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Appendix A ~— Tables from the Dietary Reference Intake Reports

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70 o 3 Cal Cal o o = Cal Cal ._ Em o ._ i_ ._ C) v - o o .s o Cal No solo -= m of I: c;~-c)-- ~ ce ~ ·= ct c;3 O m c: _- cat I: ~4 ._ cat cat v O c: Am cat ~ cat ._ O =,_ ~ ~ O ~ ·— ~ 5_ ~ >` m ~ 3 ~ ~ ~ ~ ct ·_ ~ 0.0 cn I.= O sit O O .N cat ct ~ >~ cat A c, _ v: .o Z ._ car O O ~ O ~) O O O O ~ O O O ~ z ZZ ZZZZZZ 5~ ~ ~ ~ s~; - s~; - O O O O O O O O C~ V) C~ C~ ~ ~ V) C~ C~ VO o P~ ~ ~ G ~ ~ P~ ~ Z Z o o o ~ '_ ~ ~; _~ ~; _- C: C: s~ C: V C~ _~ _~ _~ _~ oo oo oooooo oo oo o o o o o o o o o o o o o o ~ ~ o o ~ ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~ oo ~ _ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ o o o o o o Ke, o o o o o o O O ') O 0 1 0 ~ O O O O O d" o 00 ~ ~ d" oo O V ° V ~ l 1 o ~ oo ~ ~ ~ oo ~ kD o ~ o ~ ~ oo ~ r _ _ _ ~ t4:t~ <1) ~ ~ ~) ~ ~ ~ _ 2 ~ . o · ~ E ' o o o ° ~ ~ o o~ D o ._ ~ ~ 5 ~

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71 ~: .s o v) v, u) u) ~ ~ o o ~ o ~ o ;^ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ z o v: ~ ~ 1 1 ~ ~Q mmmm 1 1 mm o : oo oo o o o o o o o o ~ - ~ o ~ o o o o ~ c: ~ ~ ~ s:: zz z ~ ;~ ~ o o o p~ ~ v) vo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ p~ ~ c: o o o oooooo o o o o oo o o o ~ ~ oo ~ ~ ~ ~ o o ~ ~ rY - ~ ~ o o o ~ o o o o o o ~ o o o ~ ~ ~ oo oo ~ o~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o oo ~ v ~do" l l v v 1~. o~ ~ a~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ oo - - ~ - - ~ - ~ - ~ ~ ~ e 2 ~ ~ ~ y ~ = ~ ~ ~ ~

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72 ._ o V _4 Em o rid Cam ~ ~ ~ Cd ~ _ O =, _ -o bo ~ cd ~ ~ 5= V O ~ == m a- ~ REV ~ ~ sm c: — . - ~ ,~ 3 V V ~ I:: ~ ·_ Cd — A\ ~ ~ o ~ m ~ 5 _' Ct - O O O ~ Ct ~ Ct ._ a V, Cal Qua Pa )~= ~ _ S ^ ~ 4, ~ ~ .~ ~ C,,= 3~ vo Em ~ X Cal Ct .. sly ~ ~ _,^ _ ._ .'' 3_ , ~V ~ O V) ~ v ~ ~ O .. O ~ ~ . ~ ;- C—~ D o :' C ~ c =_, .~ ~ .3 ~ c' st <, c~, C ~ Ce C -) ~ 5 ~ C D C ~ ,,3 ~ ,_ m ~ O 5 o ~ ~ C m, ~ ~ ~ 4, ,~ ~ ~ (3, .= ~ ~ ~ ,~9"~,78i, ~ ~= ,~ ~ ,~ ~ ~ ~ . . - ~ ~ ~

