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Self-Organized Complexity in the Physical, Biological, and Social Sciences

National Academy of Sciences
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Self-Organized Complexity in the Physical, Biological, and Social Sciences Arthur M. Sackler COLLOQUIA OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Self-Organized Complexity in the Physical, Biological, and Social Sciences National Academy of Sciences Washington, D.C.

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Self-Organized Complexity in the Physical, Biological, and Social Sciences Arthur M. Sackler, M.D. 1913–1987 Born in Brooklyn, New York, Arthur M.Sackler was educated in the arts, sciences, and humanities at New York University. These interests remained the focus of his life, as he became widely known as a scientist, art collector, and philanthropist, endowing institutions of learning and culture throughout the world. He felt that his fundamental role was as a doctor, a vocation he decided upon at the age of four. After completing his internship and service as house physician at Lincoln Hospital in New York City, he became a resident in psychiatry at Creedmoor State Hospital. There, in the 1940s, he started research that resulted in more than 150 papers in neuroendocrinology, psychiatry, and experimental medicine. He considered his scientific research in the metabolic basis of schizophrenia his most significant contribution to science and served as editor of the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Psychobiology from 1950 to 1962. In 1960 he started publication of Medical Tribune, a weekly medical newspaper that reached over one million readers in 20 countries. He established the Laboratories for Therapeutic Research in 1938, a facility in New York for basic research that he directed until 1983. As a generous benefactor to the causes of medicine and basic science, Arthur Sackler built and contributed to a wide range of scientific institutions: the Sackler School of Medicine established in 1972 at Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; the Sackler Institute of Graduate Biomedical Science at New York University, founded in 1980; the Arthur M.Sackler Science Center dedicated in 1985 at Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts; and the Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, established in 1980, and the Arthur M.Sackler Center for Health Communications, established in 1986, both at Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts. His pre-eminence in the art world is already legendary. According to his wife Jillian, one of his favorite relaxations was to visit museums and art galleries and pick out great pieces others had overlooked. His interest in art is reflected in his philanthropy; he endowed galleries at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and Princeton University, a museum at Harvard University, and the Arthur M.Sackler Gallery of Asian Art in Washington, DC. True to his oft-stated determination to create bridges between peoples, he offered to build a teaching museum in China, which Jillian made possible after his death, and in 1993 opened the Arthur M.Sackler Museum of Art and Archaeology at Peking University in Beijing. In a world that often sees science and art as two separate cultures, Arthur Sackler saw them as inextricably related. In a speech given at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, Some reflections on the arts, sciences and humanities, a year before his death, he observed: “Communication is, for me, the primum movens of all culture. In the arts…I find the emotional component most moving. In science, it is the intellectual content. Both are deeply interlinked in the humanities.” The Arthur M.Sackler Colloquia at the National Academy of Sciences pay tribute to this faith in communication as the prime mover of knowledge and culture.

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Self-Organized Complexity in the Physical, Biological, and Social Sciences Self-Organized Complexity in the Physical, Biological, and Social Sciences March 23–24, 2001 Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center, Irvine, CA Organized by Donald L.Turcotte, John Rundle, and Hans Frauenfelder Program Friday, March 23 James Bassingthwaighte, University of Washington Assessing Biological Complexity via the Physiome Project Ary Goldberger, Harvard University Fractal Scaling in Health and its Breakdown with Aging and Disease Joel Cohen, The Rockefeller University The Distribution of Human Population Density Hans Frauenfelder, Los Alamos National Laboratory Protein Quakes Revisited John J.Hopfield, Princeton University On the Role of Collective Dynamical Variables in Neurobiological Computation Gene Stanley, Boston University Quantifying Fluctuations in Economic Systems by Adapting Methods of Statistical Physics Didier Sornette, University of California, Los Angeles Predictability of Catastrophic Events: From Rupture to Crashes Doyne Farmer, Santa Fe Institute Agent-Based Models of Price Dynamics Jean Carlson, University of California, Santa Barbara Complexity and Robustness Walter Willinger, AT&T Labs Scaling Phenomena in the Internet: When Criticality Is Not Critical Steve Strogatz, Cornell University Exploring Complex Networks Mark Newman, Santa Fe Institute Theories and Experiments in Social Networks Saturday, March 24 Claude Allègre, IPGP, Paris Geochemical Distribution in the Earth from Rocks to Ore Deposits Per Bak, Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Forest Fires, Measles, and the Structure of the Universe

