rected. They have been rendered obsolete by available technology. Design methods used in other countries, and their technological bases, should be surveyed for possible use in the United States. In lieu of the time-consuming testing and certification process required to change our codes and standards, provisional changes to current practice could be made by utilizing the existing building regulations in such countries as Sweden, Australia, and New Zealand.

Research and Development Priorities and Strategies

Recommendation 8.16: It is essential that research and development be undertaken that leads to the improved blast- and fire-resistance of major buildings. The results of this research must then be disseminated so that new knowledge is incorporated into the design and construction of new buildings and into the remodeling of existing buildings. The specific areas of focus should be the following:

  • Testing and codification of blast-resistant curtain-wall technology;

  • Testing and codification of blast-resistant glazing and software (e.g., BLASTX and CONWEP) for evaluating glazing systems, including mullions and window frames;

  • Materials testing and analysis of fire resistance (including full-scale tests of burning aircraft fuel and common building materials) with respect to the following:

    • Building structural systems;

    • Missing or deficient insulation;

    • Fire-induced thermal conditions within an enclosure, including ventilation effects;

    • High-temperature properties of building materials and furnishings, including insulation and structural materials; and

    • The structural interactions that occur as a result of fires, with particular emphasis on connections between elements such as horizontal and vertical members.

Recommendation 8.17: Old monumental buildings should be given special consideration in two areas:

  • Inventorying their material properties and structural drawings as a precursor to protective redesign, analysis and recovery, and

  • Developing fiber-reinforced laminates for increasing the ductility of their masonry.

Recommendation 8.18: Study the more advanced fire-rating practices in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand to assess their applicability to the United States.

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