Index

A

Abstract grievances, 4, 337

Academic performance, 5, 38, 45, 75, 88, 103, 104, 107, 136, 148, 177, 202, 204, 257

Access to weapons, 5, 254, 256, 307–308

bomb-making instructions, 47, 50

Heath High School shooter, 140, 145–146

Heritage High School shooter, 34–35, 42, 48, 52–53, 68

Parker Middle School shooter, 81–82, 84, 93

prevention of school violence and, 7, 93, 335

research needs, 337–338

Tilden High School shooter, 179

Westside Middle School shooters, 106, 109, 117, 130

See also Guns

Adolescent development, 249, 256–257

status anxieties, 336

Adolescent mass murderers, 303–304

Alexander, Eric, 212

Alford plea, 153

Ambrose, Leonard G., 97

Amer, Christina, 108

Anderson, Robert, 198, 203

Atlas.ti software, 201

Attention deficit disorder, 42–43, 258

B

Barnes, Crystal, 108

Beck, Carol, 201, 203, 211, 212, 227

Benedek, Elissa, 150

Bentley, Jason, 198, 204, 214, 231–233.

See also Thomas Jefferson High School (East New York, New York) shootings

Bentley, Jermaine, 202

Berger, Robert H., 216

Betts, Ashley, 108

Biopsychosocial research, 199

Blundell, Mae Dean, 41

Bond, Bill, 132, 142

Boraten, Edrye May, 73, 81

Breen, Michael, 157

Brooks, Jenna, 108

Brooks, Natalie, 108

Buckley, Brendan P., 204

Bullying and taunting, 94, 317

definition and characteristics, 316, 317

harmful effects, 317

life-span development and, 317

prevalence, 316–317

preventive interventions, 67, 124, 317–318

research needs, 338

by shooter, 104, 115, 116

shooter as target of, 6, 49, 67, 115, 116, 146–147, 308

Byrne, Thomas, 187, 188–189, 191



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Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence Index A Abstract grievances, 4, 337 Academic performance, 5, 38, 45, 75, 88, 103, 104, 107, 136, 148, 177, 202, 204, 257 Access to weapons, 5, 254, 256, 307–308 bomb-making instructions, 47, 50 Heath High School shooter, 140, 145–146 Heritage High School shooter, 34–35, 42, 48, 52–53, 68 Parker Middle School shooter, 81–82, 84, 93 prevention of school violence and, 7, 93, 335 research needs, 337–338 Tilden High School shooter, 179 Westside Middle School shooters, 106, 109, 117, 130 See also Guns Adolescent development, 249, 256–257 status anxieties, 336 Adolescent mass murderers, 303–304 Alexander, Eric, 212 Alford plea, 153 Ambrose, Leonard G., 97 Amer, Christina, 108 Anderson, Robert, 198, 203 Atlas.ti software, 201 Attention deficit disorder, 42–43, 258 B Barnes, Crystal, 108 Beck, Carol, 201, 203, 211, 212, 227 Benedek, Elissa, 150 Bentley, Jason, 198, 204, 214, 231–233. See also Thomas Jefferson High School (East New York, New York) shootings Bentley, Jermaine, 202 Berger, Robert H., 216 Betts, Ashley, 108 Biopsychosocial research, 199 Blundell, Mae Dean, 41 Bond, Bill, 132, 142 Boraten, Edrye May, 73, 81 Breen, Michael, 157 Brooks, Jenna, 108 Brooks, Natalie, 108 Buckley, Brendan P., 204 Bullying and taunting, 94, 317 definition and characteristics, 316, 317 harmful effects, 317 life-span development and, 317 prevalence, 316–317 preventive interventions, 67, 124, 317–318 research needs, 338 by shooter, 104, 115, 116 shooter as target of, 6, 49, 67, 115, 116, 146–147, 308 Byrne, Thomas, 187, 188–189, 191

