References

Andersen, K.P., and E. Ursin. 1977. A multispecies extension to the Beverton and Holt theory of fishing, with accounts of phosphorus circulation and primary production. Meddelelser 7:319-435.


Clark, C. 1966. Marine reserves and the precautionary management of fisheries. Ecological Applications 6(2):369-370.


Greenberg, E.V.C. 1993. Ocean fisheries, P. 376 in Sustainable Environmental Law, Campbell-Mohn, C., B. Breen, and J.W. Futrell (eds.).


H. John Heinz III Center for Science Economics and the Environment. 2000. Fishing Grounds: Defining a New Era for American Fisheries Management. Island Press. 256 p.

Hogarth, W.T. 2002. Testimony to the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy, January 15, 2002.

Hollowed, A.B., N. Bax, R. Beamish, J. Collie, M. Fogarty, P. Livingston, J. Pope, and J.C. Rice. 2000a. Are multispecies models an improvement on single-species models for measuring fishing impacts on marine ecosystems? ICES Journal of Marine Science 57:707-719.

Hollowed, A.B., J.N. Ianelli, and P.A. Livingston. 2000b. Including predation mortality in stock assessments: a case study for Gulf of Alaska walleye pollock. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57:279-293.


Kammer, R.G. 2000. An Independent Assessment of the Resource Requirements for the National Marine Fisheries Service. A report to the Deputy Under Secretary, NOAA and the Assistant Administrator, National Marine Fisheries Service. 38 p.


Link, J.S. 2002a. Ecological considerations in fisheries management: When does it matter? Fisheries 27:10-17.

Link, J.S. 2002b. What does ecosystem-based fisheries management mean? Fisheries 27: 18-21.



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Science and Its Role in the National Marine Fisheries Service References Andersen, K.P., and E. Ursin. 1977. A multispecies extension to the Beverton and Holt theory of fishing, with accounts of phosphorus circulation and primary production. Meddelelser 7:319-435. Clark, C. 1966. Marine reserves and the precautionary management of fisheries. Ecological Applications 6(2):369-370. Greenberg, E.V.C. 1993. Ocean fisheries, P. 376 in Sustainable Environmental Law, Campbell-Mohn, C., B. Breen, and J.W. Futrell (eds.). H. John Heinz III Center for Science Economics and the Environment. 2000. Fishing Grounds: Defining a New Era for American Fisheries Management. Island Press. 256 p. Hogarth, W.T. 2002. Testimony to the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy, January 15, 2002. Hollowed, A.B., N. Bax, R. Beamish, J. Collie, M. Fogarty, P. Livingston, J. Pope, and J.C. Rice. 2000a. Are multispecies models an improvement on single-species models for measuring fishing impacts on marine ecosystems? ICES Journal of Marine Science 57:707-719. Hollowed, A.B., J.N. Ianelli, and P.A. Livingston. 2000b. Including predation mortality in stock assessments: a case study for Gulf of Alaska walleye pollock. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57:279-293. Kammer, R.G. 2000. An Independent Assessment of the Resource Requirements for the National Marine Fisheries Service. A report to the Deputy Under Secretary, NOAA and the Assistant Administrator, National Marine Fisheries Service. 38 p. Link, J.S. 2002a. Ecological considerations in fisheries management: When does it matter? Fisheries 27:10-17. Link, J.S. 2002b. What does ecosystem-based fisheries management mean? Fisheries 27: 18-21.

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Science and Its Role in the National Marine Fisheries Service Livingston, P.A., and J. Jurado-Molina. 2000. A multispecies virtual population analysis of the eastern Bering Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57:294-299. Musick, J.A., M.M. Harbin, S.A. Berkeley, G.H. Burgess, A.M. Eklund, L. Findley, R.G. Gilmore, J.T. Goblen, D.S. Ha, G.R. Huntsman, J.C. McGovern, S.J. Parker, S.G. Poss, E. Sala, T.W. Schmidt, G.R. Sedberry, H.Weeks, and S.G. Wright. 2000. Marine, estuarine, and diadromous fish stocks at risk of extinction in North America (exclusive of Pacific salmonids). Fisheries 25:6-30. National Fisherman. 2002. Editor’s Log. National Fisherman 82(9):4. National Academy of Public Administration. 2002. Courts, Congress, and Constituencies: Managing Fisheries by Default. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 1999. Ecosystem-based Fishery Management. A Report to Congress. National Marine Fisheries Service, Ecosystems Principles Advisory Panel. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, NMFS, April 1999. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2001a. Report to Congress, Status of Fisheries of the United States. January. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/sfa/Status%20of%20Fisheries%202000.pdf. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2001b. Marine Fisheries Stock Assessment Improvement Plan . Report of the National Marine Fisheries Service National Task Force for Improving Fish Stock Assessment. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-F/SPO-56, 69 p., 25 appendices. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 1999. Our living oceans. Report on the status of U.S. living marine resources, 1999. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memo. NMFS-F/SPO-41. 301 p. National Research Council (NRC). 1994. Improving the Management of U.S. Marine Fisheries. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council (NRC). 1996a. The Bering Sea Ecosystem. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council (NRC). 1996b. Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council (NRC). 1998a. Improving Fish Stock Assessments. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council (NRC). 1998b. Review of the Northeast Fishery Stock Assessments. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council (NRC). 1999a. Sharing the Fish: Toward a National Policy on Individual Fishing Quotas. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council (NRC). 1999b. Sustaining Marine Fisheries. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council (NRC). 1999c. The Community Development Quota Program in Alaska. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council (NRC). 2000a. Improving the Collection Management and Use of Marine Fisheries Data. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council (NRC). 2000b. Recruiting Fishery Scientists: Workshop on Stock Assessment and Social Science Careers. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

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Science and Its Role in the National Marine Fisheries Service National Research Council (NRC). 2001. Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Science Foundation (NSF). 2001. Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering: 2000 (NSF 00-327). Pikitch, E.K., D.L. Erickson, and J.R. Wallace. 1988. An evaluation of the effectiveness of trip limits as a management tool. Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center. Processed Report No. 324 (88-27). Rogalski, W. 1980. The unique federalism of the regional councils under the Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976. B.C. Environmental Affairs Law Review 9:163. Sissenwine, M.P., and N. Daan, 1991. An overview of multispecies models relevant to management of living resources. ICES Marine Science Symposium 193:6-11. Working Group on Re-Evaluation of Biological Reference Points for New England Groundfish. 2002. Re-evaluation of biological reference points for New England groundfish. Northeast Fish. Sci. Cent. Ref Doc. 02-04; 395 p.