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Self-Organized Complexity in the Physical, Biological, and Social Sciences Zellman Warhaft, Cornell University Turbulence in Nature and in the Laboratory David Campbell, Boston University Solitons, Fronts, and Vortices: Emergent Coherent Structures in Nonlinear Systems Lenny Smith, University of Oxford Lifting the Excuse of Chaos: Predictability, Uncertainty and Error Michael Ghil, University of California, Los Angeles Bifurcations and Pattern Formation in the Atmospheres and Oceans Susan Kieffer, S.W.Kieffer Science Consulting, Inc. Understanding Old Faithful as a Complex System John Rundle, University of Colorado at Boulder Physics of Earthquakes Charlie Sammis, University of Southern California Why is Earthquake Prediction so Difficult? Sidney Nagel, University of Chicago Jamming: From Granular Materials to Glasses Kenneth Slocum, SENCORP Human Organizations as Fractally Scaled Structures John D.Pelletier, University of Arizona Signature of Self-Organization in Climatology and Geomorphology Sarah F.Tebbens, University of South Florida Self-Organized Complexity in the Marine Sciences Donald L.Turcotte, Cornell University Self-Organization of Natural Hazards

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Self-Organized Complexity in the Physical, Biological, and Social Sciences PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Contents Papers from the Arthur M.Sackler Colloquium of the National Academy of Sciences     INTRODUCTION         Self-organized complexity in the physical, biological, and social sciences Donald L.Turcotte and John B.Rundle   2463     COLLOQUIUM PAPERS         Fractal dynamics in physiology: Alterations with disease and aging Ary L.Goldberger, Luis A.N.Amaral, Jeffrey M.Hausdorff, Plamen Ch. Ivanov, C.-K.Peng, and H.Eugene Stanley   2466     Allometric scaling of metabolic rate from molecules and mitochondria to cells and mammals Geoffrey B.West, William H.Woodruff, and James H.Brown   2473     Proteins: Paradigms of complexity Hans Frauenfelder   2479     Turbulence in nature and in the laboratory Z.Warhaft   2481     What might we learn from climate forecasts? Leonard A.Smith   2487     “Waves” vs. “particles” in the atmosphere’s phase space: A pathway to long-range forecasting? Michael Ghil and Andrew W.Robertson   2493     Positive feedback, memory, and the predictability of earthquakes C.G.Sammis and D.Sornette   2501     Unified scaling law for earthquakes Kim Christensen, Leon Danon, Tim Scanlon, and Per Bak   2509     Self-organization in leaky threshold systems: The influence of near-mean field dynamics and its implications for earthquakes, neurobiology, and forecasting J.B.Rundle, K.F.Tiampo, W.Klein, and J.S.Sá Martins   2514     Predictability of catastrophic events: Material rupture, earthquakes, turbulence, financial crashes, and human birth Didier Sornette   2522     Self-organization, the cascade model, and natural hazards Donald L.Turcotte, Bruce D.Malamud, Fausto Guzzetti, and Paola Reichenbach   2530     Complexity and robustness J.M.Carlson and John Doyle   2538     Natural variability of atmospheric temperatures and geomagnetic intensity over a wide range of time scales Jon D.Pelletier   2546     Wavelet analysis of shoreline change on the Outer Banks of North Carolina: An example of complexity in the marine sciences Sarah F.Tebbens, Stephen M.Burroughs, and Eric E.Nelson   2554     Self-organized complexity in economics and finance H.E.Stanley, L.A.N.Amaral, S.V.Buldyrev, P.Gopikrishnan, V.Plerou, and M.A.Salinger   2561     Random graph models of social networks M.E.J.Newman, D.J.Watts, and S.H.Strogatz   2566     Scaling phenomena in the Internet: Critically examining criticality Walter Willinger, Ramesh Govindan, Sugih Jamin, Vern Paxson, and Scott Shenker   2573

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