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73 C) Ct C: Cal m Cal ._ V, Cal C) o $ - Cal o ._ m Cal Ct I: ._ Cal ._ EM U) ._ ._ A: o ._ Cd C: go, I: ~ ·— _, .~ O U. ;~ Cat C) Cat ~ .O O z O == O ~ . _ ~ ~ 3 ~ ~ o O ~~` o ~ _D ~ ~ - 0 o . ~ C,) ~ . ° ~ o .~ ,~ ~ ~ O_ ~ .= ~ . _ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ · ~ g ho ~ ~ o_ ~ o — 3 cd C~ c :,~ ~ , e ~ >~ ° >` a V) o 1 3 3 3 1 1 ~ ', ~ ~ ~ 1 o o o o o o ~ o 3 ~ o o o ~ o — ~ o o o o o ~ ~ r~ ~_ ~ ~ _ _ _ ~ ~ - , o o ( - , — ~o s~ o o oo .= ;~\ ~ ~ · ~ ·~ · ~ · ~ ~ ~ C) ~ 3 3 3 ~ 3 ~ ~ ~ >~ V) ~ V~ C,~ %'' g — .= ~ — s~ — ~ =, ~ ~ . _ S: ~ ~ ~ ~ .~ ~ . _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ — o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ° ~ ~ 3 3 ~ ~ ~ ~ oo oo { - , ~ . ~ _ _ , Cd _ _ ~ _ _ _ ~ ~ o ~ ~ Ct ~ Ct o - o - . o o o o — - ~ .~ o s o s~ · - ~ s ~- .s s · - ~ 5` to ~q s ~: .~ . . o c) · - c> . v) . c~ ~ =;.O c) c~ ~ ~ cd .c~ v) ~ ~o ~ ~ s~ o x. - =, ·;^ ;> x ~ · o ~ c~ au ) ¢ v: z o z 11 11

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74 as o 3 Ct 5 ._ U. Ct U. ._ Ct Ct o o o U. ._ Ct a_ _4 Lo .= Ct . ~ ED 50 _ ~ sit ._ _ .~ ._ rid - Cd ._ Cd Cal St ~ VO A 7 Cal Z V on lo) ~ ~ O ~ ~ O ~ ~^ to I o Ol I I I Ol · t— lo, ~ ~ lo, ~ a%, ~ · ~ ~ O O Al O O AS) O 0 ~1 0 0 ~ of ~ on O ~ ~ oo ~ ~ ~ o - . ~ ~ o I ~ ~ o ~ 1 ~ ~ I I d- 1 ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~) . . . . . . . . . . oo 0 0 oo ~ oo ~ 1~ . o. ~ _ oo 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ o _ =, . . . ~ oo ~ 0 ~ 0 0 ~ 0 0 ~ ~ 0 oo 0 · · ,5~ ( - , ,=\ . ~ ~ . . . ~ oo 1 1 ~ —~ 1 1 o o ~ ~ C~ 1 ~ 1 1 oo 0 ~ oo ~ oo ~ ~ 0 oo ~ ~ V 0 0 ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ 0 _ ~ 1 o l l o 1 c~ 1 1 o ~ 1 ~ c~ ~ ~ ~ ~= =~= {~ O ~ ~ ~ O ~ O cq ~ ~o,, 0 ~ 0 < - o, 0 <~o ~ 0 .~ ~ ._ 0 ~ 0 ^ ~ 0 ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ·> ~ ~ z=,-> ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c) ~ ~ ~o ~ ~ ~ ~o ~ ~ ~o ~ ~ ~ ~o cd — oN 'e —.~ ~ o~ ~ ~ o~ ~ v, ,v o~ - ~ cd . ~ - ~ s~ ~ ~ - c: ~ == -= s .s ~ cn

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75 o Ol oo oo - , _ A1 o o _ . . . ~ o o oo ~ ax oo o ~ _ ~_ (,, _ A oo ~ oo oo _ _ · · . _ ~ _ t~ 1 1 1 1 ~ oo ~ 0 _ o o ~ o o - w) 1 ~ Vl ~ I Vl— ~) ~ _' ~ _' ~ C: o~ o ~ =0, 0 < - O4 0 ._ ._ o ~ o * ~ ~ * O-> ~ ~ .> C: Cd ~ \ ~ ~ \ _4 ~ a~ — Ct 5~ ._ _ _t _ o o o V _ - - - Q Q Ct o o o o _~ ·_. o ~o - r~ U. Ct U) ._ . — . Cd _ c C ~ ~ `` g .~-~S .= 11 ~ 11 11 cn - ~ ~ z .~ s .s ' - , .s M s .~ . . o . -

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76 A, - Ad o ._ Ct a' Ct o o V, A V) - o · _ ;> Cal o x ¢ Ed Cal Cal - V) a, 5 o rot C) O Cal a: ._ V] At a_ Cat o O . _ ~ · _ -~:S ~ O.= ~ O.= O o _ ~ ~ ' — _ _ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ 0 - 0 O ~ o E _ _ ' 5 ° E ~ 3.= v =; Cd V) ~ o E =< ~ ~ ~ 5 E z ~ V: ~ .= ~ .= _ .— _ O O ~ ~ S_' — 00 00 Cd ~ S - ~ C~ Ct _ S~ ._ ~ ~ >- Ce ~ Ct ~ 3 `,, m

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77 .> ~ ~ .s C ~ ~ ~ C ~ ~ C ~ 0 Z ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ^ · ~ c ~ 5 ~ ~ ~ ·, ~ ~ ^, c ~ oo ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ r~ ~ ° ' 2 _ 2 ' <, E E c ~ C rC C C ° 5 C 2 E c _ 2 ~ D C E c - E 5 c ° s O j =& o 00 cL~ O O C ~ ~ C t~O ~ O ~ ~ O ~ C C °~11) C C~ S_ C e E e E E a 0 E - & e A E `~ 2 a · 2 O a e 7 c a o c ~: z 0, a c .= ~ ~ z c~ _ ° E ~ ° Z ~ Z ~ Z ~ 3 .= ce ~ .= .= 0 ~ c c~ .~ .t ~ c O ~ E_ ~ == c, ~ 3 ~ ~ C: A c,- ~,, ~ =` ~ _ ~ ~ ~' D 3

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78 ·_d o U' o C: U) - ~s o x V) C) Cal :: ._ cn ;^ g ._ o 5~ V) Cd o ~ i_ Z V) Cal _t Go Do V' .= Ct Ct ? q-0, ~ so .= O ~ rn Cd ~ ,~ .= Ct o in U. · _ Ct sol C) ~ (,) ._ O ·= so ~ O O c) ·— V _ Cd 3 ~ Cd ~ Cal ._ I:: ._ ~ o ~ 3 ce 5 To o l o `° 11 o~ Cd ;> - ~ ~ · . - o 'v 11 c> o ~ 50 ~ ~ o =5 ~ o o . - c~ o c~ s .~ o ·~ ~- . . s o o .s - Lo-4 -~ s . . s . ·~ ~: s .~ ~ c~ 1 s ~ s~ ~ oo~ (s o~ ·- o o ~ ~ s ~ - ~ ~ o ~ ·= ~ i:~ ~ z ~ s

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80 ~5 ._ o V oo Go ~¢ Cal o C: Cal - C~ U) x Ug Cal ;$ V) ._ V) :5 Cat 3 E ~ ~.- Ct ~ ~ of.= ~ ;> e · ~ a ~ c c ~ ~ ~ j 0 ~ ~ ~ Cal _ ~ ' ' - ~ ~ " ~ == E Can o _ E / _ ° , ~— I'd ~ E E E ° ~ c E ~ , ~ ~ _ ' c i o = 3 - e ~ - c ° 2 v: _ ~ _ ct ct ~ ~ 5 ~ ~ E ~ ~ . _ ~ ~ ~ Cd I V) °° of is ~ o

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81 ;> ~ ~ I (v · - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c) sow v v ~ C:: ~ ~ ;>' it .= as.= ~ ~ ~ ·= ~ ·= ~ ~ E v E_ —D · o E O C 5 C D E O a E a A Z ~ Z—~ ~ ·m Z - ^ ~ ~ O ~ 'A O O ~ ~ O ~ a!: O at t=>0 ~ a To, ,, A _ 0 ·. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ (L) C ~ ~ ~ '' CQ Cal 'A ~ -= ~ tS Cd ~ O e ~ ,, D O me, 5 0 Ck 5 ^-OV E ~ cat ~ ~ ~ cn _ _ . ~ _, . cd s~ E 0 :,: ~ ~ ~ w c~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ ce _ 0 ~ _ s s o ·_ ·_ s ~s o s ~s ·_ ~~ - o ·_ _ s .~ .s ·_ s ·_ ts ·_ ~s E~ c~ v' ~ ct _ ~ ~ 0 ~ u, ~ - ° cn ~ . c=' _- _ s ~ ~o c,i <:5 s:> q ct -< o~ c~ * O `,Li 11 V ~' Z O ~ ~

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82 EVOLUTION OF EVIDENCE APPENDIX TABLE REFERENCES Aloia JF, Vaswani A, Yeh JK, Ross PL, Flaster E, Dilmanian FA. 1994. Calcium supplementation with and without hormone replacement therapy to prevent postmenopausal bone loss. Ann Intern Med 120:97-103. Bower C, Stanley FJ. 1989. Dietary folate as a risk factor for neural-tube defects: Evidence from a case-control study in Western Australia. Med J Aust 150:613~19. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 1992. Recommendations for the use of folio acid to reduce the number of cases of spine bifida and other neural tube defects. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 41 :1-7. Chevalley T. Rizzoli R. Nydegger V, Slosman D, Rapin CH, Michel JP, Vasey H. Bonjour JP. 1994. Effects of calcium supplements on femoral bone mineral density and vertebral fracture rate in vitamin D-replete elderly patients. Osteopor Int 4:245-252. Czeizel AK, Dudas I. 1992. Prevention of the first occurrence of neural-tube defects by periconceptional vitamin supplementation. N Engl J Med 327:1832-1835. Dawson-Hughes B. 1996. Calcium. In: Marcus R. Feldman D, Kelsey J. eds. Osteoporosis. Orlando, FL: Academic Press. Pp. 1103, 1105. Dawson-Hughes B. Dallal GE, Krall EA, Sadowski L, Sahyoun N. Tannenbaum S. 1990. A controlled trial of the effect of calcium supplementation on bone density in postmenopausal women. NEngl JMed 323:878-883. Drake IM, Davies MJ, Mapstone NP, Dixon MF, Schorah CJ, White KLM, Chalmers DM, Axon ATR. 1996. Ascorbic acid may protect against human gastric cancer by scavenging mucosal oxygen radicals. Carcinogenesis 17:559-562. Dyke GW, Craven JL, Hall R. Garner RC. 1994a. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on gastric mucosal DNA damage. Carcinogenesis 15:291- 295. Dyke GW, Craven JL, Hall R. Garner RC. 1994b. Effect of vitamin C upon gastric mucosal O6-alkyltransferase activity and on gastric vitamin C levels. Cancer Lett 86: 159-165. Elders PJ, Netelenbos JC, Lips P. van Ginkel FC, Khoe E, Leeuwenkamp OR, Hackeng WH, van der Stelt PF. 1991. Calcium supplementation reduces vertebral bone loss in perimenopausal women: A controlled trial in 248 women between 46 and 55 years of age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 73:533- 540. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1997. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

