PHILIP B. HEYMANN is the James Barr Ames professor of law at Harvard Law School, and director of the Harvard Law School Center for Criminal Justice. He studied philosophy at the Sorbonne under a Fulbright scholarship, and served as law clerk to Justice Harlan, United States Supreme Court, October Term, 1960. He has held government policy-level positions within the Department of State, as deputy assistant secretary for the Bureau of International Organizations, and executive assistant to the Under-secretary of State; and within the Department of Justice, where his most recent appointment was as deputy attorney general. His research interests include international law, especially prosecution and court procedures, investigations, violence, and terrorism. He currently serves on the National Research Council’s Committee on Law and Justice. Professor Heymann received his law degree in 1960 from Harvard University.

JAMES F. SHORT, JR., is professor emeritus, Washington State University. He was director of research (with Marvin Wolfgang) of the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence (1968–69), and a member of the National Research Council Committee on Law and Justice, and that committee’s Panel on the Understanding and Control of Violent Behavior. He served as editor of the American Sociological Review and as president of the American Sociological Association, the Pacific Sociological Society, and the American Society of Criminology. His most recent book is Poverty, Ethnicity, and Violent Crime. Currently he is a member of the U.S. Academic Advisory Council of the National Campaign Against Youth Violence, and advisory committees for the National Consortium on Violence Research, and the National Youth Gang Center. His honors include the Edwin H. Sutherland Award of the American Society of Criminology, the Bruce Smith Award from the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, the Paul W. Tappan Award from the Western Society of Criminology, and the Guardsmark Wolfgang Award for Distinguished Achievement in Criminology. He is the namesake for the James F. Short, Jr., Best Article Award, created by the American Sociological Association Section on Crime, Law, and Deviance.

STEPHEN A. SMALL is a professor of human development and family studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Human Development and family relations specialist for the University of Wisconsin-Extension. He received a Ph.D. in developmental psychology from the Department of Human Development and Family Studies at Cornell University in 1985. Professor Small’s work is primarily focused on adolescent development, parenting, program development and evaluation, and action-oriented research methods. His research in Wisconsin has

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