66  

New York Newsday, 6/30/93.

67  

Trial record, pp. 783.

68  

Trial record, p. 793.

69  

Fieldnotes. More recently, the perception of danger was the basis for the successful defense of the police officers who fired 41 shots into the African immigrant Amadou Diallo.

70  

Trial record, p. 407.

71  

Trial record, p. 408.

72  

Trial record, p. 416.

73  

Fieldnotes; New York Newsday, 7/1/93.

74  

Trial record, p. 573.

75  

Fieldnotes.

76  

Trial record, p. 880.

77  

Trial record, p. 922.

78  

New York Newsday, 9/4/93.

79  

New York Newsday, 9/8/92.

80  

Wallace D., Wallace R., 1998.

81  

Rand, 1969.

82  

A health area is a geographic unit designated by the Health Department for the collection of vital statistics.

83  

The New York Times, 12/2/91.

84  

Fieldnotes.

85  

New York Newsday, 4/23/91.

86  

Fieldnotes, New York Newsday, 4/23/91.

87  

New York Police Department statistics.

88  

Jacobs J., 1993.

89  

Donaldson G., 1993.

90  

Donaldson, p. 210.

91  

Notorious B.I.G., a rapper from Brooklyn, explained it in the song, “What’s Beef?” This was one of the last songs he wrote before being murdered in what some thought was a beef-fueled feud.

92  

Fieldnotes.

93  

Fieldnotes.

94  

Fieldnotes.

95  

Fieldnotes.

96  

Fieldnotes.

97  

Fieldnotes.

98  

Fieldnotes.

99  

Time, 5/25/92.

100  

The New York Times, 3/3/92

101  

Fieldnotes.

102  

Fieldnotes.

103  

New York Newsday, 11/25/91.

104  

Fieldnotes.

105  

Fieldnotes.

106  

The New York Times, 3/7/92.

107  

Fieldnotes.

108  

The New York Times, 3/3/92.

109  

Trial record, p. 416.

110  

Fieldnotes.

111  

The New York Times, 6/10/01.

112  

Wallace, R ., Fullilove, M. and Flisher, A., 1996; Wallace, R., Flisher, A. and Fullilove, R., 1997; Wallace, R. and Fullilove, R., 1999.



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