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Index References to tables are given in italic type. A Agricultural production technologies assessment of, 118 carcass composition determinations, 4-5, 118, 130 for cattle, 121-122, 123-24 fat measurement in live animals and carcasses, 118-120, 131 growth management programs, 121, 122 immunization strategies, 121, 122 influencing fat levels in growing animals, 12~124 Baked goods for poultry, 122-123 research recommendations, 3, 6-7, 121-122, 130 131 for swine, 122 see also Food processing technologies American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition dietary guidelines, 48 American Cancer Society dietary guidelines, 14, 45, 47-48 nutrition education role, 67 American Heart Association dietary guidelines, 13, 14, 45, 48, 51, 53 nutrition education role of, 6, 66, 109, 110 Amino acids, see Essential and nonessential amino acids Anabolic implants in cattle, 121 Androstene steroids, 122 357 Anemia, iron deficiency, 57, 58 Animal fats caloric intake trends, 19 misinformation about, 110 reintroduction during processing, 3 supply trends, 39, 41, 42 see also Fat; Fat (total); and Fats and oils (separable); and specific fats and nutrients B fat and oil use in, 39, 43 fat consumption in, 3 Beef bottom round, 76, 78 chuck arm, 76, 78 chuck blade, 73, 76, 78 consumption trends, 34, 3~36 corned, 84 cut options, 78-79 eye of round, 76 fat intake from, 26, 27-28 franks, 84, 125 grade options, 73, 78, 100 ground, 36, 43, 76, 78 lean-to-fat ratio, 119 marbling, 101, 102, 112 nutritional composition, 73, 76-77, 78-79 palatability vs. fat content, 78, 79

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358 per capita disappearance, 32-33, 33, 65 ribs, 77 seam fat, 102 stearic acids in, 50 survey of consumer opinions about, 66 tenderloin, 77 tip round, 77 top round, 77, 78 window of acceptability, 78, 79 see also Cattle; Red meats; Veal Beef fat, 25, 50, 78, 79; see also Lard; Tallow Beta-adrenergic agonists, 121, 122 Biotechnology influencing fat levels in growing animals, 12~124, 131 recombinant growth hormones, 12~121 regulation of, 111-112, 114 Biotechnology Science Coordinating Committee, 112 Bologna, 26, 84, 124, 129 Butter, 37, 38, 39, 41, 42; see also Milk and milk products Butterfat, 22, 65 Butter oil, 25 C Calcium age- and gender-specific intake trends, 32, 56, 57 in animal fats, 19 animal product contribution to, 18, 1~20, 29-30, 32 consumption trends, 1, 13, 1~16, 32, 55, 56, 57, 64 current U.S. dietary levels, 14, 15 deficiencies, 109 education program, 66 in eggs, 19, 30, 30, 32, 71, 129 factors influencing bioavailability, 29-30 in fish and shellfish, 19, 2~30, 30, 32, 87 fortification of foods, 73, 129 in frozen dinners, 9~91 in grains, 29, 30 in milk and milk products, 19, 29-30, 30, 32, 69, 70-71, 72-73, 74-75, 129 in poultry,l9, 29-30, 30, 32, 85 in red meats, 19, 29-30, 30, 32, 7~77, 82~4 target levels, 2, 14, 15, 54-55, 56, 92, 94 Calories age- and gender-specific intake trends, 21, 24 animal product contribution to, 1, 18-20, 21, 24, 28, 98 consumer concerns about, 64-65 consumption trends, 1, 21, 24, 47, 55 in convenience meats, 84 in eggs, 71 in fat, 2, 19, 24, 44, 47-49 in fish and shellfish, 86, 87 INDEX in frozen dinners, 88, 90-91 in milk and milk products, 70-71, 72, 73, 74-75 in mixtures, 88 in poultry, 84, 85, 86 in protein, 24, 47 in red meats, 36, 73, 76-77, 78, 82, 83, 83~4 target levels, 2, 1~15, 36, 92, 94 Cancer, dietary fat and, 47, 51 Carbohydrates in eggs, 71 in frozen dinners, 90-92 in milk and milk products, 70-71, 74-75 in poultry, 85 target levels, 92, 94 trends in availability, 22 Cardiovascular disease cholesterol and, 50, 52 prevalence, 2, 47 prevention, 13 Cattle anabolic implants, 121 dairy cows, 123-124 deferred feeding programs, 121 diet effects on, 123-124 growth management programs, 121 high concentrate/low-roughage diet, 123-124 immunization strategies, 121 "milk fat depression," 124 milk production and mammary growth, 121, 123- 124 overfeeding of, 101 repartitioning of fat in, 118, 121 rumen fermentation, 124 see also Beef Centers for Disease Control Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System, 11, 46 Cheese American, 70, 74 cheddar, 70, 74 consumption trends, 38, 40 cottage, 37, 38, 70 hard processed, 3 labeling, 106 modified products, 72 Monterey Jack, 70, 74 mozzarella, 70, 72, 75 muenster, 75 new formulations, 73, 74-75, 106 nutritional composition, 29, 70-71, 72, 73, 74-75 part-skim, 70, 72 processing technologies for, 126 ricotta, 70, 72, 75 supply trends, 37, 65 Swiss, 70, 75 Chicken consumption trends, 34, 35 fat, 25

