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nine other institutes, mainly affiliated with the Russian Academy of Sciences, which are involved in a wide range of physical science work.

The Tacis project has been working with federal and regional government to develop policies on science cities, but more importantly to this conference, the major effort has been in working directly with R&D institutes and with local innovation infrastructure to develop methodologies to release the commercial potential of the science base and promote new business. Experts from the European Union, from Russian academies and consultancies, and from local organizations were used to carry out the work. About 200 local staff in institutes and innovation support centers were given training, new equipment was provided to support the innovation infrastructure, direct support on commercial development was given to six selected institutes, and nine demonstration projects were carried out on commercial development. The final result included three new joint venture companies, two nonprofit partnerships between R&D organizations and industry, and significant restructuring in three institutes to assist their commercial development. The methodology and training materials were published in Russian in a series of books produced by the project, and the material on commercial development of R&D organizations is available in HTML form and will be put on the Internet in Russian and English for free access.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Sustainability may have become a somewhat clichéd expression, but it is the most important principle here. Either the nuclear cities are to survive or they are to be obliterated in a costly process of withdrawal—costly in both economic and human terms. Sustainability means finding ways that allow development to continue without long-term external support.

In real terms, sustainability means two things:

  • commercial development of the intellectual property (IP) and capabilities in the cities

  • flow of cash back to the infrastructure of the cities and to the institutes that generate the long-term science and technology potential

Exploitation of IP in small businesses is not all that is required to initiate and sustain innovation. A brief look at successful clusters in the United States and Europe will show that this is the case. These clusters are based on centers of science and technology education and R&D— Stanford, MIT, Oxford, Cambridge, among others—combined with good infrastructure and communications. In the West the drivers for technological development are our universities and, to a lesser extent, national



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