Systems and Technologies for the Treatment of Non-Stockpile Chemical Warfare Materiel

Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program

Board on Army Science and Technology

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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Systems and Technologies for the Treatment of Non-Stockpile Chemical Warfare Materiel Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program Board on Army Science and Technology Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W.Washington, DC20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This is a report of work supported by Contract DAAD19-01-C-008 between the U.S. Army and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08452-0 Limited copies are available from: Board on Army Science and Technology National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 (202) 334-3118 Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press Box 285 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, DC20055 (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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COMMITTEE ON REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE ARMY NON-STOCKPILE CHEMICAL MATERIEL DISPOSAL PROGRAM JOHN B. CARBERRY, Chair, E.I. duPont de Nemours and Company, Wilmington, Delaware JOHN C. ALLEN, Battelle Memorial Institute, Washington, D.C. RICHARD J. AYEN, Waste Management, Inc. (retired), Wakefield, Rhode Island ROBERT A. BEAUDET, University of Southern California, Los Angeles LISA M. BENDIXEN, Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts JOAN B. BERKOWITZ, Farkas Berkowitz and Company, Washington, D.C. JUDITH A. BRADBURY, Battelle Patuxent River, California, Maryland MARTIN C. EDELSON, Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa SIDNEY J. GREEN, TerraTek, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah PAUL F. KAVANAUGH, Consultant, Fairfax, Virginia TODD A. KIMMELL, Argonne National Laboratory, Washington, D.C. DOUGLAS M. MEDVILLE, MITRE Corporation (retired), Reston, Virginia WINIFRED G. PALMER, Consultant, Frederick, Maryland GEORGE W. PARSHALL, E.I. duPont de Nemours and Company (retired), Wilmington, Delaware JAMES P. PASTORICK, Geophex UXO, Alexandria, Virginia R. PETER STICKLES, Consultant, Concord, Massachusetts WILLIAM J. WALSH, Pepper Hamilton LLP, Washington, D.C. RONALD L. WOODFIN, Sandia National Laboratories (retired), Albuquerque, New Mexico Board on Army Science and Technology Liaison HENRY J. HATCH, U.S. Army (retired), Oakton, Virginia Staff NANCY T. SCHULTE, Senior Program Officer DELPHINE D. GLAZE, Administrative Assistant GREG EYRING, Consultant DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, JR., Research Associate

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BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY JOHN E. MILLER, Chair, Oracle Corporation, Reston, Virginia GEORGE T. SINGLEY III, Vice Chair, Hicks and Associates, Inc., McLean, Virginia ROBERT L. CATTOI, Rockwell International (retired), Dallas, Texas RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (retired), Charleston, West Virginia GILBERT F. DECKER, Walt Disney Imagineering (retired), Glendale, California ROBERT R. EVERETT, MITRE Corporation (retired), New Seabury, Massachusetts PATRICK F. FLYNN, Cummins Engine Company, Inc. (retired), Columbus, Indiana HENRY J. HATCH, U.S. Army (retired), Oakton, Virginia EDWARD J. HAUG, University of Iowa, Iowa City GERALD J. IAFRATE, North Carolina State University, Raleigh MIRIAM E. JOHN, California Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California DONALD R. KEITH, Cypress International (retired), Alexandria, Virginia CLARENCE W. KITCHENS, IIT Research Institute, Alexandria, Virginia SHIRLEY A. LIEBMAN, CECON Group (retired), Holtwood, Pennsylvania KATHRYN V. LOGAN, Georgia Institute of Technology (professor emerita), Roswell, Georgia STEPHEN C. LUBARD, S-L Technology, Woodland Hills, California JOHN W. LYONS, U.S. Army Research Laboratory (retired), Ellicott City, Maryland JOHN H. MOXLEY, Korn/Ferry International, Los Angeles, California STEWART D. PERSONICK, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania MILLARD F. ROSE, Radiance Technologies, Huntsville, Alabama JOSEPH J. VERVIER, ENSCO, Inc., Melbourne, Florida Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director MICHAEL A. CLARKE, Associate Director WILLIAM E. CAMPBELL, Administrative Coordinator CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate GWEN ROBY, Administrative Assistant DEANNA P. SPARGER, Senior Project Assistant DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, JR., Research Associate

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Preface The Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program (see Appendix A for biographies of committee members) was appointed by the National Research Council (NRC) to conduct studies on technical aspects of the U.S. Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program. During its first year, the committee evaluated the Army’s plans to dispose of chemical agent identification sets (CAIS)—test kits used for soldier training (NRC, 1999b). During the second year, the committee recommended nonincineration technologies that might be used for the posttreatment of neutralization wastes from Army non-stockpile materiel disposal systems (NRC, 2001a). During the third year, the Army asked the committee to supplement its report on neutralent wastes to include wastes produced by the Army’s newest mobile system, the explosive destruction system (EDS) (NRC, 2001e). During this fourth year the committee has assessed the operational concepts for the mobile and semi-permanent facilities being developed by the product manager. At its meetings, the committee was given a number of briefings (see Appendix B), and between meetings it held deliberations. The committee is grateful to the many individuals who provided technical information and insights during these briefings, particularly Lt. Col. Christopher Ross, Product Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel, and his staff. This information provided a sound foundation for the committee’s deliberations. This study was conducted under the auspices of the NRC’s Board on Army Science and Technology. The committee acknowledges the continued superb support of the director, Bruce A. Braun, as well as of NRC staff and committee members, who all worked diligently on a demanding schedule to produce this report. John B. Carberry, Chair Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Elisabeth M. Drake, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (retired) Gene Dyer, consultant F. Wayne Jennings, consultant Herbert J. Kouts, Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (retired) Richard Magee, Carmagan Engineering James Michael, Environmental Protection Agency Alvin Mushkatel, Arizona State University, and William Tumas, Los Alamos National Laboratory Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by John C. Bailar III, Professor Emeritus, University of Chicago. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   BACKGROUND AND OVERVIEW   8     The Stockpile Destruction Program,   9     The Baseline Incineration Program,   9     Alternative Technologies for Destroying the Stockpile,   9     The Alternative Technologies and Approaches Program,   9     The Alternative Technologies Program for Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment,   9     The Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program,   10     Non-Stockpile Sites,   10     Non-Stockpile Inventory,   10     Systems for Destroying NSCWM,   15     Statement of Task,   16     The Committee’s Approach,   16     Scope of the Report,   16     Structure of the Report,   16 2   THE TOOLBOX OF NON-STOCKPILE TREATMENT OPTIONS   17     Non-Stockpile Facilities,   17     MAPS and PBNSF,   19     Stockpile Facilities,   22     Research and Development Facilities,   24     Commercial Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities,         Mobile Treatment Systems,   27     Explosive Destruction System.   28     Rapid Response System,   29     Single CAIS Accessing and Neutralization System,   31     Donovan Blast Chamber,   32     Individual Treatment Technologies,   34     Plasma Arc,   34     Chemical Oxidation,   37     Wet Air Oxidation,   38     Batch Supercritical Water Oxidation,   39     Neutralization (Chemical Hydrolysis),   40     Open Burning/Open Detonation,   42     Integrated Ballistic Tent and Foam System,   43     Multiple-Round Containers,   44

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3   APPLICATION OF THE NON-STOCKPILE TREATMENT SYSTEMS TO THE NSCWM INVENTORY   46     Introduction,   46     Comparison of Candidate Technologies and Needs,   46     CAIS PIGS,   48     Individual CAIS Vials and Bottles,   48     Small Quantities of Small Munitions,   49     Chemical Agent in Bulk Containers,   49     Binary Chemical Warfare Materiel Components,   49     Unstable Explosive Munitions That Cannot Be Moved,   50     Secondary Liquid Waste Streams,   50     Large Quantities of NSCWM Items Currently in Storage,   51     Large NSCWM Items,   51     Large Quantities of Not-Yet-Recovered Small Munitions,   52     NSCWM Treatment Categories for Which Available or In-Pipeline Tools Are Adequate,   52     CAIS PIGs,   52     Individual CAIS Vials and Bottles,   52     Small Quantities of Small Munitions,   53     Chemical Agents in Bulk Containers,   53     Binary Chemical Warfare Materiel Components,   53     Unstable Explosive Munitions That Cannot Be Moved,   53     Secondary Liquid Waste Streams         NSCWM Treatment Categories for Which Significant Additional Investment and Planning Are Needed,   54     Large Quantities of NSCWM Items Currently in Storage,   54     Large NSCWM Items,   54     Large Quantities of Not-Yet-Recovered Small Munitions,   54     Developing New Systems for New Finds,   54 4   REGULATORY APPROVAL AND PERMITTING ISSUES   56     The Army’s RAP Experience,   56     Munitions Management Device,   56     Rapid Response System,   57     Spring Valley, Washington, D.C.,   57     Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Colorado,   57     Munitions Assessment and Processing System,   57     Pine Bluff Non-Stockpile Facility,   58     Specific Issues,   58     Regulatory Approval and Permitting Mechanisms,   58     Cooperation between the Army, the States, and the Public in the RAP Process,   58     Classification of Chemical Agent Identification Sets,   58     Diverse Army Organizations with Responsibility for RAP,   58     Schedule Requirements of the CWC,   59     Overall Lack of a Regulatory Program for Treatment Requirements,   59     Secondary Waste Classification,   60     RAP for Mobile Technologies,   61     Findings and Recommendations,   62     Regulatory Permitting/Approval Mechanisms,   62     Cooperation Between the Army, the States, and the Public in the RAP Process,   62     Classification of CAIS,   62     Diverse Army Organizations with a Responsibility for RAP,   62     Schedule Requirements of the CWC,   63

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    Overall Lack of a Regulatory Program for Treatment Requirements,   63     Secondary Waste Classification,   63     RAP for Mobile Technologies,   63 5   PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT   64     Information Sources,   64     Stakeholder Views on Key Program Issues,   65     Stakeholder Views on Public Involvement,   66     NSCMP Planning for Public Involvement,   68     Findings and Recommendations,   69     REFERENCES   71     APPENDIXES         A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members,   75     B Committee Meetings and Other Activities,   79     C Evaluation of the Suitability of Stockpile Chemical Disposal Facilities for Treating Stored Non-Stockpile CWM,   81     D Non-Stockpile Facilities,   86     E Mobile Non-Stockpile Systems,   91     F Regulatory Background,   96     G Transportation of Chemical Warfare Materiel,   103     INDEX   107

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Tables and Figures TABLES 1-1   Inventory of Non-Stockpile Items at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas,   11 1-2   Inventory of Non-Stockpile Items at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) and Deseret Chemical Depot (DCD), Utah,   12 1-3   Inventory of Non-Stockpile Items at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland,   13 1-4   Inventory of Non-Stockpile Items at Anniston Chemical Activity, Alabama,   13 2-1   Overview of Non-Stockpile Treatment Options,   18 2-2   Composition of Liquid Waste Streams from the EDS Treatment of Sarin (GB) Bomblets at RMA,   26 2-3   Numbers of Explosively Configured NSCWM and Total Recovered NSCWM, by Location,   29 2-4   NSCMP Technology Test Program,   35 2-5   Multiple-Round Containers and Their Contents,   44 3-1   Match of Primary Technologies and Systems to Items in the Non-Stockpile Inventory,   47 3-2   Focus of Secondary Technologies,   48 E-1   Approximate EDS Processing Time, by Agent,   94 FIGURES 1-1   Main chemical warfare agents in the U.S. inventory,   10 2-1   Floor plan of MAPS,   20 2-2   Glove-box system in the operations trailer of the RRS,   30 2-3   Schematic of one SCANS concept,   32 2-4   PLASMOX system layout,   36 2-5   Hydrolysis of the nerve agent GB (sarin),   41 2-6   Hydrolysis of DF with warm water,   42 D-1   Typical process flow for explosively configured munitions at PBNSF,   88 D-2   Typical process flow for non-explosively configured munitions at PBNSF,   89 D-3   Typical process flow for chemical agent identification sets at PBNSF,   89 E-1   Diagram of the EDS-1 vessel on its trailer,   93

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Acronyms and Abbreviations ABCDF Aberdeen Chemical Agent Disposal Facility ACW assembled chemical weapons ACWA Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (Program) ANAD Anniston Army Depot ANCDF Anniston Chemical Disposal Facility APG Aberdeen Proving Ground ATAP Alternative Technology Approach Program BGAD Bluegrass Army Depot BGCDF Bluegrass Chemical Disposal Facility CAC Citizens’ Advisory Commission CAIS chemical agent identification set(s) CAMDS Chemical Agent Munitions Disposal System CDF chemical disposal facility CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act CG phosgene CHATS Chemical Agent Transfer System CK cyanogen chloride CN chloroacetophenone CSDP Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program CTF Chemical Transfer Facility CWC Chemical Weapons Convention CWM chemical warfare materiel CWWG Chemical Weapons Working Group D&D drill and drain DBC Donovan blast chamber DCD Deseret Chemical Depot DCDMH dichlorodimethylhydantoin DF a binary precursor (methylphosphonic difluoride) DM adamsite DOD U.S. Department of Defense DOE U.S. Department of Energy DOT U.S. Department of Transportation DPG Dugway Proving Ground DRE destruction and removal efficiency DSHW Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (Utah) DTV drill-through valve ECC explosive containment chamber EDS explosive destruction system EIS environmental impact statement EPA Environmental Protection Agency FOTW federally owned treatment works FUDS formerly used defense site GA tabun (nerve agent) GB sarin (a nerve agent) GD soman H sulfur mustard H-CHCl3 sulfur mustard in chloroform solution HD sulfur mustard (distilled) HHS Department of Health and Human Services HL mustard-lewisite mixture HN-1 nitrogen mustard 1 HN-3 nitrogen mustard 3 HS sulfur mustard HT mustard agent T mixture HWIR hazardous waste identification rule IMPA isopropyl methylphosphonic acid IRP Installation Restoration Program JACADS Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent DisposalSystem

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L lewisite L-CHCl3 lewisite in chloroform solution LDR Land Disposal Restriction MAPS Munitions Assessment and Processing System MDM multipurpose demilitarization machine MEA monoethanolamine MPA methylphosphonic acid MPF metal parts furnace MRC multiple-round container NPL National Priorities List NRC National Research Council NS non-stockpile NSCM Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel NSCMP Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Product NSCWCC Non-Stockpile Chemical Weapons Citizens’ Coalition NSCWM Non-Stockpile Chemical Warfare Materiel OB/OD open burning/open detonation OPA binary component (isopropyl alcohol with amine) OPCW Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons PBA Pine Bluff Arsenal PBCDF Pine Bluff Chemical Disposal Facility PBNSF Pine Bluff Non-Stockpile Facility PCD Pueblo Chemical Depot PIG package in-transit gas shipment PMCD Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization PMNSCM Product Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel POTW publicly owned treatment works PPM parts per million PS chloropicrin PS-CHCl3 chloropicrin in chloroform solution PUCDF Pueblo Chemical Disposal Facility QL binary agent precursor (ethyl-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonite) RAB Restoration Advisory Board RAP regulatory approval and permitting RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act RCWM recovered chemical warfare materiel R&D research and development RDX cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine RMA Rocky Mountain Arsenal RRS Rapid Response System SBCCOM Soldier and Biological Chemical Command SCANS Single CAIS Accessing and Neutralization System SCWO supercritical water oxidation SRC single-round container TNT trinitrotoluene TOCDF Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility TSDF treatment, storage, and disposal facility USACE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers UCAR Utah Chemical Agent Rule UV ultraviolet VX a nerve agent WAO wet-air oxidation WHEAT water hydrolysis of explosives and agent technologies WIPT working integrated process team 3X level of decontamination (suitable for transport or further processing) 5X level of decontamination (suitable for commercial release)