Beef 49 27 34.9 23.1 Pork 18 14 24.0 20.5 Lamb, veal, and game 1 1 1.3 1.0 Organ meats 1 1 0.9 1.0 Frankfurters, sausages, and luncheon meats 16 13 25.1 24.6 Chicken 22 19 16.1 16.8 Fish and shellfish 11 13 9.8 11.5 Mixturesa 65 88 33.2 37.1 Males, 19-501,7781,134 Beef 80 52 42.0 28.3 Pork 28 26 28.2 25.3 Lamb, veal, and game 3 1 1.9 0.5 Organ meats 2 1 1.4 0.4 Frankfurters, sausages, and luncheon meats 32 27 35.7 31.4 Chicken 28 23 14.0 13.3 Fish and shellfish 14 21 8.5 11.4 Mixturesa 105 110 39.0 39.7 aMixtures are mainly meat, poultry, or fish. bValues are less than 0.5 but more than 0.0. SOURCES: Adapted from U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1985. Pp. 10 and 12 in Women 1~50 Years and Their Children 1-5 Years, 1 Day, 1985. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Report 85-1, Human Nutrition Information Service. Hyattsville, Md.: U.S. Department of Agriculture. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1986. Pp. ~9 in Men 1~50 Years, 1 Day, 1985. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Report 85-3, Human Nutrition Information Service. Hyattsville, Md.: U.S. Department of Agriculture. See these reports for information on changes in methods and data bases that may affect differences in results between 1977 and 1985. whole and processed milk (condensed and evaporated) have shown the largest decrease during the same period. Whole, low-fat, skim and flavored milks and buttermilk currently constitute nearly three-fourths of the milk and milk products group on a product weight basis. In 1985 per capita sales of fluid whole milk was at about half the level it was in 1965 (116.5 pounds versus 236.5 pounds). In contrast, per capita sales of low-fat milk increased more than 680 percent (luring this same period, from 10.9 pounds in 1965 to 85.0 pounds in 1985. This dramatic shift from

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TABLE 2-18 Estimates] Average Daily Consumption of Cooked Red Meats in the U.S. Diet, 1984 Consumption Level Light Moderate Heavy _ Red Meat Grams Ounces Grams Ounces Grams Ounces Beef 16.31 0.57 42.16 1.49 67.44 2.38 Ground beef 7.89 0.28 17.50 0.62 30.14 1.06 Pork 2.80 0.10 11.17 0.39 21.99 0.78 Lamb 0.32 0.01 0.62 0.02 1.23 0.04 Veal 0.63 0.02 1.22 0.04 2.41 0.09 Processed meat 13.18 0.47 44.33 1.56 93.11 2.38 Total red meat ingested 41.14 1.45 117.00 4.14 216.31 7.66 NOTE: The values are reconciled from data on total amounts of red meat available for consumption in the United States. (The values are corrected for cooking losses and for amounts of trimmable fat discarded by consumers, assuming that no meat spoiled.) SOURCE: Adapted from B. C. Breidenstein and J. C. Williams. 1987. Contribution of Red Meat to the U.S. Diet. Chicago, Ill.: National Live Stock & Meat Board. TABLE 2-19 Nutrient Contribution of Total Cooked Red Meat Ingestion by Consumption Level in the U.S. Diet, 1984 Consumption Level Total Ingested by RDA Nutrient Light Moderate Heavy Average User flora Total red meat,b g 41.14 117.00 216.31 118.89 Total red meat, oz 1.45 4.13 7.63 4.19 Calories, kcal 117.5 334.9 618.1 340.1 17.0 Cholesterol, mg 33.4 92.2 167.8 93.2 Lipids, g 8.48 24.46 45.55 24.95 Protein, g 9.47 26.33 47.57 26.44 47.2 Vitamins Niacin, mg 1.751 4.911 9.062 4.998 27.8 Riboflavin, mg 0.063 0.189 0.372 0.198 12.4 Thiamine, mg 0.091 0.302 0.605 0.317 22.7 Vitamin Bit, ,ug 0.830 2.207 3.899 2.200 73.3 Minerals Iron, mg 0.91 2.49 4.44 2.50 25.0 Sodium, mg 160.9 526.4 1,086.4 568.4 17.2-51.7 Zinc, mg 1.77 4.75 8.27 4.71 31.4 NOTE: The values are reconciled from data on total amounts of red meat available for consumption in the United States. (The values are corrected for cooking losses and for amounts of trimmable fat discarded by consumers, assuming that no meat spoiled.) aThis column represents the percentage of recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for males ages 23-50 except for lipids, cholesterol, calories, and sodium entries. There are no RDAs for lipids and cholesterol. The calorie percentage is based on 2,000 kcal mean energy needs of a 154-lb sedentary U.S. adult male or active female. The sodium percentage is based on a 1,100- to 3,300-mg range of estimated safe and adequate daily intake for adults (National Research Council. 1980. Recommended Dietary Allowances. Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press). bRed meat is beef, veal, pork, and lamb. In this case, the category also includes processed meats. SOURCE: Adapted from B. C. Breidenstein and J. C. Williams. 1987. Contribution of Red Meat to the U.S. Diet. Chicago, Ill.: National Live Stock & Meat Board. 36