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Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence C Cameron, Shawn, 204 Carneal, Ann, 135, 143, 144 Carneal, John, 135–136, 143, 144 Carneal, Kelly, 133, 135, 137, 143, 144, 148 Carneal, Micheal, 135–138. See also Heath High School (Paducah, Kentucky) shooting Carroll, Patrick, 206, 221, 222 Case study findings contagion mechanisms, 259–260 cultural factors, 253–255 responses to incidents, 260–264 school characteristics, 255–256 shooter characteristics, 256–259 significance of, 15, 311–312, 351, 353– 354, 360–362 similarities and differences among, 249– 252, 266–283 socioeconomic factors, 252 See also specific case Case study methodology, 14–15, 17–18, 23, 199 appropriate use, 8, 24, 351, 352–354, 360–362 case selection, 2, 3, 13, 18–20, 351 cross-case analysis, 247–248 data sources, 22–23, 26–27, 71–72, 101, 132–133, 199–202 defining characteristics, 353 generalizability, 353–354 goals, 10–11, 17 naturalistic approach, 354–355 negative case analysis, 360–361 systems approach to behavioral research, 352, 355–360 template design, 20–22 Castillo, Sheila, 185 Causes of school violence, 4, 309, 310,328– 329 adult–child relationships, 152–153, 235– 236, 253–254 bullying and taunting, 67, 116, 146–147 challenges in identifying, 285 classification, 328 community characteristics and, 19, 252, 328 copycat incidents, 39, 41, 97, 259–260, 325, 326 cross-case analysis, 248 cultural factors, 253–255 dynamic/situational factors, 311–312, 314 exposure to media violence, 117–118, 130, 151–152, 253–255, 315–316, 325 family problems, 114–116, 143–145 gun culture, 116–117, 145–146, 254 Heath High School shooting, 143–153 Heritage High School shooting, 41, 67– 68 interpersonal conflict, 202, 205, 225 mental health of shooter, 39–41, 114, 150–151 multifactorial, 247–248, 331 research needs, 8, 338 school characteristics, 255–256 shooter characteristics, 256–259, 309 socioeconomic factors, 252 structural, 311, 312 student beliefs, 65 Thomas Jefferson High School shootings, 202, 205, 237 Tilden High School shooting, 163 Westside Middle School shooting, 113– 120, 129–130 See also Goals of shooter Chicago, Illinois history of school violence, 164 See also Tilden High School (Chicago, Illinois) shooting Christian Institute of Human Relations, 96 Civil law suits, 63, 97, 128, 155–157, 262–263 against gun manufacturers, 117, 128 Clark, Charles, 150 Coleman, James S., 160, 238 Columbine High School (Littleton, Colorado) shooting, 1, 25, 234, 260, 341 influence on Heritage High School shooter, 39, 41, 49–52, 56–57, 67 Committee to Study Youth Violence in Schools, 1–2, 10–11 Community characteristics, 2–3, 5–6, 18, 21 aftermath of Heath High School shooting, 154–160 aftermath of Heritage High School shooting, 64–67 aftermath of Tilden High School shooting, 184 aftermath of Westside Middle School shooting, 127–129 attitudes toward civil suits filed by victims’ families, 156–157

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Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence attitudes toward shooter after incident, 64–65, 154, 155 attitudes toward shooter’s family after incident, 155–156 attributions of causality for shootings, 261–262 causes of school violence related to, 19, 252, 328 criminal and violent behavior, 31–33, 92 criminal justice system, 33–34 cross-case comparison, 268–271 demographics, 28, 29, 89–90, 133, 134, 169–171, 172 entertainment and recreation, 29, 32–33, 37, 90–92 forms of school violence related to, 18– 19 gun culture, 34–35, 66, 93, 116–117, 145– 146, 209, 221, 226, 230 Heath High School, 133–134, 152–153 Heritage High School, 25, 27–34 interventions to prevent violence, 7, 92– 93 involvement with school after incident, 191, 203, 212–214 motivations of shooters and, 249–252 obstacles to violence prevention, 227– 228 Parker Middle School, 88, 89–92 race/ethnicity, 169–170, 171, 172 rapid social change, 6, 27–28, 29, 30–31, 66, 169–170, 207–210, 230–231, 252, 341 religiosity, 30, 90, 102, 135 research needs, 340–341 resident self-image, 29–30 responses to shooting incidents, 261 shooter characteristics and, 256 socioeconomic, 28, 29, 31, 90, 133–134, 163, 169–172, 175, 224 street violence, 203 Thomas Jefferson High School, 202, 204–205, 207–210, 212–214, 217–222, 229, 230–233, 237 Tilden High School, 169–172 urban confrontation scenarios, 222–225 urban ecological transition, 217–221 Westside Middle School, 101–102 youth–adult relationships, 6, 7–8, 119– 120, 152–153, 160, 227–228, 231–233, 235–236, 237–239, 253–254, 256, 263– 264 youth exposure to violence, 228, 229 See also Suburban and rural schools; Urban schools Consequences of violence, 3–4, 22 community actions and beliefs, 64–67, 127–129, 154–155 definition of school violence, 13 Heath High School shooting, 132, 138– 139, 154–155, 159–160 Heritage High School shooting, 25, 55– 56, 62–67 long-term, 159–160 mortality/morbidity, 1, 55–56, 62, 70, 73, 101, 202–203 Parker Middle School shooting, 97 resident self-image, 29–30 suicidal behavior of shooter, 25, 27, 61, 62 for teachers, 126, 127, 160, 340 threats against school, 123 victim mental health, 62–63, 125–127, 159–160 Westside Middle School community, 122–123 See also Responses to violent incidents Conti, Joseph P., 74 Conyers, Georgia. See Heritage High School (Rockdale County, Georgia) shooting Copycat incidents, 5 conceptual model, 326 contagiousness of violence, 3 cross-case analysis, 259–260 Heritage High School shooting as, 39, 41, 49–52, 56–57, 67 influence of Columbine High School shooting, 1, 25, 39, 41, 49–52, 56–57, 67, 234, 260, 341 influence of urban youth violence epidemic, 316 mass murders, 319–320 media role in, 325–326 Parker Middle School shooting as, 97 prevalence, 324–325 prevention, 309 proliferation of, 68 research needs, 340 statistical evidence, 296–297 suicide clusters, 326–328 Westside Middle School, 118 workplace violence, 320–321

