legal, social, and workforce implications of nanoscale science and technology.

As part of the FY 2002 budget submission, key outcomes expected from the NNI in fiscal years 2002-2006 were outlined; these are given in Table 2.3. However, because Congress did not pass most of its FY 2002 appropriations bills until December 2001, the agencies involved in the NNI are not yet in a position to assess their FY 2002 activities for this report.

The NSET, working with the National Nanotechnology Coordination Office (NNCO), has tried to identify the most promising complementary and synergistic fields of research being carried out by the various NNI agencies in order to develop collaborations that will advance nanoscience and engineering. According to NNI documents, an important goal of these multiagency collaborative efforts is to coordinate funding activities for centers and networks of excellence, to share the costs of expensive research initiatives, and to study potential societal implications surrounding the adoption of nano-related capabilities, while reducing the probability of duplicative research efforts. Table 2.4 provides an overview of major collaborations planned by the NNI member agencies, as listed in the NNI implementation plan.

TABLE 2.3 Key Outcomes Planned for NNI from FY 2002 to 2006

Outcome

Target Date

Provide augmented research and development in fundamental research, grand challenges, infrastructure, education, and nanotechnology societal impacts in response to open competitive solicitations and regular program reviews.

FY 2002

Increase work on teams and centers for pursuing agency mission objectives.

FY 2002

Establish 10 new centers and networks with full range of nanoscale measurement and fabrication facilities.

FY 2002

Establish three distributed consortia for nanotechnology research and applications in transportation.

FY 2002

Begin focused research on nanoscale experimental tools and manufacturing at the nanoscale.

FY 2002

Develop new standard reference materials for semiconductor nanostructures, lab-on-a-chip technologies, nanomagnetics, and calibration and quality assurance analysis for nanosystems.

FY 2003

Leverage NNI funds by 25% by working with states, universities, and the private sector to increase funding and synergism in R&D, to nucleate new clusters of industries.

FY 2003

Develop standardized, reproducible, microfabricated approaches to nanocharacterization, nanomanipulation, and nanodevices.

FY 2004

Develop quantitative measurement methods for nanodevices, nanomanipulation, nanocharacterization, and nanomagnetics.

FY 2004

Develop 3D measurement methods for the analysis of physical and chemical properties at or near atomic spatial resolution.

FY 2004

Ensure that 50% of research institutions’ faculty and students have access to full range of nanoscale research facilities.

FY 2005

Enable access to nanoscience and engineering education for students in at least 25% of research universities.

FY 2005

Catalyze creation of several new commercial markets that depend on 3D nanostructures.

FY 2005

Develop 3D modeling of nanostructures with increased speed and accuracy to allow practical system and architecture design.

FY 2005

Nanoelectronics: first terabit memory chip demonstrated in the laboratory.

FY 2006

Introduce manufacturing at nanoscale for three new technologies.

FY 2006

Monitor contaminants in air, water, and soils with increased accuracy for better environmental quality and reduced emissions.

FY 2006

Integrate facilities for nanoscale and microscale testing and manufacturing at 10 R&D centers.

FY 2006

Develop methods, tools, and computational tools for structure analysis for the extraction of information from nature’s nanoscale materials and machines.

After 2006

Incorporate biological molecules into otherwise electronic devices, mimic biological structures in fabricated devices, and incorporate lessons learned from biological signal processing into the logic of electronic systems.

After 2006

Conduct nanoscale measurements on microsecond time scales to provide a blueprint for the development of nanomachines and synthetic molecular processors that carry out complex functions.

After 2006

Use photovoltaic proteins in plants that extract electronic energy from light energy, or insect hearing organs 1 mm apart that have highly directional sound source localization sensitivity, as models for, or components of, nanosystems that accomplish other functions.

After 2006

NOTE: NNI implementation plan, FY 2002 update, January 15, 2001, draft, pp. 13-14. The plan states as follows: “Out-year deliverables depend on regular increases in funding for this initiative.”



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