and natural failures, improving the reliability of systems and quality of services, and, in some cases, increasing productivity. In the military, this approach is called a dual-use strategy, and it will be essential to increasing capability rapidly and moving toward technologies that will ultimately be affordable to implement.

Opportunities for dual-use solutions may not be as rare as one might suppose. For example:

  • Technology developed to protect and monitor the food supply against intentional contamination by terrorists may also be useful for improving our ability to catch and respond to unintentional contamination caused by bacteria, spoilage, or processing errors.

  • Sensor and filtering technologies designed to protect buildings against chemical attack will be useful in monitoring building ventilation systems for other types of pollution and for improving indoor air quality, and may also allow more efficient control of these systems.

  • Techniques to detect biological infections prior to clinical symptoms would help slow outbreaks of all infectious diseases, not just those introduced into the population maliciously.

  • A security system concept for shipping containers whereby shippers certified as having secure loading facilities are granted faster passage through key megaports has a variety of possible collateral benefits, including a decline in the use of containers for the movement of contraband and an increase in the overall efficiency of the shipping system.

  • Improved security architecture and cryptography that can protect SCADA systems and other critical infrastructures, such as telecommunication systems, would enhance commercial security (i.e., reduce cybercrime) and help protect privacy. More robust network architectures could increase the reliability of important systems.

  • Technologies already developed for responding to natural hazards (e.g., earthquake, flood, hurricane, wind, and fire) could be adopted for homeland security and counterterrorism efforts.

  • Low-cost electronic accelerators developed as sources of radiation for detection of nuclear or explosive materials could also be used to replace intense radioactivity sources currently used in commerce and medicine.

  • Biometric identification technologies could be useful for commercial security, and authentication methods could facilitate e-commerce.

Homeland security is a national concern, but it does not necessarily represent a large business opportunity. The size of the market for counterterrorism technologies is ill defined, and the identity of customers is unclear. Unlike in the defense industry, the federal government is not the sole, or even primary, customer; potential users include private companies, first responders at the state and local levels, and a large variety of federal government agencies. The broader the

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