owners, operators, and overseers as they prioritize and make security preparations. (The Homeland Security Institute recommended in Chapter 12 could be such an entity.)


The panel is indebted to the earlier work of other National Research Council committees, including reports by the National Materials Advisory Board’s Panel on Assessment of Technologies Deployed to Improve Aviation Security, led by Thomas Hartwick.26 In addition, the 1999 NRC report Improving Surface Transportation Security: A Research and Development Strategy, by a committee chaired by H. Norman Abramson, is cited repeatedly and helped shape the panel’s discussion on R&D strategies and opportunities.27 A key member of the committee that produced Improving Surface Transportation Security, Fred V. Morrone, Director of Public Safety and Superintendent of Police for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, died on September 11, 2001, while responding to the World Trade Center attacks. This panel’s effort was undertaken in memory of Superintendent Morrone.


Badolato, E. 2000. “Cargo Security: High-Tech Protection, High-Tech Threats,” TR News, No. 211, November-December, pp. 14-17.

Boyd, A., and J.P. Sullivan. 1997. Emergency Preparedness for Transit Terrorism: Synthesis of Transit Practice 27, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

Bureau of Transportation Statistics. 2000. National Transportation Statistics 2000, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C.

Computer Science and Telecommunication Board (CSTB). 2002. IDs—Not That Easy: Questions About Nationwide Identity Systems, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

Carter, Ashton B. 2002. “The Architecture of Government in the Face of Terrorism,” International Security, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 5-23.

Flynn, S.E. 2000a. “Beyond Border Control,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 70, No. 6, November-December.

Flynn, S.E. 2000b. “Transportation Security: Agenda for the 21st Century,” TR News, No. 211, November-December, pp. 3-7.

Flynn, S.E. 2001. “Bolstering the Maritime Weak Link,” testimony before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C., December 6.

Jenkins, Brian M. 1997. Protecting Surface Transportation Systems and Patrons from Terrorist Activities: Case Studies of Best Security Practices and a Chronology of Attacks, Report 97-4, Norman Y. Mineta Institute for Surface Transportation Policy Studies, San Jose State University, San Jose, Calif.


See NRC (1999a, 2002).


See NRC (1999b).

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