Leveraging Longitudinal Data in Developing Countries

Report of a Workshop

Workshop on Leveraging Longitudinal Data in Developing Countries Committee

Committee on Population

Valerie L. Durrant and Jane Menken, Editors

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, DC



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Leveraging Longitudinal Data in Developing Countries Report of a Workshop Workshop on Leveraging Longitudinal Data in Developing Countries Committee Committee on Population Valerie L. Durrant and Jane Menken, Editors Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, DC

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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The study was supported by Contract/Grant No. 29900629 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08450-4 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20418 Call (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) This report is also available online at http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Suggested citation: National Research Council (2002) Leveraging Longitudinal Data in Developing Countries: Report of a Workshop. Workshop on Leveraging Longitudinal Data in Developing Countries Committee, Committee on Population. Valerie L. Durrant and Jane Menken, editors. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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WORKSHOP ON LEVERAGING LONGITUDINAL DATA IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES COMMITTEE Jane Menken (Chair), Institute of Behavioral Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder Stan Becker, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University Sam Clark, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania Ronald H. Gray, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University Allan G. Hill, Department of Population and International Health, Harvard School of Public Health David I. Kertzer, Department of Anthropology, Brown University James F. Phillips, Population Council, New York, NY Barry Popkin, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Valerie L. Durrant, Study Director Barney Cohen, Director, Committee on Population Brian Tobachnick, Project Assistant (until August 2001) Christine Chen, Project Assistant Ana-Maria Ignat, Project Assistant (since October 2001)

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COMMITTEE ON POPULATION Jane Menken (Chair), Institute of Behavioral Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder Ellen Brennan-Galvin, Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars, Washington, DC Janet Currie, Department of Economics, University of California, Los Angeles John N. Hobcraft, Population Investigation Committee, London School of Economics Charles B. Keely, Institute for the Study of International Migration, Georgetown University David I. Kertzer, Department of Anthropology, Brown University David A. Lam, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Cynthia B. Lloyd, The Population Council, New York W. Henry Mosley, Department of Population and Family Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Alberto Palloni, Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, Madison James W. Vaupel, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany Kenneth W. Wachter, Department of Demography, University of California, Berkeley Linda J. Waite, Population Research Center, University of Chicago Barney Cohen, Director

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Preface This report summarizes the presentations and discussion at the Workshop on Leveraging Longitudinal Data in Developing Countries, organized by the Committee on Population of the National Research Council (NRC), in Washington, D.C., June 21-22, 2001. The workshop would not have been possible without the efforts of several people, some of whom deserve specific mention. The committee is very grateful to Carolyn Makinson of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation for her persistent interest in this topic that led to the workshop and for her intellectual input during the development of the workshop. Committee on Population member W. Henry Mosley participated in the planning meeting for the workshop. We appreciate his many intellectual contributions, particularly on the history of longitudinal community studies. Funding for the workshop was provided by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, U.S. Agency for International Development, and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Fred Binka, Sam Clark, James F. Phillips, and Stephen Tollman participated in an initial planning meeting that helped to shape the workshop before the workshop committee was named. The staff at the NRC managed the workshop and made it all possible. Valerie L. Durrant, study director, provided a constant intellectual and managerial presence for the project, from the organization of the workshop to the publication of this report. Brian Tobachnick and Ana-Maria Ignat, project assistants, coordinated the travel and arrangements for the work-

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shop and provided administrative support throughout the project. Sabra Bissette Ledent edited the report, and Yvonne Wise managed the manuscript through the publication process. The work was carried out under the general direction of the director of the Committee on Population, Barney Cohen. The report that constitutes Part I of this volume has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the NRC. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: John Haaga, Population Reference Bureau, Washington, D.C.; Frank Stafford, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan; and John Wyon, Harvard School of Public Health (emeritus). Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Julie DaVanzo, RAND. Appointed by the NRC, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Also, we thank the reviewers of the two commissioned papers that constitute Part II of this volume: Linda Adair, University of North Carolina; Stan Becker, Johns Hopkins University; Sam Clark, University of Pennsylvania; Ruth Macklin, Albert Einstein College of Medicine; and Duncan Thomas, RAND. Jane Menken Chair, Committee on Population

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Contents PART I REPORT   1     Leveraging Longitudinal Data in Developing Countries   3     Introduction,   3     Benefits of Longitudinal Data,   8     Comparison of Different Approaches to Longitudinal Data,   13     Challenges to Longitudinal Research,   23     Strengthening Longitudinal Efforts,   32     Conclusion,   47     References,   48 PART II PAPERS   53     Demographic Analysis of Community, Cohort, and Panel Data from Low-Income Countries: Methodological Issues Andrew Foster   55     Overview of Ethical Issues in Collecting Data in Developing Countries, with Special Reference to Longitudinal Designs Richard A. Cash and Tracy L. Rabin   75 APPENDIXES     A Workshop Agenda   97 B Workshop Participants   101

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