Interim Report

The Scientific Basis for Estimating Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations

Ad Hoc Committee on Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations

Committee on Animal Nutrition

Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
The Scientific Basis for Estimating Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations Interim Report The Scientific Basis for Estimating Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations Ad Hoc Committee on Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations Committee on Animal Nutrition Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

OCR for page R1
The Scientific Basis for Estimating Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was supported by Contract No. 68-D-01-69 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Grant No. 59-0790-2-106 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08461-X Additional copies of this report are available from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

OCR for page R1
The Scientific Basis for Estimating Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

OCR for page R1
The Scientific Basis for Estimating Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
The Scientific Basis for Estimating Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations AD HOC COMMITTEE ON AIR EMISSIONS FROM ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS PERRY R. HAGENSTEIN (Chair), Institute for Forest Analysis, Planning, and Policy, Wayland, Massachusetts ROBERT G. FLOCCHINI (Vice-Chair), University of California, Davis, California JOHN C. BAILAR III, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois CANDIS CLAIBORN, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington RUSSELL R. DICKERSON, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland JAMES N. GALLOWAY, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia MARGARET ROSSO GROSSMAN, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois PRASAD KASIBHATLA, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina RICHARD A. KOHN, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland MICHAEL P. LACY, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia CALVIN B. PARNELL, Jr., Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas ROBBI H. PRITCHARD, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota WAYNE P. ROBARGE, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina DANIEL A. WUBAH, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia KELLY D. ZERING, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina RUIHONG ZHANG, University of California, Davis, California Staff JAMIE JONKER, Study Director CHAD TOLMAN, Program Officer TANJA PILZAK, Research Assistant JULIE ANDREWS, Senior Project Assistant STEPHANIE PADGHAM, Project Assistant BRYAN SHIPLEY, Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
The Scientific Basis for Estimating Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations COMMITTEE ON ANIMAL NUTRITION GARY L. CROMWELL (Chair), University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky C. ROSELINA ANGEL, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland JESSE P. GOFF, United States Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service, Ames, Iowa RONALD W. HARDY, University of Idaho, Hagerman, Idaho KRISTEN A. JOHNSON, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington BRIAN W. MCBRIDE, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada KEITH E. RINEHART, Perdue Farms Incorporated, Salisbury, Maryland L. LEE SOUTHERN, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana DONALD R. TOPLIFF, West Texas A&M University, Canyon, Texas Staff CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER, Program Director JAMIE JONKER, Program Officer STEPHANIE PADGHAM, Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
The Scientific Basis for Estimating Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES HARLEY W. MOON (Chair), Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa CORNELIA B. FLORA, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa ROBERT B. FRIDLEY, University of California, Davis, California BARBARA GLENN, Federation of Animal Science Societies, Bethesda, Maryland LINDA GOLODNER, National Consumers League, Washington, D.C. W.R. (REG) GOMES, University of California, Oakland, California PERRY R. HAGENSTEIN, Institute for Forest Analysis, Planning, and Policy, Wayland, Massachusetts GEORGE R. HALLBERG, The Cadmus Group, Inc., Waltham, Massachusetts CALESTOUS JUMA, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts GILBERT A. LEVEILLE, McNeil Consumer Healthcare, Denville, New Jersey WHITNEY MACMILLAN, Cargill, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota TERRY MEDLEY, DuPont Biosolutions Enterprise, Wilmington, Delaware WILLIAM L. OGREN, U.S. Department of Agriculture (retired), Hilton Head, South Carolina ALICE PELL, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York NANCY J. RACHMAN, Novigen Sciences, Inc., Washington, D.C. G. EDWARD SCHUH, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota BRIAN STASKAWICZ, University of California, Berkeley, California JOHN W. SUTTIE, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin JAMES TUMLINSON, USDA, ARS, Gainesville, Florida JAMES J. ZUICHES, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington Staff CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER, Director JULIE ANDREWS, Senior Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
The Scientific Basis for Estimating Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY GORDON ORIANS (Chair), University of Washington, Seattle, Washington JOHN DOULL (Vice Chair), University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas DAVID ALLEN, University of Texas, Austin, Texas INGRID C. BURKE, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado THOMAS BURKE, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland WILLIAM L. CHAMEIDES, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia CHRISTOPHER B. FIELD, Carnegie Institute of Washington, Stanford, California DANIEL S. GREENBAUM, Health Effects Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts BRUCE D. HAMMOCK, University of California, Davis, California ROGENE HENDERSON, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico CAROL HENRY, American Chemistry Council, Arlington, Virginia ROBERT HUGGETT, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan JAMES H. JOHNSON, Howard University, Washington, D.C. JAMES F. KITCHELL, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin DANIEL KREWSKI, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada JAMES A. MACMAHON, Utah State University, Logan, Utah WILLEM F. PASSCHIER, Health Council of the Netherlands, The Hague, The Netherlands ANN POWERS, Pace University School of Law, White Plains, New York LOUISE M. RYAN, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts KIRK SMITH, University of California, Berkeley, California LISA SPEER, Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, New York Staff JAMES J. REISA, Director RAY WASSEL, Program Director MIMI ANDERSON, Senior Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
The Scientific Basis for Estimating Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations Acknowledgments This report represents the integrated efforts of many individuals. The committee thanks all those who shared their insights and knowledge to bring the document to fruition. We also thank all those who provided information at our public meetings and who participated in our public sessions. During the course of its deliberations, the committee sought assistance from several people who gave generously of their time to provide advice and information that were considered in its deliberations. Special thanks are due the following: BOB BOTTCHER, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina GARTH BOYD, Murphy-Brown LLC, Warsaw, North Carolina LEONARD BULL, Animal and Poultry Waste Center, Raleigh, North Carolina TOM CHRISTENSEN, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland JOHN D. CRENSHAW, Eastern Research Group, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina TONY DELANY, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado ERIC GONDER, Goldsboro Milling Company, Goldsboro, North Carolina ALEX GUENTHER, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado

OCR for page R1
The Scientific Basis for Estimating Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations LOWRY HARPER, United States Department of Agriculture, Watkinsville, Georgia BRUCE HARRIS, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina TOM HORST, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado DONALD JOHNSON, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado RENEE JOHNSON, United States Environmental Protection Agency, DC JOHN H. MARTIN, Jr., Hall Associates, Dover, Delaware F. ROBERT MCGREGOR, Water and Waste Engineering, Inc., Denver, Colorado BOB MOSER, ConAgra Beef, Kersey, Colorado DANIEL MURPHY, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, Colorado ROY OOMMEN, Eastern Research Group, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina JOSEPH RUDEK, Environmental Defense, Raleigh, North Carolina GARY SAUNDERS, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Raleigh, North Carolina SUSAN SCHIFFMAN, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina SALLY SHAVER, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina MARK SOBSEY, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina JOHN SWEETEN, Texas A&M University, Amarillo, Texas RANDY WAITE, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina JOHN T. WALKER, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina The committee is grateful to members of the National Research Council (NRC) staff who worked diligently to maintain progress and quality in its work. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

OCR for page R1
The Scientific Basis for Estimating Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations DAVID T. ALLEN, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas VAN C. BOWERSOX, Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, Illinois ELLIS B. COWLING, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina ALBERT J. HEBER, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana JAMES A. MERCHANT, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa DEANNE MEYER, University of California, Davis, California ROGER A. PIELKE, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado WENDY J. POWERS, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa JOSEPH RUDEK, Environmental Defense, Raleigh, North Carolina JAMES J. SCHAUER, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin ANDREW F. SEIDL, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Thomas Graedel, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut and May Berenbaum, University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

