THE ONGOING CHALLENGE OF MANAGING CARBON MONOXIDE POLLUTION IN FAIRBANKS, ALASKA

Interim Report

Committee on Carbon Monoxide Episodes in Meteorological and Topographical Problem Areas

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate

Division on Earth and Life Studies

Transportation Research Board

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report THE ONGOING CHALLENGE OF MANAGING CARBON MONOXIDE POLLUTION IN FAIRBANKS, ALASKA Interim Report Committee on Carbon Monoxide Episodes in Meteorological and Topographical Problem Areas Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Division on Earth and Life Studies Transportation Research Board National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

OCR for page R1
The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by Cooperative Agreement X 82880601-0, between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number: 0-309-08484-9 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Ave., NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800–624–6242 202–334–3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm.A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V.Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. Wm.A.Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

OCR for page R1
The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report COMMITTEE ON CARBON MONOXIDE EPISODES IN METEOROLOGICAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL PROBLEM AREAS Members ARMISTEAD G.RUSSELL (Chair), Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta ROGER ATKINSON, University of California, Riverside SUE ANN BOWLING, University of Alaska (Retired), Fairbanks STEVEN D.COLOME, University of California, Los Angeles NAIHUA DUAN, University of California, Los Angeles GERALD GALLAGHER, J Gallagher and Associates, Inc., Englewood, Colorado RANDALL L.GUENSLER, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta SUSAN L.HANDY, University of Texas, Austin SIMONE HOCHGREB, Exponent, Natick, Massachusetts SANDRA N.MOHR, Consultant, Gillette, New Jersey ROGER A.PIELKE SR., Colorado State University, Fort Collins KARL J.SPRINGER, Southwest Research Institute (Retired), San Antonio, Texas ROGER WAYSON, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida Project Staff K.JOHN HOLMES, Senior Staff Officer RAYMOND WASSEL, Senior Program Director NANCY HUMPHREY, Senior Staff Officer CHAD TOLMAN, Staff Officer LAURIE GELLER, Staff Officer AMANDA STAUDT, Postdoctoral Research Associate NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Editor KELLY CLARK, Editorial Assistant RAMYA CHARI, Project Assistant Sponsor U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

OCR for page R1
The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Members GORDON ORIANS (Chair), University of Washington, Seattle JOHN DOULL (Vice Chair), University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City DAVID ALLEN, University of Texas, Austin INGRID C.BURKE, Colorado State University, Fort Collins THOMAS BURKE, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland WILLIAM L.CHAMEIDES, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta CHRISTOPHER B.FIELD, Carnegie Institute of Washington, Stanford, California J.PAUL GILMAN, Celera Genomics, Rockville, Maryland DANIEL S.GREENBAUM, Health Effects Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts BRUCE D.HAMMOCK, University of California, Davis ROGENE HENDERSON, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico CAROL HENRY, American Chemistry Council, Arlington, Virginia ROBERT HUGGETT, Michigan State University, East Lansing JAMES H.JOHNSON, Howard University, Washington, D.C. JAMES F.KITCHELL, University of Wisconsin, Madison DANIEL KREWSKI, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario JAMES A.MACMAHON, Utah State University, Logan WILLEM F.PASSCHIER, Health Council of The Netherlands, The Hague ANN POWERS, Pace University School of Law, White Plains, New York LOUISE M.RYAN, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts KIRK SMITH, University of California, Berkeley LISA SPEER, Natural Resources Defense Council, New York Senior Staff JAMES J.REISA, Director DAVID J.POLICANSKY, Associate Director and Senior Program Director for Applied Ecology RAYMOND A.WASSEL, Senior Program Director for Environmental Sciences and Engineering KULBIR BAKSHI, Program Director for the Committee on Toxicology ROBERTA M.WEDGE, Program Director for Risk Analysis K.JOHN HOLMES, Senior Staff Officer SUSAN N.J.MARTEL, Senior Staff Officer SUZANNE VAN DRUNICK, Senior Staff Officer RUTH E.CROSSGROVE, Managing Editor

