• Deliberate efforts to remember the event and its heroes collectively, through commemorative ceremonies, public observation of anniversaries, and the erection of monuments; and

  • Sustained public interest in the remembering process, including, down the line, some contestation among politically interested groups over how the remembering should be done.

Some future attacks may be of such magnitude and drama as to constitute additional cultural traumas for the nation. Even these, however, will be read and remembered in the cultural context established by September 11.

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Tierney, Kathleen J., Michael K. Lindell, and Ronald W. Perry. 2001. Facing the Unexpected: Disaster Preparedness and Response in the United States, Joseph Henry Press, Washington, D.C.


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