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science. The high-priority emerging education and research fields are human and natural resource interactions; ecosystem function, health, and management; forest systems on various scales of space and time; and forest monitoring, analysis, and adaptive management; and forest biotechnology.

Recommendation 2–1

To achieve an adequate knowledge base, forestry and natural-resource education and research programs in government and academia should dedicate resources to the foundation fields of forestry science while engaging in efforts to develop emerging education and research priority areas.

The high-priority fields can be addressed in an interdisciplinary manner with an appreciation of appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Addressing those fields will give policy-makers and managers the knowledge they need to implement a forest-management paradigm that will engender broad public and political support and meet society's physical and aesthetic needs.

The education and research priorities are aimed at the dual related goals of sustaining forests for a broad set of values, as recommended by the Committee of Scientists (1999), and providing the forest products required by a growing society. The present trend of a declining contribution of forest products from public forest lands and increasing recreation and nonmarket goods and services, and the trend of increasing intensification of forest-product output from private industrial forest lands, are likely to continue in meeting the diverse needs that society places on our forests. Foundation and emerging forestry education and research will be needed to provide professionals for our future to and support the policy and economic decisions that governments and the forest-product industry will need to make with respect to how and from where forest services and products are provided. It will be critical to retain the essential education and research on which the sustained delivery of forest products depends as resources continue to shift to sustainability related areas. That does not mean that all fields of forestry education and research need to be maintained at present levels. It does mean that current education and research need to be evaluated objectively and essential fields given high priority.

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