OCR for page R1
The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report BOARD ON ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES AND CLIMATE Members ERIC J.BARRON (Chair), Pennsylvania State University, University Park SUSAN K.AVERY, University of Colorado, Boulder RAYMOND J.BAN, The Weather Channel, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia HOWARD B.BLUESTEIN, University of Oklahoma, Norman STEVEN F.CLIFFORD, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, Colorado GEORGE L.FREDERICK, Vaisala Meteorological Systems, Inc., Boulder, Colorado JUDITH L.LEAN, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC MARGARET A.LEMONE, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado MARIO J.MOLINA, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ROGER A.PIELKE, JR., University of Colorado, Boulder MICHAEL J.PRATHER, University of California, Irvine WILLIAM J.RANDEL, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado ROBERT T.RYAN, WRC-TV, Washington, DC THOMAS F.TASCIONE, Sterling Software, Inc., Bellevue, Nebraska ROBERT A.WELLER, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts ERIC F.WOOD, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

OCR for page R1
The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2000 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE Members JOHN M.SAMUELS (Chair), Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, Virginia THOMAS R.WARNE (Vice Chair), Utah Department of Transportation, Salt Lake City ROBERT E.SKINNER, JR. (Executive Director), National Research Council, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM D.ANKNER, Rhode Island Dept. of Transportation, Providence THOMAS F.BARRY, JR., Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee JACK E.BUFFINGTON, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville SARAH C.CAMPBELL, TransManagement, Inc., Washington, D.C. E.DEAN CARLSON, Kansas Department of Transportation, Topeka JOANNE CASEY, Intermodal Association of North America, Greenbelt, Maryland JAMES C.CODELL III, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort JOHN L.CRAIG, Nebraska Department of Roads, Lincoln ROBERT A.FROSCH, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts GORMAN GILBERT, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, University of Southern California, Los Angeles LESTER A.HOEL, University of Virginia, Charlottesville H.THOMAS KORNEGAY, Port of Houston Authority, Houston, Texas BRADLEY L.MALLORY, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Harrisburg MICHAEL D.MEYER, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta JEFF P.MORALES, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento JEFFREY R.MORELAND, Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway, Fort Worth, Texas JOHN P.POORMAN, Capital District Transportation Committee, Albany, New York CATHERINE L.ROSS, Georgia Regional Transportation Agency, Atlanta WAYNE SHACKELFORD, Gresham Smith & Partners, Alpharetta, Georgia PAUL P.SKOUTELAS, Port Authority of Allegheny County, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania MICHAEL S.TOWNES, Transportation District Commission of Hampton Roads, Hampton, Virginia MARTIN WACHS, University of California, Berkeley MICHAEL W.WICKHAM, Roadway Express, Inc., Akron, Ohio JAMES A.WILDING, Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, Washington, D.C. M.GORDON WOLMAN, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

OCR for page R1
The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY The Airliner Cabin Environment and Health of Passengers and Crew (2002) Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update (2001) Evaluating Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs (2001) Compensating for Wetland Losses Under the Clean Water Act (2001) A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments (2001) Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2000) Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research-Management and Peer-Review Practices (2000) Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2000) Copper in Drinking Water (2000) Ecological Indicators for the Nation (2000) Waste Incineration and Public Health (1999) Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999) Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (3 reports, 1998–2001) Ozone-Forming Potential of Reformulated Gasoline (1999) Arsenic in Drinking Water (1999) Brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area (1998) The National Research Council’s Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997) Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996) Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996) Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995) Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995) Biologic Markers (5 reports, 1989–1995) Review of EPA’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (3 reports, 1994–1995) Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994) Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Protecting Visibility in National Parks and Wilderness Areas (1993) Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992) Science and the National Parks (1992) Assessment of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program, Volumes I–IV (1991–1993) Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991) Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academy Press (800) 624–6242 or (202) 334–3313 www.nap.edu

OCR for page R1
The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report Acknowledgment of Review Participants This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: John C.Bailar III, University of Chicago Lenora Bohren, Colorado State University Gregory J.Dana, Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers Robert Dulla, Sierra Research, Inc. Robert Gibbons, University of Illinois, Chicago Judith A.Graham, American Chemistry Council Arthur Hussey, Northern Alaska Environmental Center Robert F.Klausmeier, de la Torre Klausmeier Consulting, Inc. Paul W.Ludden, University of Wisconsin, Madison Jeffery S.Tilley, University of Alaska, Fairbanks Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its re-

OCR for page R1
The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report lease. The review of this report was overseen by F.Sherwood Rowland, University of California, Irvine. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

OCR for page R1
The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report Preface Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic air pollutant produced largely from vehicle emissions. Breathing CO at high concentrations leads to reduced oxygen transport by hemoglobin, which has health effects that include impaired reaction timing, headaches, lightheadedness, nausea, vomiting, weakness, clouding of consciousness, coma, and, at high enough concentrations and long enough exposure, death. In recognition of those health effects, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as directed by the Clean Air Act, established the health-based National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for CO in 1971. Most areas that were previously designated as “nonattainment” areas have come into compliance with the NAAQS for CO, but some locations still have difficulty in attaining the CO standards. Those locations tend to have topographical or meteorological characteristics that exacerbate pollution. In view of the challenges posed for some areas to attain compliance with the NAAQS for CO, congress asked the National Research Council to investigate the problem of CO in areas with meteorological and topographical problems. This interim report deals specifically with Fairbanks, Alaska. Fairbanks was chosen as a case study because its meteorological and topographical characteristics make it susceptible to severe winter inversions that trap CO and other pollutants at ground level. In preparing this report, the committee gathered information and conducted analyses of existing data but did not make any new measurements. The committee met in Fairbanks in August 2001 and again in December 2001,

OCR for page R1
The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report when they were able to observe first-hand the meteorological conditions and emissions patterns that could cause a CO episode. During their second trip to Fairbanks, a public hearing was held to assist the committee in issue identification. Members of the community were invited to share their perspectives and concerns with the committee at that time. The committee would like to acknowledge those who took the time to participate in that hearing. Many people assisted the committee by providing information related to issues addressed in this report. I gratefully acknowledge William Boycott, Williams Alaska Petroleum Inc.; John Cabaniss, Association of International Automobile Manufacturers; Gregory Dana, Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers; Robert Dulla, Sierra Research; Laurence Elmore, EPA; Mary Ellen Gordian, University of Alaska, Anchorage; Gerald Guay, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation; Nadine Hargesheimer, Fairbanks North Star Borough; Gregory Henderson, Tesoro Alaska; Ronald King, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation; Max Lyon, Fairbanks North Star Borough; John Middaugh, Alaska Department of Health and Public Services; Steven Morris, municipality of Anchorage; William Neff, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Paul Prusak, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities; Paul Rossow, Fairbanks North Star Borough; Leonard Verrelli, state of Alaska; and Jimmie Williams, Ceramics, Environmental Technologies Development, Corning, Inc.; Aaron Owens, DuPont Central Research and Development, Wilmington, Delaware; and Susan Alber, University of California, Los Angeles. I am also grateful for the assistance of the National Research Council staff in the preparation of this report. The committee was ably assisted by K.John Holmes in his role as project director. The committee also acknowledges Raymond A.Wassel, senior program director for environmental sciences and engineering in the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology (BEST). We thank the other staff members who contributed to this report, including Warren Muir, executive director of the Division on Earth and Life Studies; James J.Reisa, director of BEST; Nancy Humphrey, senior staff officer with the Transportation Research Board; Chad Tolman, staff officer with BEST; Amanda Staudt, post-doctoral research associate with BEST; Norman Grossblatt, editor; Mirsada Karalic-Loncarevic, information specialist with BEST; and Ramya Chari, Jennifer Saunders, and Emily Smail, project assistants with BEST.

OCR for page R1
The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report Finally, I would like to thank all the members of the committee for their expertise and dedicated effort throughout the study. Armistead Russell, Ph.D. Chair, Committee on Carbon Monoxide Episodes in Meteorological and Topographical Problem Areas

OCR for page R1
The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report Contents     Summary   1 1   Sources and Effects of Carbon Monoxide Emissions   19     The Problem,   19     Charge to the Committee,   20     Health Effects of CO,   22     National Air Quality Status for Ambient CO,   28     Meteorology and Topography in CO Nonattainment Areas,   31     National Inventory of CO Emissions,   37     CO Emissions from Vehicles,   38     Air Quality Models,   44     Summary,   47 2   Fairbanks Case Study   49     Geographical, Meteorological, and Societal Context,   50     CO Data,   57     Emissions and Vehicle Characteristics,   72     CO Control Programs,   77     Simple Box Model of the Borough,   98     Summary,   107 3   Implications of the Fairbanks Case Study   109     Prospects for Continued Attainment,   109

OCR for page R1
The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report     Relationship of Fairbanks Case Study to Other Nonattainment Areas,   111     References   113     Glossary   122     Appendix. Biographical Information on the Committee on Carbon Monoxide Episodes in Meteorological and Topographical Problem Areas   131

OCR for page R1
The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska

OCR for page R1
The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report This page in the original is blank.