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Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence Corley, Sharron, 226 Cornell, Dewey, 150 Corporal punishment, 43–44, 48, 107 Cosby, Bill, 212–213 Course of events, 20–21, 305 cross-case comparison, 250–251,266–267 Heath High School shooting, 140–143 Heritage High School shooting, 25, 52– 57 initial press reports in Tilden High School shooting, 164, 165–167, 168 Parker Middle School shooting, 70, 72– 74, 76–77, 80–81 shooter behavior after shooting, 45–47, 77, 110–111 Thomas Jefferson High School shootings, 200, 202–203, 205–206, 216 Tilden High School shooting, 179–180 Westside Middle School shooting, 108– 113 Craft, Jeffrey, 96 Criminal behavior characteristics of violent juvenile offenders, 313 Heritage High School community, 31–33 national homicide patterns, 297–301 Parker Middle School community, 92 shooter history, 39, 48–49, 105, 136, 177, 182–183, 205, 257 suspected co-conspirators of shooter, 74, 142–143 Tilden High School community, 175, 176 Criminal justice process competency of juveniles in, 121 confidentiality issues, 165–166 cost of defense, 84 cross-case analysis, 262–263 eligibility for parole and probation, 57, 61 Heath High School shooting, 153–154 Heritage High School shooting, 26–27, 34, 57–62 juveniles tried as adults in, 34, 57–58, 59–60, 74, 121, 153, 165 media coverage and, 166–167, 168, 181 mental health care in prison, 99 mental health of defendant, 39–40, 57, 58–61, 62, 68–69, 74–75, 79, 121, 150, 153, 215–217, 258 Parker Middle School shooting, 70, 74, 79 prosecution and sentencing of shooter(s), 6–7, 25, 34, 57–62, 120–122, 153–154, 166–167, 168, 178–184, 262 public perception of leniency in, 7, 121– 122 , 127–128, 153–154 response to violent incidents, 6–7 Rockland County, Georgia, 33–34 Thomas Jefferson High School shootings, 214–217 Tilden High School shooting, 163, 164, 166–167, 168, 178–184 victim participation in prosecution and sentencing, 63 Westside Middle School shooting, 120– 122 Crist, Patricia M., 73, 74, 96 D Daley, Richard, 163, 164, 185, 186, 187, 193, 194 Definition of school violence, 11–13, 287– 288 Delusional thinking, 78–79 Depression classification of mental illness in legal proceedings, 58 in shooter, 39, 47, 305 Dinkins, David, 199, 206, 211, 213, 236 Donaldson, Greg, 201, 204, 223, 224–225 Drug and alcohol use, 256 crack cocaine, 314 in Heritage High School, 32–33, 37 in Parker Middle School community, 92 by shooter, 48, 75, 84 in Thomas Jefferson High School community, 209, 221–222 youth violence and, 314, 315 E East New York, New York. See Thomas Jefferson High School (East New York, New York) shootings Ecological mapping, 201 Ecological psychology assessment, 41 Edinboro, Pennsylvania. See Parker Middle School (Edinboro, Pennsylvania) shooting Egitto, Francis X., 217

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Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence Emotional functioning family of shooter, 44, 45–47 shooter characteristics, 50–51, 78, 85, 105–106, 115, 204–205 of shooting victims, 62–63 trauma-related disorders, 234 Engel, George, 199 F Family structure and functioning community attitudes toward perpetrator’s family, 155–156 cross-case analysis, 248 divorce, 41–42, 103 emotional functioning, 44, 45–47 Heath High School shooter’s, 135–136, 143–145, 155 Heritage High School shooter’s, 25, 41– 44 interactions after shooting, 45–47 marital relations, 84 Parker Middle School shooter’s, 76, 78, 83–85 protective factors, 92–93 recognition of mental problems, 97–98 residential moves, 42–43, 103 shooter characteristics, 5, 25, 41–44, 76, 78, 83–85, 103, 104–107, 114–116, 135– 136 , 171–172, 228, 258–259, 305, 307 sibling relations, 43, 76, 84, 144, 148 supervision and discipline, 43–44, 103, 105, 106–107, 114, 144–145 Thomas Jefferson High shooters’, 204 Tilden High School shooter’s, 171–172 victims’ families, 62, 154 in violent urban environment, 228 Westside Middle School shooter’s, 103, 104–107, 114–116 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 308– 309 Fernandez, Joseph, 199, 204, 211, 212 Fletcher, Justin, 73, 76, 80–81, 86–87 Forms of school violence conceptual classification, 288–291 definition of school violence, 11–13, 287–288 research needs, 337–338 trends, 2, 4–5 in urban vs. rural/suburban communities, 5, 7, 18–19, 249–252, 289 Fresh, Doug E., 204 Frustration, 319 G Gang activity/affiliation, 33, 118, 226, 253, 313 alliances between gangs, 173 racial conflict and, 173, 174–175, 178 Tilden High School shooting and, 75, 164, 165, 172–174, 176, 177, 178, 183, 184 in youth homicide epidemic of 1990s, 313, 315 Gillette, John J., 70, 71, 76, 80, 83, 97 Glover, Dewaun, 178, 179 Goals of shooter, 307 to achieve group acceptance, 148–149 cross-case comparison, 268–269 to get attention, 59, 118 in Heath High School shooting, 146–150 media speculation about, 56 in Parker Middle School shooting, 80 revenge against despised groups, 49, 147–148 revenge for teasing and bullying, 67, 116, 146–147 shooters’ statements, 56, 76–77, 143 suicide by cop, 59, 323–324 in Tilden High School shooting, 180 in urban vs. rural/suburban communities, 249–252 in Westside Middle School shooting, 112, 113 Golden, Andrew, 101, 106–108, 115–116, 118 See also Westside Middle School (Jonesboro, Arkansas) shooting Golden, Doug, 106 Greene, Bob, 188 Guns civil suits against manufacturers of, 117, 128 community attitudes, 34–35, 66, 93, 116– 117, 145–146, 209, 221, 226, 230 control efforts, 222 reasons for possessing, 35 research needs, 337–338 school security policies, 66–67 shooter’s enthusiasm for, 44–45, 49, 117 student attitudes and experiences, 210, 226

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Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence trigger locks, 93, 117 use in peer conflicts, 37–38 youth homicide epidemic of 1990s and, 313, 314, 315 See also Access to weapons Gutmann, Ann, 216, 217 H Habib, Joseph, 165, 166, 168, 179, 181, 182 Hadley, Nicole, 137–138, 139, 148, 149 Hamburg, Margaret, 210 Hard, Kelly, 139 Hawkins, Yusef, 205 Hayes, Lonnie, 223, 225 Heath High School (Paducah, Kentucky) shooting, 20 causes, 143–153 civil suits arising from, 155–157 community characteristics, 133–134, 152–153 consequences for community, 154–155 course of events, 140–143 data collection, 132–133 mortality/morbidity, 132, 138–139 prosecution and sentencing, 153–154 school characteristics, 134–135 school security response, 157–159 shooter characteristics, 135–138 suspected co-conspirators, 142–143 Henderson, Jermaine, 203 Heritage High School (Rockdale County, Georgia) shooting, 20 causes, 41, 67–68 community characteristics, 25, 27–31, 64–67 consequences, 30, 62–67 course of events, 25, 52–57 data collection, 26–27 gun ownership and, 34–35, 68 influence of Columbine shooting, 49–52, 56–57, 67 overall crime rate of region, 31–33 school characteristics, 38–39 security measures before, 38–39 shooter characteristics, 25, 39–49, 67–68 student characteristics, 35–38 trial and sentencing, 34, 57–62, 68–69 Herring, Paige, 108 Hill, John, 215 Holm, Hollan, 139, 160 I Impellizzeri, Irene, 213 Infoshare, 201 Internet, 47, 50, 136–137, 144 Irushalmi, Bruce, 201 Irving, Whitney, 108 J Jackson, Jesse, 184–185, 194 Jacobs, Jane, 222–223 Jacobs, Jennifer, 108, 112 James, Jessica, 138 Jenkins, Melissa, 139, 160 Johnson, Mitchell, 101, 102–106, 108, 114– 115, 117–118. See also Westside Middle School (Jonesboro, Arkansas) shooting Johnson, Scott, 103 Johnson, Stephanie, 108, 110 Jonesboro, Arkansas. See Westside Middle School (Jonesboro, Arkansas) Juvenile Justice Reform Act, 34 Juviler, Michael, 214 K Kaltenbach, Tim, 153 Keene, Craig, 139 Kimbaugh, Ted, 188, 194 Knox, George, 174 Kuby, Ron, 215, 216 Kunstler, William, 215, 216, 217 L Lambie, Brittany, 108 Lawson, Delondyn, 163, 164, 165, 168, 179 Lawson, Linda, 164, 168, 181 Lee, Spike, 213 Literature review, 13–14, 302 contagion mechanisms, 324–328 mass murders, 303–304, 318–320 school rampage shootings, 303–309 suicide of homicide offenders, 322–324 violence in general, 309–312 workplace violence, 320–322 youth violence, 313–316 Loners, 36, 44, 45, 48, 303, 305 Lowery, Richard, 210

