Recommendation 8.31: Policies should be developed that allow only railcars with the IUs mounted and operating to move on tracks that pass through urban areas.

Implementation of this recommendation would require the participation of DOT, the national laboratories, the railroads, and the cities and the Conference of Mayors, and should be coordinated by OHS.

Flooding of Urban Tunnels

With the capability to quickly isolate vulnerable sections from the rest of the tunnel system, the flooding of urban tunnels could be mitigated. Such technology could also be used to isolate sections of the tunnels so that smoke, gases or other dangerous mixtures released there could not infiltrate other sections.

Recommendation 8.32: Rapidly deployable tunnel barriers should be developed and produced, and they should be installed at appropriate locations in transit and railroad system tunnels, so that they will deploy—automatically or on signal—to block the flow of floodwaters in the tunnels.

This should be a DOT/TRB research area, with strong support to be expected from the cities and the transit properties and railroad systems that have such vulnerabilities.

REFERENCES

American Society of Civil Engineers. 1996. The Oklahoma City Bombing: Improving Building Performance Through Multi-hazard Mitigation, prepared for FEMA, August.

American Society for Testing and Materials. 1998. Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, ASTM E119-98.


Bowles, David, Loren Anderson, and Terry Glover. 1997. “A Role for Risk Assessment in Dam Safety Management,” Proceedings of the 3d Annual Conference on Hydropower 97, Trondheim, Norway.

Buchanan, A.H. 2001. Structural Design for Fire Safety, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., West Sussex, England.


Civil Engineering Research Foundation. 2001. “Protecting Infrastructure,” American Society of Civil Engineering brochure summarizing Executive Program Series “Designing and Managing Vulunerability,” held in Washington, D.C., October 23-24.

Corley, W.G., P. Mlakar, M. Sozen, and C. Thornton. 1998. “The Oklahoma City Bombing: Summary and Recommendations for Multihazard Mitigation,” Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, Proc. ASCE, Vol. 12, No. 3.


Dean, Joshua. 2002. “Systems Failure,” Government Executive Magazine, February 2.

Deininger, R.A. 2000. “The Threat of Chemical and Biological Agents to the Public Water Supply Systems,” Water Pipeline Database, Science Applications International Corporation, McLean, Va.

Dreazen, Y.J. 2001. “‘Backflow’ Water-line Attack Feared,” Wall Street Journal, December 27.

Dwyer, Jim. 2002. “Before the Towers Fell, Fire Department Fought Chaos,” New York Times, January 30.



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