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38 whole milk to low-fat milk is most likely due to a combination of health concerns and taste preferences, since the per capita sales of skim milk have remained at about the same level for two decades. Bunch (1985) suggests that the food supply of fluid milk has declined due to demographic changes and competition from other beverages. Yogurt is another dairy product that has increased tremendously in the food supply, particularly during the past 10 years. Be- tween 1980 and 1985 it increased over 50 percent, between 1975 and 1985 it increased more than 90 percent, and between 1965 and 1985 it increased more than 1,200 percent. Nevertheless, per capita sales of yogurt account for little more than 1 percent of all dairy products. The amount of hard cheese in the food supply has also increased, by over 27 percent since 1980, by 95 percent between 1970 and 1985, and by more than 130 percent between 1965 ant] 1985. Ice cream, cottage cheese, and butter have remained around their 1970 levels. Dietary Survey Data NFCS (1977-1978~. The percentage of individuals using fluid milk decreased ab- ruptly for those in their late teens and early twenties. Whereas 94 percent of males and 89 percent of females ages 15 to 18 cirank milk at least once during the 3 survey days, only 78 percent of the males and 79 percent of the females ages 23 to 34 reported con- suming milk. Average intake and serving size also dropped abruptly after age 18. Milk consumption for males was highest for 12- to 18-year-olds, who consumed an average of 19 ounces a day. Women ages 35 to 50 drank the least amount of milk in the survey, averaging only 5 ounces per day. Twenty-eight percent of the women in this age group had not drunk milk on any of the 3 survey days. Males drank more milk than females in every age group. DESIGNING FOODS Fifty-four percent of the survey respond- ents consumed eggs on at least 1 of the 3 survey days (Table ~21). (Data are for eggs that are reported as a separate food and do not include quantities eaten as an ingredient in other foods.) In general, males had slightly higher intakes than females, averaging 37 grams per day compared to 24 grams for females. One large egg weighs approxi- mately 50 grams. The survey data indicate that older adults eat eggs more frequently than do younger adults, although the intake per user is not as high. Twenty-four percent of males and 13 percent of females ages 65 and older ate eggs on all 3 of the survey days, compared with only 10 neroent of the total population. _ ~_ _ ~ CSFII (1985J. Women's intake of milk as a beverage and in dairy products has remained relatively constant between 1977 and 1985 (Table ~224. The changes within the dairy category parallel those found in the food supply data. Total fluid milk intake declined 5 percent, but there was a sub- stantial shift from whole milk, which was down 35 percent, to low-fat and skim milk, which was up 60 percent. Only about half of the women had drunk milk on the day surveyed (Behlen, 1986~. Cheese intake was up 6 percent from 1977 to 1985. This is much less of an increase than that indicated by the food supply data. However, a large proportion of cheese is consumed as an ingredient in mixed foods such as macaroni and cheese and in pizza, and in the CSFII, these foods would be includes! in the grain mixtures category. Similarly, cheese served on a hamburger or in a ham and cheese sandwich would be included in the meat mixtures category. Intake of meat mixtures and grain mixtures increased significantly from the previous survey. Therefore, the smaller increase in cheese intake in the CSFII is likely associ- ated with the fact that more meat and grain mixtures are being eaten.