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Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence M Mass murderers, 303–304, 318–320 Masters, David A., 73, 89 McCall, Carl, 204 McGowan, Tristan, 108 McIlvane, Thomas, 320–321 Media coverage, 29–30, 63 community resentment of, 64, 121–122, 155 copycat crimes and, 325–326 criminal justice process and, 166–167, 168, 181 cross-case analysis, 260 exposure to media violence as cause of violence, 117–118, 130, 151–152, 253– 255, 315–316, 325 historical consistency, 295 imitative suicide and, 327–328 incident response, 56, 122 initial press reports in Thomas Jefferson High School shooting, 214–215 initial press reports in Tilden High School shooting, 164, 165–167, 168 Medley, Lena, 201 Mental health access to care, 66, 99 assessment and diagnosis, 40–41, 47, 93–94 causes of rampage shootings, 329 competency of juveniles, 121 detection of potential problems, 93–95, 97–98, 125, 159 development of psychosis in shooter after trial, 151 ecological psychology approach to assessment, 41 Heath High School shooter, 138, 150–151 Heritage High School shooter, 26–27, 39–41, 49–50, 57, 58–61, 62, 67 legal issues, 57, 58–61, 68–69, 121, 153, 215–217, 258 Parker Middle School shooter, 74–75, 76, 77–80, 97–98 provision of counseling services after incident, 65–66, 125–126, 203 psychological problems of victims, 62– 63, 125–127, 159–160 research needs, 339–340 shooter characteristics, 5, 42, 257–258, 305, 306 Westside Middle School shooters, 114 Merski, Robert, 95 Moore, Ian, 198, 205, 206–207 Moral panic, 193–195 Music, 47–48, 51–52, 75, 117–118, 315 N Nation, Sidney, 57, 60, 61 National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime, 308–309 National Organization of Victim Assistance, 125 National School Safety Center, 291 National Threat Assessment Center, 306–308 O O’Brien, John S., 79 O’Connor, Kathleen, 151 Ojiste, Lance, 216 P Paducah, Kentucky. See Heath High School (Paducah, Kentucky) shooting Palmisano, Michael M., 70, 97 Parker Middle School (Edinboro, Pennsylvania) shooting, 20 causes, 97–98 community characteristics, 89–92 course of events, 70, 72–74, 76–77, 80–81 data collection, 71–72 responses to, 92–96 school characteristics, 70–71, 88–89 shooter characteristics, 70, 74–80, 83–87 suspicion of conspiracy, 74 trial and sentencing, 70, 97 victims and witnesses, 70, 76–77, 80–83 Peer relations adolescent information processing deficits, 316 association with delinquent peers, 48–49 attitudes toward shooter after incident, 64–65 between shooters, 108, 109, 113 causes of school violence, 4, 202, 205 conflict between groups, 37 conflict between individuals, 37–38 gaining and protecting reputation, 226

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Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence Heath High School shooter, 136, 137, 147–149 Heritage High School, 35–38 individuals aware of shooter’s plans, 74, 81–83, 111, 140, 307, 308 interventions to improve, 213 loners, 36, 44, 45, 48, 303 Parker Middle School shooter, 74, 85–87 sexual behavior, 29–30 shooter characteristics, 5, 6, 39, 43, 44, 45, 48–49, 74, 85–87, 104, 107, 116, 150–151, 259 student groups and cliques, 6, 35–37, 49 suspected co-conspirators of shooter, 74, 142–143 threat assessment, 308–309 Westside Middle School shooters, 104, 107 youth–adult relationships and, 235–236 Pillars of Good Character, 94 Police, 66, 67 data sources, 26–27 gang interaction, 173 incident response, 54–55, 110–111, 167– 168, 341–342 in schools, 89, 95–96, 124–125, 158, 186– 187, 211, 263, 334 suicide by cop, 59, 323–324 youth perceptions of, 32–33 Pope, Elijah, 203 Porter, Candice, 108, 112 Prevention of violent incidents, 7–8 access to guns and, 7, 93, 335 challenges in designing interventions for, 285, 330 character education programs, 94, 98, 192 community-level interventions, 7 community standards as obstacle to, 227–228 consideration of dynamic/situational factors, 312 costs, 331 cross-case analysis of strategies for, 263–264 fostering student relations for, 213 Heath High School interventions, 89 identification of likely offenders, 332–334 improving youth–adult relationships for, 92–93, 160, 235–236, 237–239, 256, 263–264 intervention with bullying behavior, 67, 124, 317–318 interventions targeting adolescent development, 336 mental health interventions, 40–41, 68, 93–94 monitoring for problems in students, 93–95, 98, 125, 333 Parker Middle School interventions, 89 primary interventions, 330, 331 public health model, 330–331 research needs, 8 school shooter threat assessment, 308– 309 secondary/tertiary interventions, 330, 331–332 in smaller schools, 212 Thomas Jefferson High School interventions, 211–214, 236 thwarted events since Columbine High School shooting, 296 United for Safety Project, 213–214 weekend retreats, 213, 236 Westside Middle School interventions, 123–125 See also Security systems and practices R Race/ethnicity in Chicago gang conflict, 173, 174–175, 178 Heath High School demographics, 134 Heritage High School community, 29, 35, 36 Tilden High School community, 169– 170, 171, 172 Rampage violence, 4, 7, 288 existing research, 303–309 international incidents, 295–296 trends, 4–5 Religion/spirituality to foster child–adult relationships, 119 Heath High School community, 135 Heritage High School community, 30 Parker Middle School shooter, 75 violence and, 30 Westside Middle School community, 102 Westside Middle School shooters, 103– 104 Research needs, 8 contagion mechanisms of school violence, 340

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Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence developmental effects of exposure to violence, 339–340 effects of community change, 341 effects of school shootings for perpetrators, 337 effects of school shootings for victims, 337 failed attempts of school violence, 342 gun access and use, 338–339 individual risk factors for school violence, 339–340 nonlethal school violence, 337–338 parenting styles, 341 police response to school shootings, 342 prevalence of adolescent mental illness, 339 school security systems, 342 suicidal behavior/ideation among adolescents, 340 types of violence in urban schools vs. suburban/rural schools, 337–338 violence among suburban and rural youth, 336–337 workplace violence against teachers, 340 Responses to incidents, 22 attitudes toward shooter, 64–65, 154 cross-case analysis, 260–264, 278–283 moral panic analysis, 193–195 Parker Middle School community, 92– 96, 99 policy formulation, 4, 22, 263–264 preparedness for, 102 principal’s immediate actions, 190–192, 203 provision of counseling services, 65–66, 125–126, 154–155, 191, 203 school security reforms, 7, 55, 66–67, 95–96, 123–125, 157–159, 184–196, 211–212, 236, 262–263 Thomas Jefferson High School community, 203, 212–214 Tilden High School shooting, 184–190, 192–196 victim memorial, 71, 128, 154, 159 victim’s funeral, 203–204, 206–207 Revenge, 49, 67, 116, 147–148, 306, 307 classroom avenger model, 304–306 Rights of Passage Program, 192 Risk factors, 310 dynamic/situational, 311–312 research needs, 339–340 school shooter threat assessment, 308– 309 shooter characteristics, 5, 256–257, 332– 334 structural, 311, 312 Ritalin, 42–43, 52 Rockdale County, Georgia. See Heritage High School (Rockdale County, Georgia) shooting Romantic relationships of shooters, 45, 75, 87, 112, 115, 137–138, 139, 259 Rural schools. See Suburban and rural schools Russell, John, 215, 216 S Sadoff, Robert L., 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 82, 84, 87 Scaletta, Rick, 96 Schaberg, Shelley, 139, 160 Schetky, Diane, 150 Schneider, William, 58, 59–60 School characteristics, 22 as cause of school violence, 255–256 corporal punishment, 107 cross-case comparison, 272–273 culture of bullying, 317–318 gang activity, 178 Heath High School, 134–135 Heritage High School, 38–39, 66–67 immediate actions in response to shootings , 190–192, 203 interventions to prevent violence, 93– 95, 98, 157–159 parental involvement, 135, 238–239 Parker Middle School, 70–71, 88–89 post-incident trauma counseling, 65–66, 125–127, 154–155, 203 reforms following Tilden High School shooting, 184–190, 192–196 rule setting and enforcement, 123, 125– 126, 135, 163, 189–190 teacher–student relationships, 119–120 Westside Middle School, 102, 116 See also Security systems and practices School resource officers, 89, 95–96, 124–125, 158, 334 School violence, generally in aggregate patterns of violence, 285– 286, 289–291, 297, 299–301

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Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence classification, 288–291 existing research, 303–309 international incidents, 295–296 operational definition, 11–13, 287–288 research needs, 8, 336–342 trends, 1, 9–10, 11, 291–297, 300–301 Secret Service, 306–308 Security systems and practices effectiveness of, in preventing school violence, 334–335 exclusion of students, 192, 196, 212 Heath High School, 157–159 Heritage High School, 38–39 incident response, 55, 190–191 metal detectors, 66, 163, 164, 167, 184– 185, 186–189, 190, 191, 193, 194, 195, 210–211, 236, 263–264, 334 Parker Middle School, 89, 95–96 political context, 193–194 reforms of, after violent incidents, 7, 55, 66–67, 95–96, 123–125, 157–159, 184– 196, 211–212, 263 research needs, 341–342 school resource officers, 124–125, 158 student identification tags, 158 Thomas Jefferson High School, 211–212, 236 Tilden High School, 163, 184–190, 192– 196 Westside Middle School, 123–125 See also Prevention of violent incidents Self-image, 305, 336 Sex differences, 5 Sexuality/sexual behavior Heritage High School, 29–30, 37 taunting of shooter, 146 Sharpe, Daryl, 198, 202–204 Sherrill, Patrick Henry, 320 Shooter characteristics, 5, 21 academic performance, 5, 38, 45, 75, 88, 103, 104, 107, 136, 148, 177, 202, 204, 257 age, 256–257 as cause of school violence, 256–259, 309, 328, 329 childhood abuse experiences, 103, 115 classroom avengers, 304–306 cross-case analysis, 249, 256–259, 272–276 diversity, 307, 332–333 drug and alcohol use, 48, 75, 84 emotional functioning, 50–51, 85, 116 enthusiasm for guns, 44–45, 49, 106, 305 family structure and functioning, 5, 25, 41–44, 76, 78, 83–85, 103, 104–105, 106–107, 114–116, 135–136, 171–172, 228, 258–259, 305, 307 Heath High School shooting, 135–138 Heritage High School shooting, 25–26, 39–49, 67–68 history of antisocial behavior, 38, 48–49, 104, 105, 107, 136, 138, 177, 256, 257 mental health, 5, 26–27, 39–41, 68, 77– 80, 97–98, 114, 257–258, 305, 306 Parker Middle School shooting, 70, 74– 80 peer relations, 5, 6, 39, 43, 44, 45, 48–49, 74, 85–87, 104, 107, 136, 137, 259 preparatory actions, 276–279,306, 307 recreational and entertainment activities, 47–48, 75, 103–104, 117– 118, 136–137, 305 relationships with teachers, 119–120 religious beliefs/practices, 75, 103–104 risk factors, 5, 256 romantic experiences, 45, 75, 87, 112, 115, 137–138, 139, 259 social status, 252, 259, 336 as target for preventive intervention, 332–334 Thomas Jefferson High shootings, 204– 205 threat assessment, 308–309 Tilden High School shooting, 169–170 Westside Middle School shooting, 102– 108, 114–116 Sinkler, Tyrone, 198, 205 Situation analysis, 199 Small schools, 212 Smith, Marlon, 206 Societal violence, 2–3, 9, 249 avoidance strategies, 225–226 contagion effects, 297 Heritage High School community, 30 literature review, 309–312 in marginalized urban communities, 231 media violence, 117–118, 130, 137, 151– 152, 253–255, 315–316, 325 national trends, 175, 297–300 school violence in context of, 289–291, 297, 299–301 Thomas Jefferson High School community, 203, 204–205, 209, 221– 222 , 229, 230–231, 233–234

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Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence Tilden High School community, 174– 175, 176 urban confrontation scenarios, 222–226 violent video games, 118, 130, 136–137, 151, 315 in workplace, 320–322, 340 youth exposure, 228, 229 Solomon, Anthony, 41 Solomon, Anthony B., Jr., 25, 39–49. See also Heritage High School (Rockdale County, Georgia) shooting Statements and writings of perpetrators after shootings, 45–47, 56, 79, 112, 120– 121, 140, 146 before shootings, 47, 50–52, 79, 81–83, 85, 111, 143, 305–306, 307, 308 description of incident, 53–54, 76–77 during incident, 73, 142 regarding co-conspirators, 142–143 suicide note, 84 Steger, Kayce, 139 Steward, Hazel, 178, 188, 189, 190–191, 196 Strand, James A., 73, 77, 93 Stuck-Lewis, Denise, 74 Student characteristics group identification, 35–36, 137, 147–148 Heritage High School, 35–38 loners, 36 recreational activities, 32–33, 37, 91–92, 96 relationships with adults, 6, 7–8, 119– 120, 160, 227–228, 253–254, 256, 263– 264 Suburban and rural schools, 2–3 attributions of causality for shootings, 261–262 causes of violence in, 4 community characteristics, 5–6, 340 consequences of violence in, 3–4 forms of violence in, 7, 18–19, 289 influence of urban youth violence epidemic, 314–315, 316 motivations of shooters, 250–252 peer relations, 6 research needs, 337–338 responses to shooting incidents, 261, 263 shooter characteristics, 256, 257 Suicidal behavior/ideation, 25, 27, 36, 46, 51–52, 54, 61, 62, 82–83 contagion mechanisms, 326–328 early manifestations in shooter, 42, 48, 76, 147 as evidence of mental illness, 58 following commission of homicide, 322–324 Heath High School shooter, 140, 142, 147, 151 legal considerations, 58–59 research needs, 340 shooter characteristics, 258 suicide by cop, 59, 323–324 Summers, Warren, 45–46 Sumpter, Khalil, 198, 204, 214–217, 234, 235–236. See also Thomas Jefferson High School (East New York, New York) shootings Suttles, Gerald, 172 T Teich, Stephen, 216–217 Thetford, Lynette, 108 Thomas Jefferson High School (East New York, New York) shootings, 20, 198– 199 anti-violence programs after, 212–214, 236 community characteristics, 202, 204– 205, 207–210, 217–222, 229, 230–233, 237 course of events, 200, 202–203, 205–206, 216 data collection, 199–202 precipitating events, 202, 205 prosecution and sentencing, 214–217 security reforms after, 211–212 shooter characteristics, 204–205 student perceptions of, 234–235 victims, 202–203 youth–adult relationships, 227–228, 235–236, 237–239 See also Bentley, Jason; Sumpter, Khalil Thomas theorem, 199 Thompson, Jesse, 202 Thrasher, Frederick, 174 Tilden High School (Chicago, Illinois) shooting, 20 arrest of perpetrator, 167–168 causes, 163 community characteristics, 169–178 course of events, 179–180 gang activity and, 164, 165, 172–174, 175, 176, 177, 178–179, 183 initial media coverage, 164, 165–167, 168 mortality/morbidity, 163, 165

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Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence prosecution and sentencing, 164, 166– 167, 168, 178–184 school reforms following, 184–190, 192– 196 school violence preceding, 193–194, 195 Tury, Jacob, 73, 81 Tyson, Cicely, 213 U United for Safety Project, 213–214 Urban schools, 2–3 attitudes toward weapons, 210 attributions of causality for shootings, 261 case study selection, 19–20 causes of violence in, 4 community characteristics, 5–6, 340 consequences of violence in, 4 forms of violence in, 5, 7, 18–19, 289 motivations of shooters, 249–250 peer relations, 6 responses to shooting incidents, 261, 263 shooter characteristics, 256, 257 V Vallas, Paul, 189, 190, 194 Varner, Britthney, 108 Victims of school violence, 10 attitudes toward shooter after incident, 64–65, 97 community trauma, 125–127 Heath High School shooting, 138–139 Heritage High School shooting, 62–63 mortality/morbidity, 1, 55–56, 62, 70, 73, 108, 110, 132, 138–139, 163, 165, 202–203, 249 Parker Middle School shooting, 70, 76– 77, 80–81, 83, 97 psychological problems, 62–63, 125–127, 159–160 selection of, by shooter, 76–77, 80, 81, 112–113, 142 teachers as, 340 Thomas Jefferson High School shootings, 202–203 Tilden High School shooting, 163, 164, 165 Westside Middle School shooting, 108, 110, 112–113 Video games, 118, 130, 136–137, 151, 315 W War themes, 303–304, 323 Washok, James J., 73 Weitzel, William, 150 Weprin, Saul, 211 Westside Middle School (Jonesboro, Arkansas) shooting, 20, 82, 97 adjudication, 120–122 causes, 113–120, 129–130 community characteristics, 101–102 course of events, 108–113 data collection, 101 effects on community, 122–129 mortality/morbidity, 101, 108 shooter characteristics, 102–108, 114– 116, 119–120 victim characteristics, 108, 112–113 White, Joseph, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167–168, 169–170, 171, 174, 177, 178–184, 196 White, Karen, 167–168, 171–172, 174, 181, 182 Wilding behavior, 226–227 WiseSkills, 94 Woodard, Gretchen, 101, 103 Woodard, Terry, 103 Wooten, Priscilla, 213 Workplace violence, 320–322, 340 Wozniak, Eric, 73, 77, 80 Wright, Kenneth, 183 Wright, Shannon, 104, 108 Wurst, Andrew Jerome, 70, 74–80. See also Parker Middle School (Edinboro, Pennsylvania) shooting Wurst, Catherine, 74, 83 Wurst, Jerome J., 83 Y Youngblood, Johnny Ray, 207, 209, 233 Youth violence, generally characteristics of offenders, 313 homicide epidemic of 1990s, 313–315 literature review, 313–316 school violence in context of, 289–291, 299–300 social causes, 313–314 trends, 9, 298–299, 313–314 Z Zemcik, Robert, 73, 81