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nuclear equipment and radiation technologies, nonmetal materials technologies, ecology, medical radiology, and meteorology.

Considering the successes and difficulties of innovative enterprises, we can see that they share many common problems of regular small enterprises but also have some specific ones. As an example, let us look at the following enterprises: Ekon, Conversfilter, Intech, Eridan-1, EnergoElectrica, and OCST.

MAIN CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESS AND REASONS FOR PROBLEMS

For all the above-mentioned enterprises, the primary condition for success was a combination of competitive technologies embodied in their products and the prices at which they offered these products on the market. However, these elements represent only part of the successes enjoyed by these companies. Let us briefly analyze each enterprise individually.

First, let us look at EnergoElectrica, a closed joint-stock company that manufactures power electronics. The first reason for their success lies in their serious efforts to market their products. For about a year the enterprise operated with heavy losses, having devoted all its efforts to studying the market and searching for customers with the ability to pay. The second reason is the enormous amount of work the company devoted to developing high production standards and ensuring that its facilities were technologically well equipped, both of which are important since the enterprise is engaged in manufacturing electronic devices. However, being founded by a group of engineers, the company encountered the problem of lacking management experience in production issues. They are learning, but still mainly by their own mistakes. The next problem is the lack of qualified staff. To solve this problem, the company plans to set up a training minilaboratory with four to six computers. There they will provide highly tailored training for advanced undergraduate students from the local Institute of Nuclear and Power Engineering. In general, the enterprise is a success. They see their development prospects in the diversification of their products and the development of new and improved devices.

The second enterprise, the OCST Closed Joint-Stock Company, is more a scientific enterprise than a production one. It was founded by the city's institutes to commercialize discoveries and inventions made in the city. Now, however, OCST has established a whole production section for manufacturing pilot samples of high-tech products: aerosol filters for the nuclear industry, water purification filters, devices for disinfecting medical wastes, and feed additives for removing radionuclides from livestock and raising their productivity. The history of OCST's production section features the same successes and failures as regular innovative



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