that the contracts bypass the state governments. Although cities are encouraged to involve surrounding jurisdictions and ensure that their plans are compatible with existing state emergency and disaster management plans, OEP has followed the lead of the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), which was designated the lead federal agency by the Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-201). The act, among other provisions, required DOD to provide civilian personnel of federal, state, and local agencies with training and advice on emergency responses to the use or threatened use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). DOD decided to carry out that charge by providing training to the 120 cities with the largest core populations, which equates to all U.S. cities with populations greater than 144,000 in the 1990 census. The populations of those 120 cities represent about 22 percent of the U.S. population and are located in 38 states and the District of Columbia. OEP logically sought to leverage its MMRS program efforts by focusing on the jurisdictions slated to receive DOD training. See Appendix C for a list of the MMRS program cities by the first fiscal year of their contract with OEP.

FUNCTIONAL AREAS COVERED

The basic strategy of the MMRS program is to enhance local capabilities by organizing, equipping, and training local fire, rescue, medical, and other emergency management personnel to deal with the consequences of a terrorist attack with CBR agents. These personnel, usually a subset of emergency personnel that is tailored to each city, receive training on military chemical and biological agents; specialized protective, detection, diagnostic, decontamination, communications, and medical equipment; antidotes, antibiotics, and other pharmaceuticals and medical supplies; and enhanced emergency medical transport and emergency department capabilities. The program seeks to enhance capabilities in other areas as well, including threat assessment, public affairs, epidemiological investigation, expedient hazard reduction, mass-casualty care, mental health support, victim identification, and mortuary services. Perhaps the most important component of the program is the planning and organization that is required to identify and involve all the local, state, and federal offices and agencies with relevant resources, responsibilities, knowledge, and skills.

Despite some changes in the wording of the contracts and the number and nature of the deliverables since 1997, the core content of the MMRS program contracts covers the following activities:

  1. detection and identification of the toxic agent or disease,

  2. extraction of victims from contaminated areas,



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