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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract No. 56-DKNA-1-95101 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Contract No. DTFA0101G10185 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Federal Aviation Administration, and Grant No. N00014-00-1-0912 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Office of Naval Research. Additional funding was provided by the U.S. Air Force through the NOAA contract. The views and any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

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