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Knight, R. D. (1997). Physics: a contemporary perspective. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Kolodny, A. (1991). Colleges must recognize students’ cognitive styles and cultural backgrounds. Chronicle Higher Education, 37(21), A44.


Laws, P. W. (1997). Workshop Physics Activity Guide. New York: Wiley.

Laws, P. (1989). Workshop physics: replacing lectures with real experience. In E. F. Redish and J. S. Riley (Eds.), Computers in Physics Instruction: Proceedings. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Laws, P. W. (1991). Calculus-based physics without lectures. Physics Today, 44 (12), 24-31.

Laws, P. W. (1999). New approaches to science and mathematics teaching at liberal arts colleges. Daedalus, 128 (1), 217-240.

Lichten, W. (2000). Whither Advanced Placement? Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8(29), 1-19.


Mazur, E. (1997). Peer Instruction, A User’s Manual. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

McDermott, L. C. (1991). What we teach and what is learned—Closing the gap. American Journal of Physics, 59 (4), 301-315.

McDermott, L. C. and E.F. Redish. (1999). Resource Letter PER-1: Physics Education Research. American Journal of Physics, 67, 755-767.

McDermott, L. C., and P. S. Shaffer. (2002). Tutorials on introductory physics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

McDermott, L. C., P. S. Shaffer, and M. D. Somers. (1994). Research as a guide for teaching introductory mechanics: An illustration in the context of the Atwood’s machine. American Journal of Physics, 62 (1), 46-60.

Minstrell, J. (1989). Teaching science for understanding. In L. B. Resnick, and L. E. Klopfer (Eds.), Toward the Thinking Curriculum: Current Cognitive Research (pp. 129-149). Alexandria, VA: American Society for Curriculum Development.

Minstrell, J. (2000). Student thinking and related assessment: Creating a facet-based learning environment. In N. S. Raju, J. W. Pellegrino, M. W. Bertenthal, K. J. Mitchell, and L. R. Jones (Eds.), Grading the Nation’s Report Card: Research from the Evaluation NAEP. Washington DC: National Academy Press, pp. 44-73.

Moore, T. A. (1998). Six Ideas that Shaped Physics. Boston: WCB/McGraw-Hill.



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Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools, Report of the Content Panel for Physics International Baccalaureate Organisation. (2001). IB diploma programme guide: Physics, 2001. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. Knight, R. D. (1997). Physics: a contemporary perspective. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Kolodny, A. (1991). Colleges must recognize students’ cognitive styles and cultural backgrounds. Chronicle Higher Education, 37(21), A44. Laws, P. W. (1997). Workshop Physics Activity Guide. New York: Wiley. Laws, P. (1989). Workshop physics: replacing lectures with real experience. In E. F. Redish and J. S. Riley (Eds.), Computers in Physics Instruction: Proceedings. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Laws, P. W. (1991). Calculus-based physics without lectures. Physics Today, 44 (12), 24-31. Laws, P. W. (1999). New approaches to science and mathematics teaching at liberal arts colleges. Daedalus, 128 (1), 217-240. Lichten, W. (2000). Whither Advanced Placement? Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8(29), 1-19. Mazur, E. (1997). Peer Instruction, A User’s Manual. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. McDermott, L. C. (1991). What we teach and what is learned—Closing the gap. American Journal of Physics, 59 (4), 301-315. McDermott, L. C. and E.F. Redish. (1999). Resource Letter PER-1: Physics Education Research. American Journal of Physics, 67, 755-767. McDermott, L. C., and P. S. Shaffer. (2002). Tutorials on introductory physics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. McDermott, L. C., P. S. Shaffer, and M. D. Somers. (1994). Research as a guide for teaching introductory mechanics: An illustration in the context of the Atwood’s machine. American Journal of Physics, 62 (1), 46-60. Minstrell, J. (1989). Teaching science for understanding. In L. B. Resnick, and L. E. Klopfer (Eds.), Toward the Thinking Curriculum: Current Cognitive Research (pp. 129-149). Alexandria, VA: American Society for Curriculum Development. Minstrell, J. (2000). Student thinking and related assessment: Creating a facet-based learning environment. In N. S. Raju, J. W. Pellegrino, M. W. Bertenthal, K. J. Mitchell, and L. R. Jones (Eds.), Grading the Nation’s Report Card: Research from the Evaluation NAEP. Washington DC: National Academy Press, pp. 44-73. Moore, T. A. (1998). Six Ideas that Shaped Physics. Boston: WCB/McGraw-Hill.

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Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools, Report of the Content Panel for Physics Morrison, P., P. Morrison, and J. Pine. (1996). ZAP! Electrical Circuits and Fields. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2002). Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, VA: author. National Research Council. (1996). National science education standards. National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment. Coordinating Council for Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. (1997a). Improving Teacher Preparation and Credentialing Consistent with the National Science Education Standards: Report of a Symposium. Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council (1997b). Science Teaching Reconsidered. Committee on Undergraduate Science Education. Division on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school: expanded edition. Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning. J. D. Bransford, A. L. Brown, and R. R. Cocking (Eds.). Committee on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Neuschatz, M. and M. McFarling. (1999). Maintaining Momentum: high school physics for a new millennium. College Park, MD: American Institute of Physics. Redish, E. F., R. N. Steinberg, and J. M. Saul. (1998). The distribution and change of student expectations in introductory physics. In E. F. Redish, and J. S. Rigden (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Undergraduate Physics Education (1996). Washington D.C.: American Institute of Physics. Reif, F. and J. H. Larkin. (1991). Cognition in scientific and everyday domains: Comparison and learning implications. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 28, 733-760. Roelofs, L.D. (1997). Preparing Physics Majors for Secondary Level Teaching: The Education Concentration in the Haverford College Physics Program. American Journal of Physics, 65, 1057-1059. Roth, W. M. and K. B. Lucas. (1997). From “truth” to “invented reality”: A discourse analysis of high school physics students’ talk about scientific knowledge. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 34 (2), 145-179. Serway, R. A. and R. J. Beichner. (2000). Physics for scientists and engineers. Philadelphia: Saunders College Publishing.

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Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools, Report of the Content Panel for Physics Shaffer, P. S. and L. C. McDermott. (1992). Research as a guide for curriculum development— An example from introductory electricity. Part II: Design of instructional strategies. American Journal of Physics, 60 (11), 1003-1013. Sherin, B., A. diSessa, and D. Hammer. (1993) . Dynaturtle revisited: Learning physics through collaborative design of a computer model . Interactive Learning Environments, 3 (2), 91-118. Sokoloff, D. R., P. W. Laws, and R. K. Thornton. (1994). Real Time Physics: active learning laboratories: mechanics. Medford, MA: Tufts University. Sokoloff, D. R., P. W. Laws, and R. K. Thornton. (1997). Real Time Physics: active learning laboratories: electric circuits. Eugene, OR: Department of Physics, University of Oregon. Taylor, E.F., and J.A. Wheeler. (2001). Spacetime physics: introduction to special relativity, 2nd edition. New York: W.H. Freeman. Thornton, R. and D. Sokoloff. (1990). Learning motion concepts using real-time microcomputer-based laboratory tools. Amercian Journal of Physics, 58 (9), 858-66. Thornton, R. K. and D. R. Sokoloff. (1998). Assessing student learning of Newton’s laws: The Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation and the Evaluation of Active Learning Laboratory and Lecture Curricula. American Journal of Physics, 66 (4), 338-352. van Zee, E. H. and J. A. Minstrell. (1997). Reflective discourse: developing shared understandings in a physics classroom. International Journal of Science Education, 19, 209-228. Wells, M., D. Hestenes, and G. Swackhamer. (1995). A Modeling Method For High-School Physics Instruction. American Journal of Physics, 63 (7), 606-619. White, B. Y. and Frederiksen, J. R. (1998). Inquiry, modeling, and metacognition: Making science accessible to all students. Cognition and Instruction, 16 (1), 3-118. Wilensky, U. and M. Resnick. (1999). Thinking in levels: A dynamic systems perspective to making sense of the world. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 8 (1), 3-19. Wosilait, K., P. R. L. Heron, P. S. Shaffer, and L. C. McDermott. (1999). Addressing student difficulties in applying a wave model to the interference, and diffraction of light. American Journal of Physics, 67 (7), S5-S15.

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Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools, Report of the Content Panel for Physics FIGURE 3-1 1993 AP Physics B Problem 2.

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Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools, Report of the Content Panel for Physics SOURCE: (CEEB, 1994a).

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Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools, Report of the Content Panel for Physics FIGURE 3-2 1998 AP Physics B Problem 6. SOURCE: (CEEB, 1999b)

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Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools, Report of the Content Panel for Physics FIGURE 3-3 1993 AP Physics C Mechanics. Problem 2.

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Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools, Report of the Content Panel for Physics SOURCE: (CEEB, 1994b)

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Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools, Report of the Content Panel for Physics FIGURE 3-4 1998 AP Physics C Electricity/Magnetism Problem 3. SOURCE: (CEEB, 1999b)