TABLE 10-1 Matrix for Organizing Risk Factors for Violent Behavior

Units of Observation and Explanation

Proximity to Violent Events and Their Consequences

Predisposing

Situational

Activating

Social

Macrosocial

Concentration of poverty

Opportunity structures

Decline of social capital

Oppositional cultures

Sex-role socialization

Physical structure

Routine activities

Access: Weapons, emergency medical services

Catalytic social event

Microsocial

Community organizations

Illegal markets

Gangs

Family disorganization

Preexisting structures

Proximity of responsible monitors

Participants’ social relationships

Bystanders’ activities

Temporary communication impairments

Weapons: carrying, displaying

Participants’ communication exchange

Individual

Psychosocial

Temperament

Learned social responses

Perceptions of rewards/ penalties for violence

Violent deviant sexual preferences

Cognitive ability

Social, communication skills

Self-identification in social hierarchy

Accumulated emotion

Alcohol/drug consumption

Sexual arousal

Premeditation

Impulse

Opportunity recognition

Biological

Neurobiologica “traits”

Genetically mediated traits

Chronic use of psychoactive substances or exposure to neurotoxins

Transient neurobiologica “states”

Acute effects of psychoactive substances

Sensory signal-processing errors

Interictal events

aIncludes neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, neurochemical, and neuroendocrine. “Traits” describes capacity as determined by status at birth, trauma, and aging processes such as puberty. “States” describes temporary conditions associated with emotions, external stressors, etc.

SOURCE: NAS, 1993.



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