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CURRENT TRENDS IN CONSUMPTION OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS TABLE 2-21 Intake of Eggs 39 Number of Group and Age Survey Participants Average Quantity/Eating Occasiona (g) Consumption Level on: At Least 1 of 3 Days Only 1 of 3 Days 3 of 3 Days Children <1498 49 17.7 8.9 3.1 1-21,045 59 61.3 31.2 10.4 W51,719 66 55.2 32.4 7.1 ~81,841 70 48.5 32.8 4.0 Females ~142,158 75 44.3 28.2 5.0 1~181,473 79 44.4 27.5 3.9 1~345,346 83 51.1 29.1 6.6 3~647,069 74 56.7 29.5 11.3 6~741,738 64 57.4 28.9 12.2 75+993 63 57.4 29.5 13.7 Males ~142,089 85 49.1 31.2 5.4 1~181,394 101 52.3 27.0 9.6 1~343,928 105 54.8 27.3 10.9 35 644,929 93 62.0 27.1 16.9 6~741,118 81 66.7 25.6 21.9 75 +536 73 71.7 21.3 28.8 Total37,874 82 54.3 28.6 10.3 aOne large egg weighs 50 g. SOURCE: E. M. Pao, K. H. Fleming, P. M. Guenther, and S. J. Mickle. 1982. Foods Commonly Eaten by Individuals: Amount Per Day and Per Eating Occasion. Pp. 44~5 in Home Economics. Report No. 44, Human Nutrition Information Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Fats and Oils Food Supply Data (196~1985) Quantities of fats and oils in the food supply are measured by the manufacture of products such as shortening, margarine, and salad and cooking oils (Table 2-23~. Data include all fats and oils except those that occur naturally in foods such as meats, milk and milk products, and nuts. Between 1965 and 1985, per capita disappearance of fats and oils increased 32 percent. Over the same time period, there was a shift from animal to vegetable sources, although this trend seems to have leveled off (Figure 2- 31. About 50 percent of fats and oils are used in processed foods such as baked goods, salad dressing, and potato and corn chips. The remainder is used by restaurants and institutions or purchased in grocery stores for home use. Restaurant use of fats an oils increased 69 percent between 1969 and 1979, primarily because of the increase in the number of fast-food restaurants and other establishments serving fried foocIs like chicken, fish, and French fried potatoes (Bunch and Hazera, 19844. Although there is little information on changes since 1979, restaurant use of edible tallow for frying is primarily responsible for the increase(l use of animal fats since 1980 (Karen Bunch, USDA Economic Research Service, per- sonal communication, 1986~. In 1985, butter, lard, an(1 tallow ac- counted for 20 percent of the total use of fats and oils. About 4 pounds of lard and tallow per capita were used directly, either

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TABLE 2-22 Milk, Milk Products, Eggs, Fats, and Oils: Trends in Consumption and Mean Intake Number ofMean Intakes Percentage of Study Participants(g/day) Study Participants Group and Age19771985 1977 1985 1977 1985 Children, 1-5690548 Total milk and milk products403 428 92.6 95.0 Total fluid milk357 381 87.7 89.2 Whole260 228 65.4 53.6 Low-fat and skim97 153 25.6 38.1 Cheese8 11 21.3 31.2 Cream and milk desserts20 19 21.3 24.4 Yogurt1 5 0.4 4.5 Eggs21 17 33.0 28.5 Total fats and oils7 5 50.2 51.2 Table fats4 3 39.0 40.0 Salad dressings2 2 16.6 18.2 Females, 19-502,2281,503 Total milk and milk products204 203 74.4 76.5 Total fluid milk148 141 54.9 51.4 Whole98 64 39.0 26.0 Low-fat and skim48 77 16.1 26.1 Cheese17 18 27.5 33.9 Cream and milk desserts19 24 20.0 25.0 Yogurt6 8 2.9 4.5 Eggs25 18 29.3 24.3 Total fats and oils14 16 61.2 63.9 Table fats5 4 39.8 39.1 Salad dressings8 11 32.5 36.4 Males, 19-501,7781,134 Total milk and milk products278 287 73.5 73.3 Total fluid milk215 205 55.9 48.0 Whole156 117 44.0 27.2 Low-fat and skim57 87 13.0 21.3 Cheese16 17 26.0 33.0 Cream and milk desserts27 35 21.4 23.3 Yogurt3 3 1.4 1.9 Eggs35 26 34.2 28.3 Total fats and oils17 18 59.5 64.2 Table fats8 7 43.1 41.3 Salad dressings8 10 27.6 34.2 SOURCES: Adapted from U. S. Department of Agriculture. 1985. Pp. 12-13 and 18-19 in Women 19-50 Years and Their Children 1-5 Years, 1 Day, 1985. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Report 85-1, Human Nutrition Information Service. Hyattsville, Md.: U.S. Department of Agriculture. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1986. Pp. 10-11 and 16-17 in Men 19-50 Years, 1 Day, 1985. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Report 85-3, Human Nutrition Information Service. Hyattsville, Md.: U. S. Department of Agriculture. See these reports for information on changes in methods and data bases that may affect differences in results between 1977 and 1985. 40