OCR for page R1
The Scientific Basis for Estimating Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
The Scientific Basis for Estimating Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations Preface This is an interim report of the ad hoc Committee on Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations of the National Research Council’s Committee on Animal Nutrition. A final report is expected to be issued by the end of 2002. The interim report is intended to provide the committee’s findings to date on assessment of the scientific issues involved in estimating air emissions from individual animal feeding operations (swine, beef, dairy, and poultry) as related to current animal production systems and practices in the United States. The committee’s final report will include an additional assessment within eight broad categories: industry size and structure, emission measurement methodology, mitigation technology and best management plans, short- and long-term research priorities, alternative approaches for estimating emissions, human health and environmental impacts, economic analyses, and other potential air emissions of concern. This interim report focuses on identifying the scientific criteria needed to ensure that estimates of air emission rates are accurate, the basis for these criteria in the scientific literature, and uncertainties associated with them. It also includes an assessment of the emission-estimating approaches in a recent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations (EPA, 2001a). Finally, it identifies economic criteria needed to assess emission mitigation techniques and best management practices. The committee held three meetings in preparing this interim report and developing material for its final report. People knowledgeable about air emissions issues, including representatives of EPA, the U.S. Department of

OCR for page R1
The Scientific Basis for Estimating Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations Agriculture (USDA), academia, the animal feeding industry, and the public, presented relevant information at each of the meetings, which were held in Washington, D.C., Durham, North Carolina, and Denver, Colorado. Field visits to animal feeding operations were also conducted. The committee also reviewed various peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed literature describing the issues, the science that lies behind methods for measuring and estimating emissions, and materials prepared by and for EPA and USDA. The committee relied on the expertise and knowledge of its members, who represent a range of disciplinary backgrounds, including epidemiology and biostatistics, environmental engineering, atmospheric and tropospheric chemistry, biogeochemistry, environmental sciences, agricultural law, animal nutrition, agricultural engineering, soils and physical chemistry, microbiology, agricultural and resource economics, emission measurement and characterization, and biological engineering. Perry Hagenstein, Chair Robert Flocchini, Vice-Chair Committee on Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations

OCR for page R1
The Scientific Basis for Estimating Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1.   INTRODUCTION   7     Animal Production,   13     Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations,   14     Distribution of Emitted Pollutants,   20 2.   DETERMINING EMISSION FACTORS   23     Introduction,   23     Scientific Criteria,   25     Published Literature,   29     Characterizing Variability,   43     Statistical Uncertainty,   49 3.   MODELS FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS   54     EPA Model Farm Construct,   54     Industry Characterization,   57     Process-Based Model Farm Approach,   58     Mitigation Technologies and Best Management Practices,   61

OCR for page R1
The Scientific Basis for Estimating Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations 4.   ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EMISSION MITIGATION TECHNIQUES AND BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES   66     Criteria for Evaluating Emissions Effects of Mitigation Techniques,   67     Criteria for Evaluating Economic Effects of Mitigation Techniques,   68     Partial Budgeting/Selected Cost and Returns Estimation,   72     Other Considerations in Evaluation of Mitigation Techniques,   73 TABLES AND FIGURES Tables 1-1   Current Hydrogen Sulfide Standards in Various States,   16 1-2   National Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter,   19 1-3   Typical Lifetimes in the Planetary Boundary Layer for Pollutants Emitted from Animal Feeding Operations   21 2-1   Odor Emission Rates from Animal Housing as Reported in the Literature,   43 2-2   Calculated Emission Rates of Ammonia from Primary Anaerobic Swine Lagoons as a Function of Measurement Method and Measurement Period,   50 3-1   Classification of Emissions by Likely Intended Use of Emission Factors,   57 Figures 2-1   Relative excretion rate of nitrogen versus day in the life cycle of a grow-finish hog at a commerical swine production facility in the southeastern United States,   47 3-1   A process-based model of emissions from an animal feeding operation,   59     REFERENCES   75     APPENDIXES     A.   Statement of Task   89 B.   Glossary   90 C.   Public Meeting Agendas   93 D.   Twenty-three Model Farms Described by EPA   98 E.   About the Authors   101