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INDEX franks, 84, 125, 129 fried, 39 nutritional composition of, 84, 85, 86 per capita disappearance, 31, 33 see also Poultry Cholesterol, see Dietary cholesterol; Serum cholesterol Cocoa butter, 25 Coconut oil, 24, 25, 42, 50 Cod liver oil, 25 Computerized tomography, fat measurement by, 120 Consumer attitudes, trends in, 6~69, 109 Consumer eating/food-choice behavior at home, 67-69 away from home, 64 eating occasions, 68 food purchasing decisions, 65, 66 grazing/snacking, 68 in grocery stores/supermarkets, 65-66 recommendations, 10~110 surveys, 63-68 "work out/pig out" paradox, 65 Consumer education, see Nutrition education/ information Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII) data calcium intake, 15-16, 55, 56, 57 cholesterol intake, 15, 26-27, 28, 53-54, 55 causes, 1, 13 description and limitations, 1~12 incidence, 1-2 eating frequency, 68 egg intake, 40 fat (total) intake, 24, 26, 26,28, 48, 49, 51, 51 fat and oil intake, 40, 43 fatty acid intake, 15, 28,51, 51-52 fish and shellfish intake, 34, 35 iron intake, 16 milk and milk product intake, 38, 40 poultry intake, 34, 35 protein intake, 24 red meat intake, 34, 35 Convenience meats, modified versions, nutritional content, 84; see also Processed meats Cooking methods batter frying, 84, 86, 125 braising, 83-84 broiling, 83 deep fat frying, 39, 64, 86, 125 effect on nutrient bioavailability, 20, 78, 83~4, 84, 86, 125 for low-fat products, 106 microwaving, 67, 68, 78, 81 pan frying, 84 roasting, 83-84, 84, 86 stewing, 84 Corn oil, 25 359 Cream products, 37,40; see also Ice cream; Milk and milk products Cystine, food processing erects on, 20 D Data on food and nutrient consumption adjustment for consumer waste and trimming, 12 apparent consumption, 10; see also Food supply data Household Refuse Analysis Project, 11, 43 Joint Nutrition Monitoring Evaluation Committee report, 12-13, 45, 47 key food component identification, 12-13 limitations of, 11-12, 18 National Live Stock & Meat Board study, 11, 34, 44, 67 Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System, 11, 46, 58 recommended consolidation of, 5, 108, 113 sources, 2, 9-12 Stanton study, 11, 20 from supermarket food sales, 2, 3 USDA, 9-10, 18; see also Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals data; Nationwide Food Consumption Survey data see also Food supply data; Surveys, consumer food and nutrition; Surveys, dietary Diet-related morbidity and mortality populations at risk, 10, 13, 15 Dietary cholesterol age- and gender-specific intake trends, 15, 26, 28 29, 53-54, 54-55 alteration during processing, 8 in animal fats, 19, 28, 28-29 animal product contribution to, 19-20, 22-28, 28 29 consumer concerns about, 6~65 consumption trends, 1, 13, 14, 15, 28-29, 53-54, 54-55 current U.S. levels, 14, 15 in eggs, 19, 27, 28, 28-29, 71, 126-127 in fish and shellfish, 19, 26, 28-29 in frozen dinners, 88, 90-91 labeling, 5, 104 in meat mixtures, 26, 28 in milk and milk products, 19, 28-29, 69, 70-71, 72, 74-75, 126 in oils, 28 in poultry, 19, 26-27, 28-29,85, 86, 125 recommendations, 131 in red meats, 19, 26-27, 28-29,36, 44, 76-77,82, 83, 83-84, 127 reduction strategies, 12~127 relation to serum cholesterol, 52 target levels, 2, 14, 15, 48, 52, 53, 54-55,92,94

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360 Dietary guidelines, see specific health organizations Dietetic foods, 65 Disappearance data, see Food supply data Disease prevention claims, 5-6, 109, 113 Docosohexaneoic acid, 47 Dressing percentage, 101 Duck fat, 25 nutritional composition of, 85, 86 E Eggs age- and gender-specific intake trends, 21, 38, 39- 40 caloric intake trends, 19, 21 consumption trends, 38, 39~0, 126 nutritional composition, 71; see also specific nutrients supply trends, 37 Eicosopentaenoic acid, 47 Epinephrine, 122 Essential and nonessential amino acids availability in cereal products, 20 in animal products, 20, 22 role in calcium absorption, 29-30 F Fat in live animals and carcasses, 118-124 measurement of, (5, 118-120 in processed meats, 12~125 reduction strategies, 12~126 repartitioning, 118, 121, 131 restructuring, 124 Fat (total) age- and gender-specific intake trends, 15, 2~29, 25, 43, 48, 49 in animal fats, 29, 41 animal product contribution to, 1, 19-20, 22, 24, 2~28, 98 cancer and, 47 cardiovascular disease and, 47 consumer concerns about, 63-65, 99, 109 consumption trends, 1, 13, 15, 25, 27-29, 41, 48, 49 in convenience meats, 84 current U.S. dietary levels, 14, 15 determination in live animals and carcasses, 118 120 in eggs, 19, 24, 2~29, 71 in fish and shellfish, 19, 24, 25, 2~28, 28,29, 86 in frozen dinners, 88, 9~91 in grains, 25, 28 labeling, 13 INDEX losses during processing, 22 in milk and milk products, 19, 24, 25, 2~29, 7 71, 72, 7~75 overstatement of, 22 in poultry, 19, 2~26, 2~28, 28, 29, 84, 85, 86, 125 recommendations for reducing, 7-8, 109-110, 118 in red meats, 11, 12, 19, 24-26, 2~28, 28, 29, 43, 73, 7~77, 78-79, 81-83, 83, 84 sources, 22, 110 target levels, 2, 14, 15, 47~8, 49, 92, 94 in vegetables oils, 22, 28, 41 Fats and oils (separable) age- and gender-specific intake trends, 40, 42-43 baking, 3, 24 consumption trends, 40, 42-43, 110 frying, 3, 24, 42 in processed foods, 3, 39 shift from animal to vegetable, 39, 42 supply trends, 39, 41, 42 see also Animal fats; Vegetable oils; and specific nutrients Fat trimming dressing percentage, 101, 102 hot-fat, 4, 102-103, 112 recommendations, 101, 102, 112, 131 trends, 4, 43, 66, 67 Fatty acids in animal fats, 22-24, 25, 28-29, 29 caloric intake trends, 2, 51, 52-54, 52-55 inhibition of calcium absorption, 30 misinformation about, 110 monitoring, 6, 110, 112 preharvest alteration, 130 supply trends, 25 see also Monounsaturated fatty acids; Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Saturated fatty acids Federal Meat Inspection Act, standard-of-identity requirements, 104 Fish and shellfish age- and gender-specific intake trends, 21, 35 caloric intake by age and gender, 19, 21 consumption trends, 3, 19, 21, 34, 35, 64 crab, blue, 87 fried, 39, 86 haddock, 87 halibut, 87 nutritional composition, 87; see also specific nutrients omega-3 and omega-6 polyunstaurated fatty acids, 86 oysters, 87 scallops, 87 shrimp, 87 steamed or canned vs. fried, 86 supply trends, 30-31, 33, 33-34, 65 surimi, 87

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INDEX tuna, 86, 87 Food and Nutrition Board (National Research Council) nutrition education role of, 6, 109 RDAs, 2, 5, 14, 36 study of diet and health issues, 16 Food disappearance data, see Food supply data Food industry lack of coordination in, 99 response to consumer nutrition demands, 64 65. 66 67, 69, 72-73, 7~75, 80, 88, 98, 106 Food preparation, see Cooking methods Food processing technologies acylation, 130 cheese making, 126 enzymatic modification, 128 for fat alteration, 124-125 hot deboning of chicken, 128 hot-fat trimming of beef, 4, 102-103, 112 immersion chilling, 128 mechanical separation of meat, 124 mineral fortification strategies, 129-130 recommendations, 131-132 restructuring of fat/muscle, 124 sodium alteration, 128-129 stabilized preemulsions, 124 supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, 126, 132 supercritical fluid extraction, 127 ultrafiltration, 126 Food product development, 116 Food sales, trends in, 63, 65, 67~9 Food supply energy source trends in, 22 factors influencing, 33, 38 trends, 2-3, 22, 25 Food supply data apparent consumption, 10 conversion to intake data, 34 description, ~10, 12 disappearance data, 10, 11, 21, 31-33, 33, 34, 37, 41, 81, 83, 114 edible