Appendix B
Glossary


Accuracy:

The closeness of an individual measurement or of the average of a number of measurements to the true value. Deviation from the true value is a measure of bias in the individual measurement or averaged value.

ACWF:

America’s Clean Water Foundation

AER:

Allowable emission rate

AFO:

Animal feeding operation

Animal feeding operation:

As defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 122.23): a “lot or facility” where animals “have been, are, or will be stabled or confined and fed or maintained for a total of 45 days or more in any 12 month period and crops, vegetation, forage growth, or post-harvest residues are not sustained in the normal growing season over any portion of the lot or facility.”

Animal unit:

A unit of measure that is used to compare different animal species:

1. EPA (66 FR 2960- 3138): 1 cattle excluding mature dairy and veal cattle; 0.7 mature dairy cattle; 2.5 swine weighing over 55 pounds; 10 swine weighing 55 pounds or less; 55 turkeys; 100 chickens; and 1 veal calf.

2. USDA: 1,000 pounds of live animal weight

Anthropogenic:

Caused by humans

ARS:

Agricultural Research Service (USDA)

AU:

Animal unit


BW:

Body weight


C:

Carbon



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The Scientific Basis for Estimating Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations Appendix B Glossary Accuracy: The closeness of an individual measurement or of the average of a number of measurements to the true value. Deviation from the true value is a measure of bias in the individual measurement or averaged value. ACWF: America’s Clean Water Foundation AER: Allowable emission rate AFO: Animal feeding operation Animal feeding operation: As defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 122.23): a “lot or facility” where animals “have been, are, or will be stabled or confined and fed or maintained for a total of 45 days or more in any 12 month period and crops, vegetation, forage growth, or post-harvest residues are not sustained in the normal growing season over any portion of the lot or facility.” Animal unit: A unit of measure that is used to compare different animal species: 1. EPA (66 FR 2960- 3138): 1 cattle excluding mature dairy and veal cattle; 0.7 mature dairy cattle; 2.5 swine weighing over 55 pounds; 10 swine weighing 55 pounds or less; 55 turkeys; 100 chickens; and 1 veal calf. 2. USDA: 1,000 pounds of live animal weight Anthropogenic: Caused by humans ARS: Agricultural Research Service (USDA) AU: Animal unit BW: Body weight C: Carbon

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The Scientific Basis for Estimating Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations C3, C4, etc: Molecules with 3, 4, etc. carbon atoms CCN: Cloud condensation nuclei CH4: Methane CNMP: Comprehensive nutrient management plans CO2 equivalent: The mass of CO2 with the same climate change potential as the mass of the greenhouse gas in question d: Day(s) Denitrification: Reduction of nitrates or nitrites to nitrogen-containing gases (mostly N2) EPA: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency FID: Flame-ionization detector GC: Gas chromatography ha: hectare; an area 100 meters square, or about 2.5 acres H2S: Hydrogen sulfide IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change kg: kilogram, or 1,000 grams (about 2.2 pounds) km: kilometer, or 1,000 meters Lidar: A device similar to radar except that it emits pulsed laser light rather than microwaves LU: Live unit, 500 kg of body weight Manure: A mixture of animal feces and urine, that may also include litter or bedding materials MS: Mass spectrometer MT: Million tones µm: micrometer (10-6m); micron N: Nitrogen N2: Dinitrogen molecule NAAQS: National Ambient Air Quality Standards NH3: Ammonia Nitrification: Oxidation of an ammonia compound to nitric acid, nitrous acid, or any nitrate or nitrite, especially by the action of nitrobacteria nm: nanometer; 10-9m NO: Nitric oxide NOx: Nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide rapidly interconverted in the atmosphere NOy : The sum of all oxidized nitrogen species in the atmosphere N2O: Nitrous oxide NRC: National Research Council NRCS: National Resource Conservation Service Nutrient excretion factor: an estimate of an element, for example nitrogen, excreted by an animal usually reported as kg per day (or year) per animal (animal unit or kg of bodyweight). OFAER: On Farm Assessment and Environmental Review (of the ACWF) OH: Hydroxy radical

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The Scientific Basis for Estimating Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations Orographic: Relating to the physical geography of mountains and mountain ranges PAN: Peroxyacetyl nitrate PBL: Planetary boundary layer PM: Particulate matter PM2.5: Particulate matter having an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less PM10: Particulate matter having an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less ppb: Parts per billion by volume ppm: Parts per million by volume Precision: Agreement among individual measurements of the same property, under prescribed similar conditions S: Sulfur SIP: State implementation plans for NAAQS Sulfuric acid: H2SO4 Synoptic: Of or relating to data obtained nearly simultaneously over a large area of the atmosphere Tg: Teragram, 1 x 1012 g TSP: Total suspended particulates Uncertainty: The degree of confidence that can be assigned to a numerical measurement in terms of both its accuracy and its precision USDA: U.S. Department of Agriculture VOC: Volatile organic compound Volatile solids: Weight lost upon ignition at 550 °C (using Method 2540 E of the American Public Health Association). Volatile solids provide an approximation of moisture and organic matter present. yr: year(s)