the incident at different levels of analysis as seen by different participants and witnesses):

  • Description of the shooting itself: preparations, precipitating events (including possible provocation by victims), location, targets, relationship of shooter to victims, immediate responses that ended the incident

  • Motivations/state of mind of shooter at time of shooting

  • Recent trends in objective and subjective life of the shooter

  • Witness accounts of shooting (including their interpretations of the offender and motivations)

  • Warning signs for incident (e.g., shooter’s threats, widely known festering grievances and disputes)

  • Immediate conditions in the school affecting motivation for incident

  • Immediate conditions in the school affecting response to incident

  • Immediate conditions in the community affecting motivation for incident

  • Immediate conditions in the community affecting response to incident

  1. Individual factors: Individual traits and family background of offenders:

  • Prior criminal activity of the offender

  • School record (both achievement and disciplinary)

  • Peer standing/affiliations at school (What groups? What standing in individual groups? Relationships with opposite sex?)

  • Important adults in offender’s life/quality of communication and connection

  • Family relationships (parents/siblings) (strength/quality) (parental knowledge/supervision of kids)

  • History of mental illness

  • Interest/consumption of violent media materials

  • Experience with firearms

  1. Community-level factors affecting incident and response:

    • Economic status of community (mean and variance)

    • Stability of community (transience)

    • Social coherence/divisions in community (ethnic, racial, religious, political)

    • Stock of “social capital” in community

    • Engagement of community with teenagers and with schools

    • Teen culture in community

    • Police strategy/organization/connection to community

    • Justice system organization/connection to community



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