vulnerability as a criterion, either, shows a much higher rate of financial abuse. The bottom line is that there are all sorts of issues that have to be taken into account.

REFERENCES

Comijs, H.C., A.M. Pot, H.H. Smit, and C. Jonker 1998 Elder abuse in the community: Prevalence and consequences. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 46:885-888.


Goldstein, M. 1996 Elder mistreatment and PTSD. In Aging and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, P.E. Ruskin and J.A. Talbots, eds. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.


Hwalek, M.A., and M.C. Sengstock 1986 Assessing the probability of abuse in the elderly: Toward development of a clinical screening instrument. Journal of Applied Gerontology 5(2):153-173.


Kivela, S.L., P. Kongas-Saviaro, E. Kesti, K. Pahkala, and M.L. Ijas 1992 Abuse in old age: Epidemiological data from Finland. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect 4(3):1-18.

Kurrle, S.E. 1993 Elder abuse: A hidden problem. Modern Medicine of Australia (September):58-71.


Lachs, M.S., et al. 1998 The mortality of elder mistreatment. Journal of the American Medical Association 280:428-432.


National Center on Elder Abuse 1998 National Elder Abuse Incidence Study: Final Report. Washington, DC: American Public Human Services Association in collaboration with Westat, Inc.

National Research Council and Institute of Medicine 1998 Violence in Families: Assessing Prevention and Treatment Programs. Committee on the Assessment of Family Violence Interventions. R. Chalk, and P.A. King, eds. Washington DC: National Academy Press.


Ogg, J., and G.C.J. Bennett 1992 Elder abuse in Britain. British Medical Journal 305:998-999.


Phillips, L. 1986 Theoretical explanations of elder abuse: Competing hypotheses and unresolved issues. In Elder Abuse: Conflict in the Family, Rosalie Wolf and Karl Pillemer, eds. Dover, MA: Auburn House.

Pillemer K., and D. Finkelhor 1988 The prevalence of elder abuse: A random sample survey. Gerontologist 28:51-57.

Podnieks, E. 1992 National survey on abuse of the elderly in Canada. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect 41(1/2):5-58.


Reis, M., and D. Nahmiash 1998 Validation of the Indicators of Abuse (IOA) Screen. The Gerontologist, 38(4): 471-480.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement