should decide which agency is to be responsible for promoting information security in the federal government through the adoption and use of what is currently known about enhancing security practices. To the extent that the federal government is successful in improving its procedures, it should make these best practices available to other elements of government and to the private sector.

Command, control, communications, and information (C3I) systems for emergency responders are critical for coordinating their efforts and increasing the promptness and effectiveness of response. Unfortunately, such systems are extremely vulnerable to attack; currently many of them do not even use state-of-the-art mechanisms for security and reliability. Since emergency-response organizations often do not have the expertise to review and revamp the telecommunications and computing technologies used for emergency response, it is necessary to provide them with authoritative knowledge and support. In addition, designated emergency-response agencies should use existing technology to achieve short-term improvements in the telecommunications and computing infrastructure for first responders.

All phases of counterterrorism efforts require that large amounts of information from many sources be acquired, integrated, and interpreted. Given the range of data sources and data types, the volume of information each source provides, and the difficulty of analyzing partial information from single sources, the timely and insightful use of these inputs is very difficult. Thus, information fusion and management techniques promise to play a central role in the future prevention, detection, and remediation of terrorist acts.

Unlike some other sectors of national importance, information technology is a sector in which the federal government has little leverage. Thus, constructively engaging the private sector by emphasizing market solutions seems a desirable and practical way for the government to stimulate advances that can strengthen the nation’s information technology infrastructure. The challenge for federal policy makers is to change the market dynamics by encouraging the private sector to pay more attention to security-related issues and by facilitating the adoption of effective security (e.g., through federally supported or incentivized research that makes better technologies available and reduces the costs of implementing security-related functionality).

Within the federal government, numerous federal agencies, including the Department of Defense (and especially the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, all play important roles in funding and performing telecommunications and computing research, and many other agencies are major users of IT. A strategic long-term research and development agenda should be established to address three primary counterterrorism-related areas in IT: information and network security, the IT needs of emergency responders, and informa-

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