Miles, S. 1996 A case of death by physical restraint: New lessons from a photograph. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 44(3):291–292.

Mohr, W.K., and B.D. Mohr 2000 Mechanisms of injury and death proximal to restraint use. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing 14(6):285–295.

Monane, M., S. Monane, and T. Semla 1997 Optimal medication use in elders: Key to successful aging. The Western Journal of Medicine 167(4):233–237.

The Mount Sinai/Victim Services Agency Elder Abuse Project 1988 Elder mistreatment guidelines for health care professionals: Detection, assessment and intervention. New York: Mount Sinai/Victim Services Agency Elder Abuse Project.

Mouton, C.P., and D.V. Espino 1999 Health screening in older women. American Family Physician 59(7):1835-1842.

National Center on Elder Abuse 1996 Elder abuse Information Series No. 1: Type of elder abuse in domestic settings. Washington, D.C. [Online.] Available at: http://www.elderabusecenter.org.

1998 The National Elder Abuse Incidence Study. Washington, DC: National Center on Elder Abuse.

Neale, A.V., M.A. Hwalek, R.O. Scott, and C. Stahl 1991 Validation of the Hwalek-Sengstock elder abuse screening test. Journal of Applied Gerontology 10(4):406–418.


Patterson, J.A., and R.G. Bennett 1995 Prevention and treatment of pressure sores. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 43:919–927.

Paveza, G.J., C. VandeWeerd, and V. Hughes-Harrison 1997 Financial exploitation of the elderly: A descriptive study of victims and abusers in an urban area. Paper presented at the 50th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, Cincinnati, Ohio, November 14–18.

Pavlik, V.N., D.J. Hyman, N.A. Festa, and C.B. Dyer 2001 Quantifying the problem of abuse and neglect in adults: Analysis of a statewide database. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 49:45-48, 2001.

Persse, D. no date Patient refusal of transport by emergency medical services. Unpublished data. Houston Emergency Medical Services, Houston, Texas.

Phillips, L.R. 1988 The fit of elder abuse with the family violence paradigm, and the implications of a paradigm shift for clinical practice. Public Health Nursing 5(4)(December):222– 229.


Ramsey-Klawsnik, H. 1991 Elder sexual abuse: Preliminary findings. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect 3(3):73–90.

Rawson, R.D., R.K. Ommen, K.G. Johnson, and A. Yfantis 1984 Statistical evidence for the individuality of the human dentition. Journal of Forensic Sciences 29:245.

Reis, M., and D. Nahmiash 1998 Validation of the indicators of abuse (IOA) screen. Gerontologist 38(4):471– 480.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement