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nine other institutes, mainly affiliated with the Russian Academy of
Sciences, which are involved in a wide range of physical science work.
The Tacis project has been working with federal and regional
government to develop policies on science cities, but more importantly
to this conference, the major effort has been in working directly with
R&D institutes and with local innovation infrastructure to develop
methodologies to release the commercial potential of the science base
and promote new business. Experts from the European Union, from
Russian academies and consultancies, and from local organizations were
used to carry out the work. About 200 local staff in institutes and
innovation support centers were given training, new equipment was
provided to support the innovation infrastructure, direct support on
commercial development was given to six selected institutes, and nine
demonstration projects were carried out on commercial development. The
final result included three new joint venture companies, two nonprofit
partnerships between R&D organizations and industry, and
significant restructuring in three institutes to assist their
commercial development. The methodology and training materials were
published in Russian in a series of books produced by the project, and
the material on commercial development of R&D organizations is
available in HTML form and will be put on the Internet in Russian and
English for free access.
Sustainability may have become a somewhat clichéd
expression, but it is the most important principle here. Either the
nuclear cities are to survive or they are to be obliterated in a
costly process of withdrawal—costly in both economic and
human terms. Sustainability means finding ways that allow
development to continue without long-term external support.
In real terms, sustainability means two things:
Exploitation of IP in small businesses is not all that is required
to initiate and sustain innovation. A brief look at successful
clusters in the United States and Europe will show that this is the
case. These clusters are based on centers of science and technology
education and R&D— Stanford, MIT, Oxford, Cambridge,
among others—combined with good infrastructure and
communications. In the West the drivers for technological
development are our universities and, to a lesser extent, national