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APPENDIX A 83 IOM. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin By, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Kirke PN, Daly LE, Elwood JH. 1992. A randomized trial of low-dose folic acid to prevent neural tube defects. Arch Dis Child 67: 1442-1446. Knekt P. Reunanen A, Jarvinen R. Seppanen R. Heliovaara M, Aromaa A. 1994. Antioxidant vitamin intake and coronary mortality in a longitudinal population study. Am J Epidemiol 139: 1180-1189. Kushi LH, Folsom AR, Prineas RJ, Mink PJ, Wu Y. Bostick RM. 1996. Dietary antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. N Engl JMed 334:1156-1162. Laurence KM, James N. Miller MH, Tennant GB, Campbell H. 1981. Double- blind randomized controlled trial of folate treatment before conception to prevent recurrence of neural tube defects. Br Med J282: 1509-1511. Leaf CD, Vecchio AJ, Roe DA, Hotchkiss JH. 1987. Influence of ascorbic acid dose on N-nitrosoproline formation in humans. Carcinogenesis 8:791-795. Mannick EE, Bravo LE, Zarama G. Realpe JL, Zhang XJ, Ruiz B. Fontham ETH, Mera R. Miller MJS, Correa P. 1996. Inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitrotyrosine, and apoptosis in Helicobacter pylori gastritis: Effect of antibiotics and antioxidants. Cancer Res 56:3238-3243. Mills JL, Rhoads GG, Simpson JL, Cunningham GC, Conley MR, Lassman MR, Walden ME, Depp DR, Hoffman HJ. 1989. The absence of a relation between the periconceptional use of vitamins and neural tube defects. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neural Tube Defects Study Group. N EnglJMed 321:430~35. Milunsky A, Jick H. Jick SS, Bruell CL, MacLaughlin DS, Rothman KJ, Willett W. 1989. Multivitamin/folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy reduces the prevalence of neural tube defects. J Am Med Assoc 262:2847- 2852. Mulinare J. Cordero JF, Erickson JD, Berry RJ. 1988. Periconceptional use of multivitamins and the occurrence of neural tube defects. J Am Med Assoc 260:3141-3145. Prince RL, Smith M, Dick IM, Price Rl, Webb PG, Henderson NK, Harris MM. 1991. Prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. A comparative study of exercise, calcium supplementation, and hormone-replacement therapy. N EnglJMed325:1189-1195. Prince R. Devine A, Dick I, Criddle A, Kerr D, Kent N. Price R. Randell A. 1995. The effects of calcium supplementation (milk powder or tablets) and exercise on bone density in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 10: 1068-1075.

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84 EVOL UTION OF EVIDENCE Recker RR, Hinders S. Davies KM, Heaney RP, Stegman MR, Lappe JM, Kimmel DB. 1996. Correcting calcium nutritional deficiency prevents spine fractures in elderly women. J. Bone Miner Res 1 1:1961-1966. Reid IR, Ames RW, Evans MC, Gamble GD, Sharpe SJ. 1995. Long-term effects of calcium supplementation on bone loss and fractures in postmenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial. Am JMed 98:331- 335. Riis B. Thomsen K, Christiansen C. 1987. Does calcium supplementation prevent postmenopausal bone loss? NEngl JMed 316:173-177. Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, Colditz GA, Willett WC. 1993. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. N Engl J. Med 328: 1450-1456. Satarug S. Haswell-Elkins MR, Tsuda M, Mairiang P. Sithithaworn P. Mairiang E, Esumi H. Sukprasert S. Yongvanit P. Elkins DB. 1996. Thiocyanate- independent nitrosation in humans with carcinogenic parasite infection. Carcinogenesis 17: 1075-1081. Shaw GM, Schaffer D, Velie EM, Morland K, Harris JA. 1995. Peri- conceptional vitamin use, dietary folate, and the occurrence of neural tube defects. Epidemiology 6:219-226. Smithells RW, Nevin NC, Seller MJ, Sheppard S. Harris R. Read AP, Fielding DW, Walker S. Schorah CJ, Wild J. 1983. Further experience of vitamin supplementation for prevention of neural tube defect recurrences. Lancet 1:1027-1031. Stampfer MJ, Hennekens CH, Manson JE, Colditz GA, Rosner B. Willett WC. 1993. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women. N Engl JMed 328: 144~1449. Vergel RG, Sanchez LR, Heredero BL, Rodriguez PL, Martinez AJ. 1990. Primary prevention of neural tube defects with folic acid supplementation: Cuban experience. Prenat Diagn 1 0: 149- 152. Wald N. Sneddon J. Densem J. Frost C, Stone R. 1991. Prevention of neural tube defects: Results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancet 338:131-137. Werler MM, Shapiro S. Mitchell AA. 1993. Periconceptional folic acid exposure and risk of occurrent neural tube defects. JAm Med. Assoc 269: 1257-1261. Young JC, Kenyon EM, Calabrese EJ. 1990. Inhibition of beta-glucuronidase in human urine by ascorbic acid. Hum Exp Toxicol 9:165-170.