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42 70 60 .- 50 Q an 3 a 40 30 20 10 O . , 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 DESIGNING FOODS Total Vegetable _~ Animal 1 1 1 ~1 1 1 1 1 1965 67 69 71 73 Year 75 77 79 81 83 85 FIGURE 2~3 Total fat content of the food supply, 1985 Between 1965 and 1985 the total fat content of the food supply increased by about 34 percent. The shift from animal to vegetable sources has been even more dramatic: Fat from animal sources decreased 22 percent and fat from vegetable sources increased 64 percent during these 20 years. See also Table 2~23. Source: Adapted from K. L. Bunch, 1987. P. 18 in Food Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures, 1985. Statistical Bulletin 749 Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Wash- ington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. by restaurants or consumers. Another 6 pounds were used to produce shortening and, to a lesser extent, margarine. Similarly, a variety of vegetable oils are used in the production of fat and of! products. Vegetable oils contain varying amounts of saturated ant! unsaturated fats, as shown in Table 2 8. Some vegetable oils, such as coconut and palm, actually contain as large a proportion (if not larger) of saturated fatty acids as tallow and lard. Because these data are (lerived from es- timates of production, they do not measure actual ingestion of fats and oils. Waste may be significant, especially for salad dressings and for fats an(1 oils used in frying. Estimates of waste range from 2 percent for table spreads such as butter and margarine to 20 percent for salad oils ant] frying fats (Yan kelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., 19851. Some estimates of waste are as high as 30 percent for these products (U.S. Depart- ment of Agriculture, 1975~. Dietary Survey Data NFCS (19 77-19 78~. It Is difficult to measure intake of fats and oils (such as margarine or cooking oils) through a survey of individual diets because a large propor- tion ofthis fat is user! in cooking or consumed in processed foods. Therefore, reported in- take levels of fats and oils will be below the amounts actually consumed. Intake of fats ant! oils reporte(l in the NFCS ranged from 8 grams/(lay for chil(lren ages 1 to 11 to 16 grams/day for adults ages 19 to 64. Adult males ages 51 to 64 hacI the

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CURRENT TRENDS IN CONSUMPTION OF A.NTIMAI, PR()DUC'TS highest intake of all age groups, 21 grams/ day. One tablespoon of butter car margarine weighs 13 grams; a tal~lespoc~n calf salad oil weighs 11 grams. CSFII. The trend in the food supply data toward increased use of fat and `'il products was als`' reflected to some extent in food intakes measured by the CSFII. Again, these are fats and oils that are con- sumed directly or in processed fc'ocls rather than fats that occur naturally in foc~ds. 4'om- en's intake calf the fats and oils rep`'rtecl separately increased 14 percent between 1977 and 1985 because of a 38 percent increase in salad dressing use. Fats and oils consumed as ingredients in flaked goods and mixed dishes, as seasoning, car absorbed during cooking are a part of the weight `'f the reported food. Since these amounts are expected to be s~lbstaIltial, surveys of in- dividual intakes are not appropriate fair measuring change in consumption of fats and oils. Special Studies Household Refuse Analysis Project The Household Refuse Analysis Project at the University of Arizona attempted to estimate dietary patterns thrc~ugh recording label information from discarded food pack- ages and analyzing food debris in household refuse. This project has collected data from six cities since 1977 (Rathje and Ho, 1987~. Over a 7-year period from 1979 to 1985, the quantities of meat fat recorded from Tucson, Arizona, refuse indicated a trend toward greater discard offal from meat cuts. From 1979 to 1982, the percentage of fat cut off red meats averaged between 3 and 10 percent; from 1983 to 1985 the discard percentage increased to 12 to 16 percent. Data from a retirement community in Ari- zona revealed that meat fat discard per- centage rose from 13 percent in 1976 to 23 percent in 1985 (Rathje and Ho, 1987~. 4.] The other trend that was identified lo this projec t is an coverall deC'I ease iT] the purchase of red meat with separate I:at Air example, as retail cuts in the form of chirps steaks, and r`'asts) and an increase in the purchase of reel meat with nc~nsepa~al~le tat (for example, gro~ncl beef; sausages, 11InC e`'n meats,, hilt dogs,, and leach). convei ience is, citecl as the most likely expl~allatioll fair these seemingly contraclictor`~ treacle,; another possil~ility is that litany conC,u~nerL, Nay n`'t realize that the 1CVOIL, of {at preset in ground beef, L,~lL,age, tacit d,,, awl l'`lc`~ll are substantially higher thaIl th`'L,e in cloL,elv trimIned retail cute, (Rathje alla BILL, 1987~. St. iose~'h'.s UniversitZJlA'''~rica'' Nleat Institute Steady Another estimate of the co~tril~ution of the tat present in red meat tic the total flit content in the diet was made in ~ L,t~dv for the American Meat Institute by the Acacl- emy of Food Marketing at St. toseph s University (Stanton, 1987~. Researchers substituted new nutrient composition data from USDA Agric~ltZ~re Handbook No. S- 13 for beef (U. S. Department `'fAgriculture, 1986) and rJSDA Agriculture I-landEc'`'k Nil. 8-10 for pork (U.S. Department of A OCR for page 18
