BOX 3-3 Possible Monitoring Approaches to Determine Land-Based Input

Recommendation for Monitoring Approach to Determine Land-based Inputs of Oil to the Sea

The range of uncertainty in the estimated loadings to the sea of petroleum hydrocarbons from land-based sources is four orders of magnitude. This means that it could be the largest source of petroleum hydrocarbon by a wide margin. While it is questionable whether petroleum hydrocarbons from land-based sources poses an ecological threat in the sea, the PAH fraction does, so it is recommended that both be included in a monitoring program.

It is recommended that all major rivers that have significant urban development in their watersheds be monitored for petroleum hydrocarbon and PAH at the first EPA water quality monitoring station upstream of the end of the reverse tidal flow zone. Samples should be taken monthly (or at minimum seasonally) at the bottom, mid-depth and surface of the river. It is desirable to keep the samples separate, but if cost does not permit that, they can be composited in proportion to the relative velocity of the river at the depth that each sample is taken. The river discharge must be measured at the time the samples are taken. These samples should be analyzed for the petroleum hydrocarbon and the PAH suite of compounds identified in Table 3-3, which are the compounds measured by Environment Canada. Further, these analyses should be performed on both the filtrate and residue of the filtered samples.

In addition, urban runoff and municipal wastewater effluents should be monitored in several urban coastal cities. At least one full year of sampling should be done at each site. For urban runoff a flow weighted composite sample for each storm is adequate to determine an Event Mean Concentration for the site. It is recommended that at least the following types of land use be monitored: 1) typical residential, 2) typical shopping center, and 3) urban highway with high density, slow moving rush hour traffic. Runoff samples should be filtered and the filtrate and residue analyzed for TPH and the suite of PAH compounds identified in Table 3-3.

Since not all PAH compounds are petroleum derivatives, it would be important to first determine the fraction of TPH that is PAH. Once that fraction is determined, it could be used to partition the PAH measurements in river, waste effluent and urban runoff samples into petroleum derived PAH and those derived by other sources.

The average annual load in tonnes per year of O&G was then calculated for those rivers with reported O&G concentrations by multiplying the average O&G concentration of each river by corresponding average annual flow. The average annual load for each of these rivers was then converted

PHOTO 9 Diffuse sources of petroleum on land contribute to rivers and runoff polluted with petroleum. Although individual releases may be very small, the cumulative load from all land-based sources accounts for about half of the total average, annual load of petroleum to the marine environment from human related activities. Thus, in terms of volume these sources far exceed the contribution from activities associated with the extraction and transportation of petroleum, combined. (Photo courtesy of Larry Roesner.)

to unit loads per urban land area using U.S. Bureau of the Census (1998) data.

For the majority of the inland river basins, no usable O&G data were available, or observations were too few to be reliable. For these rivers, annual loading of O&G were calculated by multiplying the unit loads from the rivers for which data were available by the urban land area reported for the corresponding river watersheds in U.S. Bureau of the Census (1998) and Statistics Canada (2000).

A similar approach was used to calculate the annual loads of O&G from coastal basins. For the United States, metropolitan areas in U.S. Bureau of the Census (1998) were classified as contributing to coastal basins if they fell within one of the 451 coastal counties defined by Culliton et al. (1990).

TABLE 3-3 PAH Measured by Environment Canada

Naphthalene

C0-N

C1-N

C2-N

C3-N

C4-N

Phenanthrene

C0-P

C1-P

C2-P

C3-P

C4-P

Dibenzothiophene

C0-D

C1-D

C2-D

C3-D

Fluorene

C0-F

C1-F

C2-F

C3-F

Chrysene

C0-C

C1-C

C2-C

C3-C

Other PAH

Biphenyl

Acenaphthalene

Acenaphthene

Fluoranthene

Pyrene

Benz[a]anthracene

Benzo[b]fluoranthene

Benzo[k]fluoranthene

Benzo[e]pyrene

Benzo[a]pyrene

Perylene

Indeno[1,2,3cd]pyrene

Dibenz[a,h]nthracene

Benzo[hi]erylene



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