weight series, 30-31, 33, 34, 41 eggs, 37 fat (total), 22, 42 fats and oils, 39, 41, 42 fatty acids, 25 fish and shellfish, 30-31, 33, 33-34 food energy, 22 limitations of, 11-12, 114 milk and milk products, 34 35, 37, 38 nutrient content, 10, 18 poultry, 30-32, 33, 34 protein availability, 21 recommended modification of, 114 red meats, 30~3, 33, 34, 81, 83 sources, 2, 3, 12-13, 108 uses, 33~4 361 vitamins, 28 waste considerations in, 22, 42 Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act standard-of-identity requirements, 104, 107 Frankfurters, 26, 35, 43, 84, 105-106, 12~129 Fried foods, consumption trends, 64 Frozen foods calorie- and portion-controlled dinners, 65, 88, 90- 91 consumption trends, 65, 69 milk products, 37, 40, 73 precooked, 65, 69 sales, 88 G Gallup surveys, 64 65 Grading system for meats basis of, 99 beef, 73, 76, 77, 78, 100-101, 102, 103-104 Canadian, 103-104 choice, 4, 66, 78, 100 consumer confusion about, 3, 66, 100 deficiencies in, 3, 99 good/select, 4, 6647, 73, 78, 100, 101-102, 110, 112 lamb, 100 lean-to-fat ratios, 5, 100 National Cattlemen s Association recommendations, 101 No-lloll, 73, 100, 101, 103 nomenclature, 100, 101-102 options, 103-104 pork, 79~80, 100-101 prime, 4, 100 recommendations, 4-5, 101-103, 112 rule change, 102 uncoupling yield and quality in, 4, 100, 102-103, 112, 131 USDA policy, 100 Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment station, 80 see also Fat trimming Grains calcium from, 29, 30 total fat from, 25, 28 see also Mixtures Grocery stores, see Supermarkets Growth hormones and promoters anabolic implants, 121 beta-adrenergic agonists, 121, 122 epinephrine, 122 methyltestosterone, 122 recombinant, 120-121 use for fat modification in animals, 118, 121, 122 H Health promotion claims, 5-6, 109 Herring oil, 25

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362 Hormones, see Growth hormones Hot dogs, see Frankfurters Household Refuse Analysis Project, description, 11, 43 I Ice cream consumption trends, 38, 65 new products, 73, 75 nutritional composition, 65, 71, 72, 75 superpremium, 65 see also Milk and milk products Ice milk, 71 Iron age- and gender-specific intake trends, 31, 59~0 in animal fats, 19 animal product contributions, 18, 19-2O, 29, 30-31 in cereal products, 29 consumption trends, 58-59, 60, 61 current U.S. dietary levels, 15 deficiency, 1, 13, 57-58, 5~59, 109 in eggs, 19, 29, 30-31, 71, 129-130 in fish and shellfish, 19, 29, 30-31 fortification of foods with, 129-130 in frozen dinners, 90-91 in grain products, 29 heme, 130 in milk and milk products, 19, 29, 30~1, 70-71, 72, 129 nonheme, 29, 130 in poultry, 19, 29, 3~31, 85, 110, 129-130 in red meats, 19, 29, 30-31, 36, 7~77, 78-79, 82 84, 130 sources, 29, 110, 130 target levels, 2, 14, 15, 36, 57, 58, 92, 94 J Joint Nutrition Monitoring Evaluation Committee nutritional status report, 12-13, 45, 47 L Labeling cholesterol, 5, 104, 112-113 consumer confusion about, 3 definition, 107 experiments, 107 health promotion and disease prevention claims, 5-6, 109, 113 ingredients not required to be listed, 3 lack of nutritional information, 65 leaness of ground beef, 78 "light," "life," or "lean," 5, 104-105, 113 mechanically separated meat, 124 "natural, 5, 105, 113 INDEX NIH recommendations, 13 nutrition claims, 10~107 procedures for changing regulatory requirements, 104 recommendations, 5, 104-105, 112-113, 132 regulatory approaches of USDA and FDA, 107 stabilized preemulsions, 124 supermarket shelf-labeling programs, 66 USDA review, 104 USDA-FSIS Policy memos, 78, 105 see also Standards of identity Lactose in milk and milk products, 72, 73 reduction in foods, 73 role in calcium absorption, 29 Lamb consumption trends, 3~35 cuts, 83 fat intake from, 27 grading, 100, 101 immunization against somatostatin, 122 nutritional composition, 83, 83 per capita disappearance, 33, 33, 81, 83 stearic acids in, 50 Lard, 25, 39, 41 Laurie acid, 50 Lean-to-fat ratios grading recommendations, 5 preharvest alteration, 7, 119, 120-124 Linear measurement of fat levels in live animals, 119 Linoleic acid, food supply trends, 25 Lipids, in red meats, 36 Low-calorie foods, sales trends, 65 Low-density lipoproteins, 50-51, 123 M Magnesium animal product contribution to, 18, 19-20, 29, 30 in eggs, 19, 30 in fish and shellfish, 19, 30 in milk and milk products, 30, 69, 72 in poultry, 19, 30, 86 in red meats, 19, 30 Margarine, 41, 42 Menus using animal product options adult men, 89, 94-95 adult women, 88-89, 92-93 Methyltestosterone, 122 Microwave cooking, 67, 68, 78, 81 Milk and milk products acidophilic flora in, 19 age- and gender-specific intake trends, 38, 40 buttermilk, 35, 37 caloric intake trends, 19, 21, 2~29, 30 consumption trends, 3, 21, 38, 40

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INDEX factors influencing secretion, 123-124 flavored milks, 35, 37 lactose, 29, 72, 73 low-fat milk, 3, 29, 3~35, 37, 38, 40, 48, 65, 70, 72, 73 modified products, 72 newest formulations, 7~73, 7~75 nutritional composition, 69, 7() 71, 7~73, 7075, 123, 124 processed milks, 35, 37 skim milk, 35, 37, 38, 40, 65, 70, 72 supply trends, 3~35, 37, 38, 65 whole milk, 35, 37, 38, 40, 48, 70 see also specific milk products and nutrients Milk fat composition, 22 Minerals consumer concerns about, 64 supplements, 57, 57 see also specific minerals Mixtures age- and gender-specific intake trends, 35 cholesterol from, 26, 28 classifying ingredients, 27 consumption trends, 2, 34, 35, 38, 88 nutritional composition, 88 see also Frozen foods Monitoring food consumption highest-priority food components, 13 recommendations, 6, 110 see also Surveys, consumer food and nutrition; Surveys, dietary Monounsaturated fatty acids age- and gender-specific intake trends, 51, 52, 53 in animal fats, 24, 25 cancer risk from, 51 current U. S. dietary levels, 14, 15, 52, 52 effect on serum cholesterol, 2~23, 47, 51 in eggs, 71 in fats and oils, 25, 51 in milk and milk products, 7~71 in poultry, 85 in red meats, 7~77, 82 target levels, 2, 14, 15, 51, 53, 92, 94 Mutton fat, 25 Myristic acid, 50 N National Cancer Institute Eat for Health program, 110 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data description, 10-11 iron status, 58 obesity data, 15, 46, 46 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 110 363 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development statement dietary guidelines, 14, 45, 47, 51, 53 on lowering serum cholesterol, 13, 51, 53 on osteoporosis, 54-55 National Research Council (NRC) nutrition education role, 109 RDAs, 14, 45, 47, 48, 50-51, 55, 58 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) data calcium intake, 15, 30, 30, 32, 55, 56, 57 calories from animal products, 19 cholesterol, 5~54, 54 description, 2, 10 eating frequency, 68 egg intake, 38, 39 fat (total) intake, 15, 19-20, 24-25, 26, 48, 49 fat and oil intake, 4~43 fish and shellfish intake, 34, 35 iron intake, 16, 29, 30, 31, 5~59, 60, 61 limitations of, 11-12, 19-20 milk and milk product intake, 38 mineral intake, 15-16, 2~30, 30, 32 poultry intake, 34, 35 protein intake, 21, 23 red meat intake data, 34, 35 value of, 12 vitamin intake, 28, 30 Near-infrared reflectance, fat measurement by, 120 Niacin animal product contribution, 18, 28, 30, 36, 79, 84, 86 in red meats, 36, 79 Nielson report on consumer behavior, 65 Nuclear magnetic resonance, fat measurement by, 120 Nutri-Facts7M, 66, 106, 107 Nutrients animal product contribution to, 1, 1~28 factors influencing uptake, 18 partitioning into fat or protein, see also specific nutrients Nutrition education/information 7 American Cancer Society, 67 American Dietetic Association, 107 American Heart Association, 6, 66, 109, 110 government role in, 6, 109-110, 113-114 lack of, 98 NIH recommendations, 13 point-of-purchase information, 5, 66, 99, 10~108 policy recommendations on, 5-6, 110, 113-114 regulation of, 107 research integration with, 110-111, 114 supermarket programs, 66, 107 trends, 4 Nutrition quality consumer attitude trends, 63-69 convenience, palatability, and, 69, 99

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364 industry response to consumer demands, 6~65, 66-67, 69, 72-73, 7~75, 80, 88, 98 technological options for enhancing, 115-117 Nutrition research federal role, 116 funding, 111, 116 integration of education and, 11~111, 114 needs, 115-117 recommendations, 3, 6-7 repartitioning of fat to muscle, 118 systems approach, 111, 114, 116-117 o Obesity age- and gender-specific trends, 13, 15, 46, 46 definition, 46 Oleic acid in animal fats, 23-24 cholesterol-lowering effects, 23 food supply trends, 25 Olive oil, 25 Organ meats, consumption trends, 35 Osteoporosis, 2 Oxalates, hinderance of calcium absorption, 30 Oxidative rancidity, 131 p Palm oils, 24, 25, 42, 50 Palmitic acid in animal fats, 22-23 effects on cholesterol, 22-23, 50 Pantothenic acid, 86 Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control anemia prevalence report, 58, 59 description, 11, 46 obesity in children, 46 Phosphorus, animal product contribution to, 18, 30, 78-79, 86 Phytates, hinderance of calcium absorption, 30 Point-of-purchase information data sources on, 108 on meats, 66, 107 Nutri-FactsT~, 66, 106, 107 programs, 5, 66, 99, 106, 108, 110 recommendations, 108, 110, 113 regulation of, 106-107 role, 106 supermarket programs, 66-67 Polyunsaturated fatty acids age- and gender-specific intake trends, 51, 52, 54 in animal fats, 23, 25 consumption trends, 52, 52, 54 current U.S. dietary levels, 14, 15 INDEX in eggs, 71 in fats and oils, 25 in fish and shellfish, 86 labeling, 13 in milk and milk products, 7~71, 124 omega-3 and omega-6, 86 in poultry, 85, 125 in red meats, 76-77, 82 target levels, 2, 14, 15, 48, 51, 54, 92, 94 Pork bacon, 43, 65, 82 Boston, blade, 81, 82 consumption trends, 34, 35-36 fat composition trends, 80, 122 fat intake trends, 26, 27 franks, 125 grading system, 7~80 ham, 65, 81, 82, 124 lean-to-fat ratio, 119 leg, 82 loin, 81, 82 marbling, 80 nutritional composition, 81, 82 per capita disappearance, 33, 33 picnic, 81, 82 quality standards, 8~81 sales trends, 65 shoulder, 82 stearic acid in, 50, 82 see also Red meats Portions, see Serving sizes Poultry abdominal fat pad, 125 age- and gender-specific intake trends, 21, 25, 34 caloric intake trends, 19, 21 consumption trends, 21, 34, 35, 64, 67, 125 cooking effects on nutritional composition, 84 fat reduction strategies for, 122-123, 125 frankfurters, 84, 125, 128-129 nutritional composition, 85, 122, 125; see also specific nutrients supply trends, 3~32, 33, 34, 65 see also Chicken; Turkey Prepared foods consumption trends, 67, 69 fat and oil use in, 39 Processed foods fat consumption trends, 3 fat intake trends, 3, 26 Processed meats consumption trends, 34, 36 fat level reduction in, 124-125 Producer check-off programs, ~7, 111, 114 Production policies, 99, 112 technologies, see Agricultural production technologies

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INDEX Protein age- and gender-specific intake trends, 2~24 animal product contribution, 18, 19, 20-22 consumption trends, 2~24 in convenience meats, 84 dietary levels, 16, 47 in eggs, 21-22, 23 in fish and shellfish, 19, 21, 23, 86 in frozen dinners, 90-91 in milk and milk products, 19, 21, 23, 68, 7~71, 72, 74-75 in poultry, 19, 21, 23, 84, 85, 110 processing effects on bioavailability, 20 in red meats, 19, 21, 23, 36, 7~77, 81-84 role in calcium absorption, 29 target levels, 36, 92, 94 Pyridoxine, 79 R Rapeseed oil, 25 Recombinant growth hormones, 12~121 Recommendations, policy animal agriculture research, 3, 6-7, 99 biotechnology regulation, 111-112, 114 data bank consolidation, 108, 113 fat trimming, 101-103, 112 foreign research acceptance in U.S., 7 funding, 111 grading system, 4-5, 101-103, 112 health claims regulation, 109, 113 labeling, 5, 104-105, 112-113, 132 methods for determining yield grade, 103 monitoring fatty acids, 6, 110, 112 nutrition education, 5-6, 99, 110, 112, 113-114 point-of-purchase information, 108, 110, 113 producer check-off programs, 111, 114, 116 producer education on nutrition, 112 research approach, 111, 114 serving size standardization, 108-109 standards of identity, 5, 106, 113, 132 Recommendations, research assessment of current and future technologies, 7- 8, 118 biotechnology, 131 carcass composition determination, 11~119, 130- 131 cholesterol, 131, 132 fatty acid composition alteration, 130, 132 funding, 111, 116 integration of education and research programs, 110-111, 114 lean-to-fat ratios, 130 oxidative rancidity, 131, 132 partitioning of feed nutrients, 131 reproductive physiology, 131 sodium reduction, 132 365 see also Nutrition research Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), 2, 5, 14, 36; see also Target levels Red meats age- and gender-specific intake trends, 21, 34, 35 caloric intake trends, 19, 21, 36 consumption recommendations, 10~110 consumption trends, 29, 34, 35~6, 43, 67 cooked, 36 discard of fat from, 43 labeling "natural," "light," or"lite," 101-105 supply trends, 30 34, 33 see also Beef; Lamb; Pork; Veal; and specific nutrients Reduced-calorie foods frozen dinners, 65, 88, 90-91 in restaurants, 65 sales trends, 65 Reflectance probe, fat measurement by, 119 Restaurants consumer eating habits in, 64 dietary guidelines for, 13 fast-food, 39, 108 fat and oil use, 39, 42 point-of-purchase information from, 5, 108, 113 response to consumer nutrition concerns, 64~5 Riboflavin animal product contribution to, 18, 28, 30 in milk and milk products, 69 in red meats, 36, 79 S Salad dressings, 39, 65, 4041, 42-43 Salmon oil, 25 Salt low-sodium, 65 substitutes, 65, 128 uses in meat products, 128 see also Sodium Saturated fatty acids age- and gender-specific intake trends, 28-29, 48, 51, 52 in animal fats, 19, 25, 28-29, 50 animal product contribution to, 1, 19-20, 24, 25 consumption trends, 1, 13, 15, 28, 51-52, 51-52 effects on serum cholesterol, 47, 50 in eggs, 19, 25, 28-29, 71 in fish and shellfish, 19, 25, 27-29 food supply trends, 25 free fatty acid formation from, 30 health effects of, 50 influence on serum lipid levels, 50 labeling, 13 in meat products, 128 in milk and milk products, 19, 22-23, 28-29, 69, 70-71, 72

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366 in oils and fats, 25, 28, 28, 42 in poultry, 19, 2~29, 85, 86, 125 in red meats, 19, 2~29, 44, 50, 73, 76-77, 78, 82 sources, 28, 50 target levels, 2, 14, 15, 48, 50-51, 52, 92, 94 in vegetable oils, 24, 25, 28, 42, 50 Sausages, 35, 43 School food services, dietary guidelines, 13 Serine, 30 Serum cholesterol animal product contribution to, 1 dietary cholesterol correlated with, 52-53 effects of, 50 fatty acid effects on, 22-23, 47, 50 reduction of, 22-23, 47, 50-51 see also Dietary cholesterol Serum lipids, influence of saturated fatty acids on, 50 Serving sizes changes in traditional and modified diets, 93, 95 standardization of, 5, 108-109 Shelf-labeling programs by supermarkets, 66 Shortening, 41 42 Snack foods, 68-69 Sodium consumer concerns about, 63 65 consumption trends, 63, 64, 127 in convenience meats, 84 in eggs, 71 in fish and shellfish, 86 in frozen dinners, 88, 90'91 in meat products, 128 in milk and milk products, 7~71, 74-75, 129 in poultry, 85, 128-129 recommendations, 8, 132 in red meats, 36, 44, 76-77, 82~4, 128 reduction strategies, 127-129 role in food processing, 8, 127-128 target levels, 36, 48, 92, 94 Soybean oil, 25 Standards of identity research recommendations, 7, 106, 115 restrictiveness of, 105-106, 115 Stanton study, 11, 20, 43 Stearic acid in animal fats, 22-23, 24, 50 effects on serum cholesterol, 22-23, 50 in eggs, 71 in milk and milk products, 7~71 in poultry, 85 in red meats, 76-77, 82 Sunflower seed oil, 25 Supermarkets consumer education/information programs, 66, 107, 110 consumer food-choice behavior in, 65~6 response to consumer concerns, 66 67 Surveys, consumer food and nutrition INDEX American Express Foundation/Public Voice, 64 American Meat Institute/Giant Food, 66 Conde Nast Package of Women Survey, 68 CREST Household Report, 64 Farm Journal Beef Extra Survey, 66 Food Marketing Institute Trends, 64 65, 67 Gallup Survey of Restaurant Managers, 64~5 National Consumer Retail Beef Study, 65 67, 101 National Live Stock & Meat Board, 67 National Restaurant Association, 63 64 USDA Economics and Statistics Service, 63 Surveys, dietary federal, 2, 1~11; see also Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals data; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data; Nationwide Food Consumption Survey data improvement of methodologies, 6, 110 limitations, 11-12, 19-20, 45 Swine back fat, 79-80, 119, 122 fat composition trends, 80, 122 fat-reduction strategies for, 122 immunization against androstene steroids, 122 T Tallow (edible), 39, 41 Target levels age- and gender-specific, 14, 92, 94 calcium, 2, 14, 15, 54-55, 56, 92, 94 caloric intake, 2, 13, 14, 14, 15, 36, 92, 94 carbohydrates, 92, 94 cholesterol, 2,14, 15, 48, 52, 53, 54-55, 92, 94 fat (total), 2, 14, 15, 47-48, 49, 92, 94 iron, 2, 14, 15, 36, 57, 58, 92, 94 marketplace options for achieving, 6~88 menus for achieving, 88, 89, 92-95 monounsaturated fatty acids, 2, 14, 15, 51, 53, 92, 94 polyunsaturated fatty acids, 2, 14, 15, 48, 51, 54, 92, 94 protein, 36, 92, 94 saturated fatty acids, 2, 14, 15, 48, 50-51, 52, 92, 94 sodium, 36, 48, 92, 94 summary of national dietary guidelines, 14 vitamins, 36 zinc, 36 Technology, see Agricultural production technologies; Food processing technologies ,~ Gamine animal product contribution, 18, 28-29 in red meats, 36 Total body electrical conductivity, fat measurement by, 120 Transgenic animals, 121

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INDEX Trends animal product consumption, 18-44 consumer attitudes, 63-64 consumer discard of fat, 11 fat consumption, 3, 4, 24 food supply, 2-3, 22, 25 Trimming, see Fat trimming Turkey franks, 84, 129 nutritional composition, 85, 86, per capita disappearance, 31, 33 skin removal, 86 U U. S. Department of Agriculture (US DA) classification of mixture ingredients, 27 data on food and nutrient consumption, see Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals data; Nationwide Food Consumption Survey data dietary guidelines, 14, 45, 50-51, 53 Economics and Statistics Service, 63 Extension Service, 6, 109, 113 Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) policy memos, 78, 105 Human Nutrition Information Service, 10 meat grading policy, 100 Nutrient Data Bank, 10 nutrition education role of, 6, 109, 113 recommended policy changes for, 4 research role, 116 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS) dietary survey, see National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling and standards of identity, 104-106 nutrition information programs, 110 regulation of point-of-purchase information, 106 U.S. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition, dietary guidelines, 14 Ultrasonic measurement of fat levels in live animals, 119 Unsaturated fatty acids, see Monounsaturated fatty acids; Polyunsaturated fatty acids V Veal Bob vs. Special Fed, 83, 84 consumption trends, 3~36 cuts, 84 367 fat intake from, 27 nutritional composition, 83, 84 per capita disappearance, 33, 33, 81, 83 Vegetable oils saturated fatty acids in, 24, 25, 42 use in fat and oil products, 42 Video image analysis of fat levels in live animals, 119 Vitamins in animal fats, 19 animal product contributions to, 18, 19-20, 28-29, 30 consumer concerns about, 6~65 in eggs, 19, 28, 30 in fish and shellfish, 19, 28-29, 30 in milk and milk products, 19, 28, 30 in poultry, 19, 28-29, 30, 86 RDAs, 36 in red meats, 19, 28-29, 30, 36 supplements, 57, 57 Vitamin A, animal product contribution, 18, 28-29, 30, 72 Vitamin Be, in poultry, 86, 110 Vitamin Be, animal product contribution, 18, 28, 30, 72, 78, 84, 86, 110 Vitamin Bl2 animal product contribution, 19, 28, 30, 72, 78, 79, 86, 110 in red meats, 36 Vitamin C animal product contribution, 30 deficiency, 13 Vitamin D fortification, 69 in milk and milk products, 69 role in calcium absorption, 29 y Yogurt consumption trends, 40 nutritional composition, 71 supply trends, 34, 37, 38, 65, 72 z Zinc animal product contribution to, 18, 19-20 in eggs, 19, 30 in fish and shellfish, 19, 30 in milk and milk products, 69, 72 in poultry, 19, 30, 86, 110 RDAs, 36 in red meats, 19, 30, 36, 78-79

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