44 National Live Stock ~ Meat Board Study The National Live Stock & Meat Boars! study (Breidenstein ant] Williams, 1987), which used per capita disappearance data and private consumer survey information, estimates] the nutrient contribution of red meat to the diets of light, moderate, and heavy users of reck meat. Researchers esti- mated that for moderate users, red meat contributes less than 12 percent of the calories Tom fat, of which about 4.5 percent is Tom saturated fat. In adclition, rec! meat accounted for about 92 mg of the cholesterol and 526 mg of the sodium per day in the diets of moderate users. A summary of the study's findings is presented in Tables 2~18 and ~19. REFERENCES Behlen, P. 1986. Calcium in women's diets. Pp. 16- 19 in National Food Review, NFR-34, U.S. De- partment of Agriculture, Economic Research Serv- ice. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Breidenstein, B. C. and J. C. Williams. 1987. Contri- bution of Red Meat to the U. S. Diet. Chicago, Ill.: National Live Stock & Meat Board. Bunch K. 1985. Whole milk is no longer the beverage of choice. Pp. 21-24 in National Food Review, NFR- 29, Economic Research Service. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture. Bunch, K., and J. Hazera. 1984. Fats and Oils: Con- sumers Use More But Different Kinds. Pp. 18-21 in National Food Review, NFR-29, Economic Re- search Service. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Depart- ment of Agriculture. Cheftel, J. C. 1977. Chemical and nutritional modifi- cations of food proteins due to processing and stor- age. Pp. 401~45 in Food Proteins, J. R. Whitaker and S. R. Tannenbaum, eds. Westport, Conn.: AVI Press. Grundy, S. M. 1986. Comparison of monounsaturated carbohydrates for lowering plasma fatty acids and cholesterol. N. Engl. J. Med. 314:745. Hegsted, D. M., R. B. McGandy, M. L. Myer, and DESIGNING FOODS F. J. Stare. 1965. Quantitative effects of dietary fat on serum cholesterol in man. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 17:281. Keys, A., J. T. Anderson, and F. Grande. 1965. Serum cholesterol response to changes in the diet. IV. Particular saturated fatty acids in the diet. Metab- olism 14:776. Linkswiler, H. M. 1982. Importance of animal protein in human nutrition. P. 271 in Animal Products in Human Nutrition, D. C. Beitz and R. G. Hansen, eds. New York: Academic Press. Love, J. 1982. Constituents of animal products that are affected by cooking and processing. Pp. 177-198 in Animal Products in Human Nutrition, D. C. Beitz and R. G. Hansen, eds. New York: Academic Press. Pao, E. M., K. N. Flemming, P. M. Guenther, and S. J. Mickle. 1982. Foods commonly eaten by individuals: Amount per day and per eating occas- sion. Home Economics Report No. 44. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Human Nutrition Information Service. Rathje, W. L., and E. E. Ho. 1987. Meat fat madness: Conflicting patterns of meat fat consumption and their public health implications. J. Am. Dietet. Assoc. 87:1357. Stanton, J. L. 1987. An Investigation of Fat Intake. Paper presented to the American Meat Institute, Washington, D.C., January. Stucker, T., and K. Parham. 1984. Beef, pork, and poultry: Our changing consumption habits. Pp. 2(~ 22 in National Food Review, NFR-25. U.S. De- partment of Agriculture, Economic Research Serv- ice. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1975. Food Yields Summarized by Different Stages of Preparation. Agriculture Handbook No. 102, Agricultural Re- search Service. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govern- ment Printing Office. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1983. Composition of Foods: Pork Products. Agriculture Handbook No. 8-10. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1986. Composition of Foods: Beef Products. Agriculture Handbook No. 8-13. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc. 1985. The Con- sumer Climate for Meat Products. Prepared for the American Meat Institute, Washington, D.C., and the National Live Stock & Meat Board, Chicago, Ill. New York: Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc.