References

Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. J., Klebanov, P. K., & Sealand, N. (1993). Do neighborhoods influence child and adolescent development? American Journal of Sociology, 99(2), 353-395.


Chase-Lansdale, P. L., Gordon, R. A., Brooks-Gunn, J., and Klebanov, P. K. (1997). Neighborhood and family influences on the intellectual and behavioral competence of preschool and early school-age children. In J. Brooks-Gunn, G. J. Duncan, & J. L. Aber (Eds.), Neighborhood Poverty: Vol.1 Context and Consequences for Children (pp. 79-118). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Coulton, C. (2001). Metropolitan and neighborhood context: Implications for welfare to work. Paper presented at the Workshop on the Equality of Opportunity in Metropolitan Areas: The Importance of Place. National Research Council, Washington, D.C.


Ellen, I. G., and Turner, M. A. (1997). Does neighborhood matter? Assessing recent evidence. Housing Policy Debate, 8 (4), 833-866.


Holzer, H. (2001). Racial differences in labor market outcomes among men. In N. J. Smelser, W. J. Wilson, and F. Mitchell (eds.), America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences Volume II, pp. 98-123.Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Holzer, H. J., and Ihlanfeldt, K. R. (1996). Spatial factors and the employment of blacks at the firm level. New England Economic Review (Federal Bank of Boston), May/June Special Issue, 65-82.

Holzer, H. J., Ihlanfeldt, K. R., and Sjoquist, D. L. (1994). Work, search, and travel among white and black youth. Journal of Urban Economics, 35,320-345.


Ihlanfeldt, K. R. (1997). Information on the spatial distribution of job opportunities within metropolitan areas. Journal of Urban Economics,41,218-242.

Ihlanfeldt, K. R., and Sjoquist, D. L. (1998). The spatial mismatch hypothesis: A review of recent studies and their implications for welfare reform. Housing Policy Debate, 9(4), 849-892.



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References Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. J., Klebanov, P. K., & Sealand, N. (1993). Do neighborhoods influence child and adolescent development? American Journal of Sociology, 99(2), 353-395. Chase-Lansdale, P. L., Gordon, R. A., Brooks-Gunn, J., and Klebanov, P. K. (1997). Neighborhood and family influences on the intellectual and behavioral competence of preschool and early school-age children. In J. Brooks-Gunn, G. J. Duncan, & J. L. Aber (Eds.), Neighborhood Poverty: Vol.1 Context and Consequences for Children (pp. 79-118). New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Coulton, C. (2001). Metropolitan and neighborhood context: Implications for welfare to work. Paper presented at the Workshop on the Equality of Opportunity in Metropolitan Areas: The Importance of Place. National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Ellen, I. G., and Turner, M. A. (1997). Does neighborhood matter? Assessing recent evidence. Housing Policy Debate, 8 (4), 833-866. Holzer, H. (2001). Racial differences in labor market outcomes among men. In N. J. Smelser, W. J. Wilson, and F. Mitchell (eds.), America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences Volume II, pp. 98-123.Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Holzer, H. J., and Ihlanfeldt, K. R. (1996). Spatial factors and the employment of blacks at the firm level. New England Economic Review (Federal Bank of Boston), May/June Special Issue, 65-82. Holzer, H. J., Ihlanfeldt, K. R., and Sjoquist, D. L. (1994). Work, search, and travel among white and black youth. Journal of Urban Economics, 35,320-345. Ihlanfeldt, K. R. (1997). Information on the spatial distribution of job opportunities within metropolitan areas. Journal of Urban Economics,41,218-242. Ihlanfeldt, K. R., and Sjoquist, D. L. (1998). The spatial mismatch hypothesis: A review of recent studies and their implications for welfare reform. Housing Policy Debate, 9(4), 849-892.

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Ihlanfeldt, K. R., and Young, M. V. (1996). The spatial distribution of black employment between the central city and suburbs. Economic Inquiry, 64, 613-707. Jargowsky, P. (1997). Poverty and Place: Ghettos, Barios, and the American City. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Jencks, C., and Mayer, S. (1990). The social consequences of growing up in a poor neighborhood. In L. E. Lynn and M. F. H. McGeary (eds.), Inner-City Poverty in the United States, pp. 111-186. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Kasarda, J. D., and Ting, K. (1996). Joblessness and poverty in America’s central cities: Causes and policy prescriptions. Housing Policy Debate, 7(2), 387-419. Katz, L. F., Kling, J., and Liebman, J. B. (2001). Moving to Opportunity in Boston: Early results of a randomized mobility experiment. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 119(2), 607-654. Leventhal, T., and Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). The neighborhoods they live in: The effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes. Psychological Bulletin, 126(2), 309-337. Ludwig, J., Duncan, G., and Ladd, H. (2001). The effects of urban poverty on educational outcomes: Evidence from a randomized experiment. In W. G. Gale and J. R. Pack (eds.), Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs. Washington, D.C.: Brookings. Massey, D. S. (2001). Residential segregation and neighborhood conditions in U.S. metropolitan areas. In N. J. Smelser, W. J. Wilson, and F. Mitchell (eds.), America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences Volume I,pp. 135-169.Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. (1999). Governance and Opportunity in Metropolitan America. Committee on Improving the Future of U.S. Cities Through Improved Metropolitan Area Governance, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, A. Altshuler, W. Morrill, H. Wolman, and F. Mitchell, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Sandefeur, G. D., Martin, M., Eggerling-Boeck, J., Mannon, S. E., and Meier, A. M. (2001). An overview of racial and ethnic demographic trends. In N. J. Smelser, W. J. Wilson, and F. Mitchell (eds.), America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences Volume I,pp. 40-102. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Sjoquist, D. (1996). Spatial mismatch and social acceptability. Working paper, Policy Research Center, Georgia State University. Turner, S. C. (1997). Barriers to a better break: Employer discrimination and spatial mismatch in metropolitan Detroit. Journal of Urban Affairs, 19(2), 123-141. Wilson, W. J. (1987). The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy.Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Wilson, W. J. (1996). When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor. New York: Vintage Books.

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