Administrators too numerous to list here ensured that all the day-to-day problems were resolved. We are deeply appreciative to all of them.

Finally, we are grateful to Jason Bentley, Khalil Sumpter, and their families for talking to us about this most difficult period in their lives. Their generosity was fundamental to the success of our effort.

NOTES

1  

Schmitz, Stevens, Feldman, and Fullilove, unpublished manuscript.

2  

Thomas and Thomas, 1928.

3  

Engel, 1980.

4  

Donaldson G., 1993.

5  

Freedman S.G., 1993.

6  

Sullivan M., 1981.

7  

O’Connor S., 1997.

8  

Atlas.ti, Scolari, 1995.

9  

This version of the story is Bentley’s. Greg Donaldson’s version—the only other detailed accounting we found—offers a different account of the source of the beef but corroborates both the impression of Jermaine and the course of events Bentley described (pp. 227–232).

10  

Fieldnotes.

11  

Fieldnotes.

12  

Reports of the events vary, including in such basic facts as the spelling of names and the reporting of ages. Daryl, for example, was called “Darrell” in the original police report and in the first articles in The New York Times, but “Daryl” in later articles, as well as in Greg Donaldson’s book. Other facts were inconsistently reported as well. The incident described here was referred to in a number of news articles as a “fight over a book bag.” By contrast, the thrust of people’s descriptions about life in East New York, the presence of guns, and the organization of the youth culture were highly consistent, despite variations in details of stories.

13  

Fieldnotes.

14  

New York Newsday, 11/26/91.

15  

New York Newsday, 11/26/91; Anderson returned to teach at Thomas Jefferson High School but was quickly given an unwanted transfer. When he asked why, he was told it was to avoid “the wrong kind of celebrity” (fieldnotes).

16  

New York Newsday, 11/26/91, cited “Since 1987, 50 of the school’s students have been killed or wounded near the Pennsylvania Avenue campus” while The Los Angeles Times, 7/7/91, quoted Principal Beck as saying, “I have lost more than 30 children over four years—stabbed, primarily shot.” Donaldson reported that 75 students had died violently in the previous four years (p. 322).

17  

Los Angeles Times, 11/27/91.

18  

Time, 3/9/92.

19  

Fieldnotes.

20  

The New York Times, 11/30/91.

21  

The New York Times, 11/30/91.

22  

New York Newsday, 12/7/91.

23  

Donaldson G., p. 237.

24  

The New York Times, 12/2/91.

25  

Fieldnotes; Donaldson. Reports agree on the sequence of events and the relationship between Khalil and Tyrone. Khalil’s parents corroborated that there were phone threats,



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