volatile organic compounds (VOC), 4, 59, 77

urban areas,

atmospheric deposition, 85, 224-225

runoff, 16, 29, 31, 46, 53, 55, 56, 62, 66, 67, 78-79, 80, 86-87, 157, 235-242, 247-249

see also Rivers

vegetation, 26-27, 125, 142, 143

mangroves, 62, 89, 125, 145-148

wetlands, 62, 89, 124, 125, 143-148

Coast Guard, ix, 1, 3, 4, 55, 58, 59, 61, 65, 75, 87, 117, 142, 194, 213

coastal facility spills, 77, 221-222

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27

operational discharges, 84, 88

pipeline spills, 193

volatile organic compounds (VOC), 4, 59

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 139

natural resource damage assessments, 23, 111-112, 139

Computer technology

see also Databases

Internet, 24, 66, 193

models, 89, 90, 110-112, 138-139

Consumption, 1, 3-4, 7, 8, 28, 31, 32, 43, 46-47, 58, 65, 69, 86

see also Energy supply/demand;

Recreational vessels;

Urban areas

databases, 67

maps of inputs, 36-37, 48-50

river runoff, 31, 47, 51, 55, 56, 77, 78-79, 80, 87, 101, 124, 153, 224, 233-236, 238-247, 249-251

Corals, 125, 141

Cost factors, 1

Exxon Valdez spill, 14, 23

litigation and liability, 23, 255-257

natural resource damage assessments, 23

CRUCOSA program, 76, 77

D

Databases, 1, 28, 61, 66-67, 193, 233-236, 238

see also Internet

Environmental Research Consulting Database, 75, 78, 82, 212-213

non-tank vessels, 82

pipelines, 73

tanker spills, 75, 213-214

Deepwater Port Act, 255

Demand for energy, see Energy supply/demand

Denmark, 72, 200

see also North Sea

Department of Commerce, 62

see also National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Department of Energy, ix, 202

Department of the Interior, 62

see also Geological Survey;

Minerals Management Service

Developing countries, 38

Diesel fuel, 77, 83, 130, 254

Dispersion, 89, 90, 99-100, 112-113

see also Transport processes, spills

oil spills, 38-39, 98

produced water, 38, 151

toxicity and, 134, 151

Dissolution, 21, 89, 90, 93-94, 108, 112, 114, 115-116, 117, 127

see also Oxidation

Distillates, see Light distillates;

Heavy distillates

Dose factors, 22

E

Economic factors

see also Cost factors;

Energy supply/demand;

Foreign trade;

Funding

foreign trade, 7, 8, 10, 66, 70, 78

historical perspectives, 1, 23, 121

litigation and liability, 23, 255-257

Electric power, oil demand, 7, 8

Emulsification, 89, 90, 92-93, 112, 113-114

Energy Information Agency, 209

Energy supply/demand, 65

see also Consumption

US, 1, 3-4, 7-8

world, 1, 4, 7, 8-11, 16

Entrainment, 89, 90, 93, 100, 117

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), ix, 1, 3, 4, 61, 62, 117

land-based disposition, 79

STORET database, 233-236, 238, 240

non-point source releases, 55

produced waters, 199, 202

recreational vessels, two- and four-stroke engines, 4, 58, 66, 81, 82, 88, 219

toxic effects, 156, 157

volatile organic compounds (VOC), 4, 197

Environmental Research Consulting Database, 75, 78, 82, 212-213

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27

EPA, see Environmental Protection Agency

ESI, see Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps

Estuaries, ix, 39, 46, 101

pipelines, 73

toxicity, 124, 131-132, 151-152, 155

wetlands, 62, 89, 124, 125, 143-148

Ethyl benzene, see BTEX

Evaporation, 59, 86, 89, 90, 114, 115, 126, 216

EVOS Trustees, 23

Exports of oil, see Foreign trade

Extraction spills, see Oil wells/platforms;

Produced waters

Exxon Valdez,1, 11, 14, 22, 23, 75, 100, 128, 130-131, 134, 139-140, 149

F

Federal Aviation Administration, 59, 88

Federal government, general, 3, 4, 53, 55, 58-59, 61, 63, 87, 88, 117, 156

see also Funding;

Legislation;

Regulatory issues;

specific departments and agencies

Fires, coastal facility spills, 77

Fish and fisheries, 4, 14, 120, 122, 125, 130-131

see also Marine biota;

Marine mammals;

Shellfish

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27

reproductive/developmental effects, 123-131 (passim), 133, 134-135, 137, 138, 142, 153-154, 155-156

Foreign countries, see Developing countries;

International perspectives

Foreign trade, 7, 8, 10, 66, 70, 78

France, 122

Funding

committee study at hand, ix,x, 1, 53

ground and abandoned vessels, salvage, 67

Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, 259

G

Galeta tank spill, 142

Gasoline, 22, 32, 58, 113-114, 247-248

BTEX, 127

coastal facilities, 77

two- and four-stroke engines, 3-4, 22, 43, 46, 58, 65, 66, 81-82, 88, 112, 115, 219-220

Geographic factors, general, 1-4(passim), 25-53 (passim), 66, 89

see also International perspectives;

Maps and mapping;

Urban areas;

specific countries, states, and water bodies

databases, 66

definitions of regional boundaries, 189

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27

rural areas, 85, 224, 225

worldwide releases, total, 2, 3, 12-13, 16, 28, 29, 38, 42, 46, 192, 194-196

Geological Survey, ix, 1, 4, 53, 59, 61, 62, 117, 234, 235

extraction spills, 3

non-point source releases, 55

seeps, 2, 87

toxic effects, 156, 157

Geopolitical factors, see Foreign trade;

International perspectives;

Political factors

Global climate change, see Climate change

GNOME/ADIOS2, 111, 112

Government role, see Federal government

Grease, see Oil and grease

Great Lakes, 235-236

Greenhouse effect, see Climate change

Ground truthing, 53

Gulf of Mexico, 46, 47, 49, 51, 56

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27

extraction spills, 3, 23, 33, 25, 35, 38, 55, 70, 105, 193, 194

Ixtoc I, 33, 105

Ixtoc II, 25

land-based deposition, general, 78, 80, 237-238



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