ent outcomes such as the parent’s decision making about the child’s terminal treatment, timely information, and the use of psychosocial support services?

  1. How do health professionals differ in their responses to parents during the child’s terminal illness from their responses to parents whose children are not terminally ill?

  2. Does professional training and skill development in working with bereaved parents and siblings affect outcomes of the experience?

  3. Can studies move beyond outcomes such as grief symptoms, depression, and social support to include broader variables of self-esteem, personal growth, and flexibility [4, 105]?

  4. What are the barriers to recruitment of research samples in this area and how can they overcome?

REFERENCES

1.Bonanno, G., Grief and emotion: A social–functional perspective, In: Handbook of bereavement research, M. Stroebe et al., Editors. 2001. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. Pp. 493–516.

2.Fish, W., Differences of grief intensity in bereaved parents, In: Parental loss of a child, T. Rando, Editor. 1986. Champaign, Ill: Research Press. Pp. 415–428.

3.Martinson, I., B. Davies, and S. McClowry, Parental depression following the death of a child. Death Studies, 1991. 15:359–367.

4.Rubin, S. and R. Malkinson, Parental response to child loss across the life-cycle: Clinical and research perspectives, In: Handbook of bereavement research: Consequences, coping, and care, M. Stroebe et al., Editors. 2001. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association Press. Pp. 219–240.

5.Sanders, C., A comparison of adult bereavement in the death of a spouse, child, and parent. Omega, 1979–1980. 10: 303–322.

6.Zisook, S. and L. Lyons, Bereavement and unresolved grief in psychiatric outpatients. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 1989–1990. 20(4):307–322.

7.Stroebe, M., W. Stroebe, and R. Hansson, Editors. Handbook of bereavement: Theory, research, and intervention. 1993, New York: Cambridge University Press.

8.Rates of homicide, suicide, and firearm related deathamong children: 26 industrialized countries. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Report, 1997. 46(7): 101–105.

9.Wingfield, K., M. Petit, and T. Klempner, Mortality trends among U.S. children and youth.1999. Washington D.C.: Child Welfare League of America.

10.Bonnano, G.et al., Resilience to loss and chronic grief: A prospective study from pre-bereavement to 18 months post-loss. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002. In press.

11.Neimeyer, R., N. Keese, and B. Fortner, Loss and meaning reconstruction: Propositions and procedures, In: Traumatic and nontraumatic loss and bereavement: Clinical theory and practice, R. Malkinson, S. Rubin, and E. Witztum, Editors. 2000. Madison, Conn.: Psychosocial Press Press. Pp. 197–230.

12.Wolfe, J.et al., Understanding of prognosis among parents of children who died of cancer: Impact on treatment goals and integration of palliative care. Journal of the American Medical Association , 2000. 284(19):2469–2475.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement