Appendixes



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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism Appendixes

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism A Committee and Staff Biographies Lewis M. Branscomb is the emeritus Aetna Professor of Public Policy and Corporate Management and emeritus director of the Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program in the Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government. Dr. Branscomb, a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine, has a background in physics and public policy. He was a research physicist at the National Bureau of Standards (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology) and also served as its director. He was the founder and first director of the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics at the University of Colorado and an at-large director of the Associated Universities for Research in Astronomy. He served on the President’s Science Advisory Committee (PSAC), where he chaired the PSAC committee on space science and technology during Project Apollo. Dr. Branscomb served as vice president and chief scientist of IBM Corporation until his retirement 1986. Dr. Branscomb is a former president of the American Physical Society and of Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society. Richard D. Klausner is executive director of the global health programs at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Dr. Klausner, a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine, is well known for his contributions to multiple aspects of cell and molecular biology and is highly cited for work in biology and biomedical research. His work has been recognized with numerous honors and awards, including the Outstanding Investigator Award from the American Federation of Clinical Research and the William Damashek Prize for Major Discoveries in Hematology. From 1995 until 2001 he was director of

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism the National Cancer Institute. From 1984 until 1997 he was chief of the Cell Biology and Metabolism Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Dr. Klausner has served on numerous advisory committees, including as chair of an NRC project charged with writing standards for science education for the United States from kindergarten through 12th grade. Dr. Klausner is the past president of the American Society for Clinical Investigation. He is the author of over 280 scientific articles and several books. John D. Baldeschwieler, is J. Stanley Johnson Professor and professor of chemistry, emeritus, at the California Institute of Technology. Dr. Baldeschwieler, a member of the National Academy of Sciences, joined the Caltech faculty (after several years at Harvard and Stanford universities) in 1973. His research has focused on molecular assemblies for use in the delivery of pharmaceuticals, for scientific instrumentation, and particularly for development of ion cyclotron resonance spectroscopy. He also pioneered the use of nuclear magnetic resonance and double resonance spectroscopy, nuclear Overhauser effects, and perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy in chemical systems. Dr. Baldeschwieler was a member of the President’s Science Advisory Committee from 1969 to 1972, serving as vice chairman from 1970 to 1972. He served as deputy director of the Office of Science and Technology from 1971 to 1973. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Philosophical Society. He was a founder of Vestar Inc., which merged with NeXagen Inc. to form NeXstar Pharmaceuticals. He also served as director of NeXstar until it was acquired by Gilead Sciences, Inc. Dr. Baldeschwieler was also a founder and director of Combion, Inc. He currently serves as a managing member of the Athenaeum Fund and is a director of Drug Royalty Corporation Inc., the Huntington Medical Research Institutes, Pasadena Entretec, and several privately held companies. He is a recipient of the National Medal of Science. Barry R. Bloom is dean of the faculty and professor of immunology and infectious diseases at the Harvard School of Public Health. He received his B.A. degree and an honorary S.D. from Amherst College, his A.M. from Harvard University, and his Ph.D. from the Rockefeller University. Dr. Bloom served as a consultant to the White House on international health policy in 1977-1978. He is a member of the WHO Advisory Committee on Health Research and has chaired the WHO committees on leprosy research and tuberculosis research and the Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee of the UNDP/World Bank/ WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases. Dr. Bloom chairs the WHO UNAIDS Vaccine Advisory Committee and serves on the National AIDS Vaccine Research Committee. He recently received a major grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation for an AIDS prevention initiative in Nigeria. He was a member of both the National Advisory Council of the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. National Vaccine Advisory Committee. He was

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism elected president of the American Association of Immunologists in 1984 and served as president of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) in 1985. He currently serves on the Scientific Advisory Board of the National Center for Infectious Diseases of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Advisory Board of the Fogarty International Center at the NIH. Dr. Bloom is chairman of the Board of Trustees of the International Vaccine Institute. He was co-chair of the Board on Global Health of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. He received the first Bristol-Myers Squibb Award for Distinguished Research in Infectious Diseases, shared the Novartis Award in Immunology in 1998, and was the recipient of the Robert Koch Gold Medal for lifetime research in infectious diseases in 1999. Dr. Bloom is a member of the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the National Academy of Sciences. L. Paul Bremer III is chairman of the crisis consulting practice of Marsh and McLennan Companies, Inc., the world’s leading risk and insurance services firm. Prior to this position, Ambassador Bremer, an expert in terrorism, had a 23-year career in the U.S. diplomatic service. In 1999, Speaker of the House of Representatives Dennis Hastert appointed Ambassador Bremer as chairman of the National Commission on Terrorism. Earlier, he was ambassador-at-large for counter terrorism under President Ronald W. Reagan. William F. Brinkman retired as vice president, research, at Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, on September 30, 2001. In that position his responsibilities included the direction of all research to enable the advancement of the technology underlying Lucent Technologies’ products. He received his B.S. and Ph.D. (physics) degrees from the University of Missouri in 1960 and 1965, respectively. He joined Bell Laboratories in 1966 after spending 1 year as an NSF postdoctoral fellow at Oxford University in 1965. In 1972 he became Head of the Infrared Physics and Electronics Research Department, and in 1974 became the director of the Chemical Physics Laboratory. He held the position of director of the Physical Research Laboratory from 1981 until moving to Sandia in 1984. He returned to Bell Laboratories in 1987 to become executive director of the Physics Research Division. In 1993 he became Physical Sciences Research Vice President, and in January 2000 became Vice President, Research. He has worked on theories of condensed matter, and his early work involved the theory of spin fluctuations in metals and other highly correlated Fermi liquids. This work resulted in a new approach to highly correlated liquids in terms of almost localized liquids and to a theory of the metal-insulator transition. The explanation of the superfluid phases of one of the isotopes of helium and many properties of these exotic states of matter was a major contribution in the mid-1970s. The theoretical explanation of the existence of electron-hole liquids in semiconductors was another contribution in that period. Subsequent theoretical work on liquid crystals and incommensurate systems brought additional important contri-

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism butions to the theoretical understanding of condensed matter. Dr. Brinkman is strongly interested in improving technology and the connection between research and products. He has also been heavily involved in transferring optical technology and helped create Lucent’s rapidly expanding optoelectronics business. He has served on many advisory committees. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was chair of the National Academy of Sciences Physics Survey and the Solid-State Sciences Committee. He served on the Council of the National Academy of Sciences and is president of the American Physical Society. Dr. Brinkman was the recipient of the 1994 George E. Pake Prize. Ashton B. Carter is Ford Foundation Professor of Science and International Affairs at Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government and codirector, with William J. Perry, of the Preventive Defense Project, a research collaboration of Stanford University and Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government. From 1993 to 1996, Dr. Carter served as Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy, where he was responsible for national security policy concerning the states of the former Soviet Union. He was twice awarded the Department of Defense Distinguished Service medal. Dr. Carter continues to serve the Department of Defense as an adviser to the Secretary of Defense and as a member of the Defense Science Board and DOD’s Threat Reduction Advisory Committee. From 1998 to 2000, he served in an official capacity as senior advisor to the North Korea Policy Review. Before his government service, Carter was director of the Center for Science and International Affairs in the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and chairman of the editorial board of International Security. Dr. Carter received bachelor’s degrees in physics and in medieval history from Yale University and a doctorate in theoretical physics from Oxford University, where he was a Rhodes Scholar. In addition to authoring numerous scientific publications and government studies, Dr. Carter is the author and editor of a number of books, including Preventive Defense: A New Security Strategy for America (with William J. Perry). Dr. Carter’s current research focuses on the Preventive Defense Project, which designs and promotes security policies aimed at preventing the emergence of major new threats to the United States. He is a senior partner of Global Technology Partners, LLC, a chairman of the Advisory Board of MIT Lincoln Laboratories, and a member of the Draper Laboratory Corporation and of the board of directors of Mitretek Systems, Inc. Dr. Carter is a consultant to Goldman Sachs and the MITRE Corporation on international affairs and technology matters, a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the Aspen Strategy Group, and the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations, and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Charles B. Curtis is the president and chief operating officer of the Nuclear Threat Initiative. Previously, Mr. Curtis served as the executive vice president

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism and chief operating officer of the United Nations Foundation. Before joining UNF, Mr. Curtis was a partner in Hogan and Hartson, a Washington-based law firm with both domestic and international offices. Mr. Curtis served as Under Secretary and, later, Deputy Secretary of Energy from February 1994 to May 1997. He was the chief operating officer of the Department and, among other duties, had direct programmatic responsibility for all its energy, science, technology and national security programs. Mr. Curtis is a lawyer with over 15 years of practice experience and more than 18 years in government service. He was a founding partner of the Washington law firm Van Ness Feldman. Mr. Curtis has held positions on the staff of the U.S. House of Representatives, the U.S. Treasury, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, which he chaired from 1977 to 1981. He is a current member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Mortimer L. Downey III, former U.S. Deputy Secretary of Transportation, is a principal consultant with PB-Consult, the management consulting subsidiary of Parsons Brinckerhoff. As deputy secretary from 1993 to 2001, Mr. Downey was the U.S. Department of Transportation’s chief operating officer. He also served on the President’s Management Council, as Chairman of the National Science and Technology Council’s Committee on Transportation Research and Development, and as a member of the board of directors of Amtrak. Previously, Mr. Downey was executive director and chief financial officer of New York’s Metropolitan Transportation Authority, the nation’s largest independent public authority. He is well known for developing innovative solutions to complex public policy issues and has championed a systemwide approach to transportation decision making. Mr. Downey serves as the chairman of the board of directors of the National Academy of Public Administration and as a board member of the Eno Transportation Foundation. He received the Frank Turner Lifetime Achievement Award from the Transportation Research Board, the Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Public Transportation Association, and the Leadership Award from ITS America. Richard L. Garwin is the Phillip D. Reed Senior Fellow for Science and Technology at the Council on Foreign Relations, New York, and an emeritus fellow at IBM’s T.J. Watson Research Center. Dr. Garwin is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. His expertise in experimental and computational physics includes contributions to nuclear weapons design, instruments and electronics for nuclear and low-temperature physics, computer elements and systems, superconducting devices, communications systems, behavior of solid helium, and detection of gravitational radiation. He was a member of the President’s Science Advisory Committee from 1962 to 1965 and 1969 to 1972 and of the Defense Science Board from 1966 to 1969. He currently consults for the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and the Council on Foreign Relations

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism and is an active member of the JASONs. In 1998, he was a member of the nine-person Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States (Rumsfeld Commission). He has written extensively on nuclear weapons-related issues over the course of several decades, particularly on the question of maintaining the nuclear stockpile under a comprehensive test ban regime. Until August 2001, he chaired the State Department’s Arms Control and Nonproliferation Advisory Board. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a member of the American Philosophical Society. Paul H. Gilbert is senior vice president, principal professional associate, and principal project manager of Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade and Douglas, Inc., senior vice president of Parsons Brinckerhoff International Inc., and recently retired as director of Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc. and of Parsons Brinckerhoff International, Inc., and as chairman of Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade and Douglas, Inc. A member of the National Academy of Engineering, his expertise is in project management of design and construction of large complex facilities. Mr. Gilbert was the project director of the PB/MK team for design, construction management, and construction of the conventional facilities of the Department of Energy’s superconducting super collider. He has served as principal-in-charge for major engineering projects such as the Stanford Linear Accelerator Positron-Electron Project, the Basalt Waste Isolation Project at Hanford, the Nuclear Power Plants in Mined Caverns Study, the Downtown Seattle Transit Project, the Long Beach Naval Fuel Pier, and the Boston and San Francisco Effluent Outfall Tunnels. He is the author of Parsons Brinckerhoff’s Project Management Manual and has also published various technical papers and articles. Mr. Gilbert is a member of a variety of professional organizations, including the American Society of Civil Engineers, The Moles, Project Management Institute, and Society of American Military Engineers. He has won numerous awards in civil engineering and construction management, including American Society of Civil Engineers fellow, the Rickey Medal, and the Construction Management Award. M.R.C. Greenwood is chancellor of the University of California, Santa Cruz, a position she has held since July 1, 1996. In addition to her position as chancellor, Dr. Greenwood also holds a UC Santa Cruz appointment as professor of biology. A member of the Institute of Medicine, her research interests are in developmental cell biology, genetics, physiology, nutrition, and science and higher education policy issues. Her work over the past 25 years has focused on the genetic causes of obesity. Prior to her UC Santa Cruz appointments, Chancellor Greenwood served as dean of graduate studies, vice provost for academic outreach, and professor of biology and internal medicine at the University of California, Davis. Previously, Dr. Greenwood taught at Vassar College, where she was the John Guy Vassar Professor of Natural Sciences, chair of the Department of Biology, and director of the Undergraduate Research Summer Institute. From November

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism 1993 to May 1995, Dr. Greenwood held an appointment as associate director for science at the Office of Science and Technology Policy in the Executive Office of the President of the United States. Dr. Greenwood is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the California Academy of Sciences. She has been honored by numerous organizations for her contributions to science and science policy. She was (1998) president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and served as AAAS’s board chair in 1999. She is a Presidential appointee, U.S. Senate-confirmed member of the National Science Board. She also served as a member of the board of directors of the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC) and serves on the Science Advisory Board of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). She is an ex officio member of the board of directors of the Tech Museum of Innovation in California and serves on the board of directors of the California Healthcare Institute. In March 2000, Dr. Greenwood was appointed to Governor Davis’s Council on Bioscience. She also serves on the board of directors of the Silicon Valley Manufacturing Group. Margaret A. Hamburg, M.D., is vice president for biological programs, Nuclear Threat Initiative, whose mission is to strengthen global security by reducing the risk of use and preventing the spread of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. Before her current position, she was the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Prior to that, Dr. Hamburg served for almost 6 years as the Commissioner of Health for the City of New York, and one of her many accomplishments included the creation of the first public health bioterrorism preparedness program in the nation. She completed her internship and residency in internal medicine at the New York Hospital/Cornell University Medical Center and is certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine. Dr. Hamburg is a graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Medical School. She currently serves on the Harvard University Board of Overseers. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine, the New York Academy of Medicine, the Council on Foreign Relations, and is a fellow of the American Association of the Advancement of Science. William Happer is a professor in the Department of Physics at Princeton University. Dr. Happer, a member of the National Academy of Sciences, specializes in modern optics, optical and radiofrequency spectroscopy of atoms and molecules, and spin-polarized atoms and nuclei. In 1964, Dr. Happer was a research associate at the Columbia University Radiation Laboratory and also served as a physics professor. He was codirector of the Columbia Radiation Laboratory from 1971 to 1976 and director from 1976 to 1979. Dr. Happer was awarded the Class of 1909 Professorship of Physics at Princeton in 1988. In 1991, he was appointed director of energy research in the Department of Energy, where he oversaw a basic research portfolio that included much of the federal funding for high-energy and nuclear physics, materials science, magnetic confinement fu-

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism sion, environmental science, the Human Genome Project, and other areas. In 1993 he was reappointed professor of physics at Princeton University and was named Eugene Higgens Professor of Physics and chair of the University Research Board in 1995. Throughout his career, Dr. Happer has served as a scientific consultant to numerous firms, charitable organizations, and government agencies. He was a founder of Magnetic Imaging Technologies, Inc. (now part of Nycomed Amersham), a startup company focused on the development of magnetic resonance imaging with laser-polarized helium-3 and xenon-129. He has published over 160 scientific papers. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science; he is also a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Philosophical Society. Dr. Happer was awarded an Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship in 1966, an Alexander von Humboldt Award in 1976, the 1997 Broida Prize, and the 1999 Davisson-Germer Prize of the American Physical Society. John L. Hennessy is president of Stanford University. Dr. Hennessy, a member of the National Academy of Engineering, received his master’s and doctoral degrees in computer science from the State University of New York at Stony Brook in 1975 and 1977, respectively. In the fall of 1977 he joined Stanford as assistant professor of electrical engineering, rising to associate professor in 1983 and full professor in 1986. Professor Hennessy initiated the MIPS project at Stanford in 1981 (MIPS is a high-performance Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC)), built in VLSI. MIPS is one of the first three experimental RISC architectures. In addition to his role in the basic research, Dr. Hennessy played a key role in transferring this technology to industry. During a sabbatical leave from Stanford in 1984 to 1985, he cofounded MIPS Computer Systems (now called MIPS Technologies, Inc.), which specializes in the production of chips based on these concepts. He also led the Stanford DASH (Distributed Architecture for Shared Memory) multiprocessor project. DASH was the first scalable shared-memory multiprocessor with hardware-supported cache coherence. Most recently, he has been involved in FLASH (FLexible Architecture for Shared Memory), which is designed to support different communication and coherency approaches in large-scale, shared-memory multiprocessors. Joshua Lederberg is Sackler Foundation Scholar at the Rockefeller University. Dr. Lederberg, a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine, has an extensive background in biological and physical sciences, including bacteriology, biochemistry, biophysics, epidemiology, genetics, microbiology, molecular biology, toxicology, and virology. He is a leading geneticist and microbiologist who received the Nobel Prize in 1958 for his work in genetic structure and function in microorganisms (he was also awarded the U.S. National Medal of Science in 1989). Prior to serving as president of the Rockefeller University from 1978 to 1990, Dr. Lederberg served on the faculty at the University of Wisconsin and at the Stanford School of Medicine. He has served on

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the WHO’s Advisory Health Research Council, the President’s Cancer Panel, and the Congress Technology Assessment Advisory Council. Thomas C. Schelling is Distinguished University Professor and professor of economics, emeritus, of Harvard University. A member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine, Dr. Schelling’s research interests have included military strategy and arms control, energy and environmental policy, climate change, nuclear proliferation, organized crime, foreign aid and international trade, conflict and bargaining theory, racial segregation and integration, the military draft, tobacco and drugs policy, and ethical issues in policy and in business. He spent the years 1948 to 1953 in Europe and Washington with the Marshall Plan and related programs, joined Yale University in 1953, Harvard University in 1958, and came to Maryland in 1990. He is a distinguished fellow of the American Economic Association and was its president in 1991. In 1993, he received the National Academy of Sciences award for Behavioral Research Relevant to the Prevention of Nuclear War. Maxine F. Singer is the president of the Carnegie Institution of Washington and scientist emeritus at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. Prior to coming to Carnegie in 1988, she was chief of the Laboratory of Biochemistry, Division of Cancer Biology and Diagnosis at the National Cancer Institute, where she conducted research in biological chemistry and molecular genetics. At the Carnegie Institution, Dr. Singer oversees operations and research of five renowned scientific research laboratories. She also has instituted a community outreach and education program that brings leading scientific speakers to the community and trains local science teachers. Dr. Singer is a member of various advisory panels to scientific societies, the government, and academia. Currently she chairs the National Academies’ Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy and serves on the NASA Astrobiology Institute Scientific Advisory Board. Dr. Maxine Singer is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine. Neil J. Smelser served as the director of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavorial Sciences, Stanford, California, from 1994 to August 2001. His research interests are sociological theory, economic sociology, collective behavior, sociology of education, social change, and comparative methods. From 1958 to 1994 he was on the faculty of the Sociology Department of the University of California, Berkeley, serving as university professor since 1971. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and the National Academy of Sciences. Philip M. Smith is co-chair of the Advisory Board, California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology, and is a partner in McGeary and Smith, consultants on science and technology policy. He has been involved in

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism developing national and international science and technology policy and programs since the 1950s. Dr. Smith was the executive director of the National Research Council for 13 years and has held senior positions in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, the Office of Management and Budget, and the National Science Foundation. He was a member of the NRC Committee on Science, Technology and Health Aspects of the Foreign Policy Agenda of the United States, is a member of several current advisory committees for the National Academies and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, was an advisor to the Committee for Economic Development, and is a director at Aurora Flight Sciences, Inc. P. Roy Vagelos is retired chairman and CEO of Merck and Company, Inc., having served as chief executive officer for 9 years, from 1985 to 1994. He was first elected to the board of directors in 1984 and served as its chairman from 1986 to 1994. He was previously executive vice president of the worldwide health products company and before that president of its research division. Earlier, he served as chairman of the Department of Biological Chemistry of the School of Medicine at Washington University in St. Louis and as founding director of the university’s Division of Biology and Biomedical Sciences. He had previously held senior positions in cellular physiology and biochemistry at the National Heart Institute. Dr. Vagelos is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. He received his M.D. degree from Columbia University in 1954. In 1995, he received the National Academy of Science Award for Chemistry in Service to Society. Vincent Vitto is the president and CEO of Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc., which specializes in guidance, navigation and control, and autonomy and microelectronics. His areas of expertise are communications and surveillance technologies. As assistant director of the Lincoln Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), he was responsible for programs in surface surveillance and communications. Prior to that position, Mr. Vitto was head of the Communications Division, which included work on technology and system concept development of military satellite communications systems. Mr. Vitto has been a member of many government advisory boards and panels; he currently is vice chair of the Defense Science Board and chair of NRC’s Naval Studies Board. George M. Whitesides is Mallinckrodt Professor of Chemistry at Harvard University. Professor Whitesides, a member of the National Academy of Sciences, has a background in biological and physical sciences, including materials science, organic chemistry, and biochemistry. He is a leading chemist who received the U.S. National Medal of Science in 1998. His research interests include surface chemistry, materials science, self-assembly, capillary electrophoresis,

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism organic solid state, molecular virology, directed ligand discovery, and protein chemistry. He has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees including, most recently, a biological warfare defense study for the Department of Defense. R. James Woolsey is a partner at the law firm of Shea & Gardner in Washington, D.C. He returned to the firm in January 1995 after serving 2 years as director of Central Intelligence. He has practiced there for 21 years, on four occasions, since 1973. Mr. Woolsey’s law practice has been in the fields of civil litigation, alternative dispute resolution, and corporate transactions; increasingly his practice has been international. He served recently as counsel for major U.S. and overseas corporations in both commercial arbitrations and the negotiation of joint ventures and other agreements. He serves regularly as a neutral (both as an arbitrator and a mediator) in commercial disputes between major companies. Mr. Woolsey is presently a member of the board of directors or board of managers of Linsang Partners, LLC; BC International Corporation; Fibersense Technology Corporation; Invicta Networks, Inc.; DIANA, LLC; and Agorics, Inc. He is also a member of the board of governors of the Philadelphia Stock Exchange. He has served in the past as a member of the boards of Sun HealthCare Group, Inc.; USF&G; Yurie Systems, Inc.; Martin Marietta; British Aerospace, Inc.; Fairchild Industries; Titan Corporation; and DynCorp. Besides serving as director of Central Intelligence, Mr. Woolsey has served in the U.S. government as ambassador to the Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE), Vienna, 1989-1991; Under Secretary of the Navy, 1977-1979; and General Counsel to the U.S. Senate Committee on Armed Services, 1970-1973. He was also appointed by the President as delegate at large to the U.S.-Soviet Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) and Nuclear and Space Arms Talks (NST), and served in that capacity on a part-time basis in Geneva, 1983-1986. During military service in the U.S. Army he served as an adviser on the U.S. delegation to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I), Helsinki and Vienna, 1969 to 1970. Mr. Woolsey has been a director or trustee of numerous civic organizations, including the Smithsonian Institution, where he was chairman of the Executive Committee of the Board of Regents, the Goldwater Scholarship Foundation, The Aerospace Corporation, and Stanford University. He has been a member of the National Commission on Terrorism, 1999-2000; the Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the U.S. (Rumsfeld Commission), 1998; the President’s Commission on Federal Ethics Law Reform, 1989; the President’s Blue Ribbon Commission on Defense Management (Packard Commission), 1985-1986; and the President’s Commission on Strategic Forces (Scowcroft Commission), 1983. He is currently a trustee of the Center for Strategic and International Studies and chairman of the Advisory Committee of the Clean Fuels Foundation.

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism Staff Ronald D. Taylor has been the director of the Naval Studies Board of the National Research Council since 1995. He joined the National Research Council in 1990 as a program officer with the Board on Physics and Astronomy and in 1994 became associate director of the Naval Studies Board. During his tenure at the National Research Council, Dr. Taylor has overseen the initiation and production of more than 40 studies focused on the application of science and technology to problems of national interest. Many of these studies address national security and national defense issues. From 1984 to 1990, Dr. Taylor was a research staff scientist with Berkeley Research Associates, working on-site at the Naval Research Laboratory on projects related to the development and application of charged particle beams. Prior to 1984, Dr. Taylor held both teaching and research positions in several academic institutions, including assistant professor of physics at Villanova University, research associate in chemistry at the University of Toronto, and instructor of physics at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. Dr. Taylor holds a Ph.D. and an M.S. in physics from the College of William and Mary and a B.A. in physics from Johns Hopkins University. In addition to science policy, Dr. Taylor’s scientific and technical expertise is in the areas of atomic and molecular collision theory, chemical dynamics, and atomic processes in plasmas. He has authored or coauthored nearly 30 professional scientific papers or technical reports and given more than two dozen contributed or invited papers at scientific meetings. Elizabeth L. Grossman has been a program officer at the National Research Council since March of 1997. Past reports she has worked on include Black and Smokeless Powders: Technologies for Finding Bombs and the Bomb Makers, a study that examined the problems related to preventing the use of pipe bombs in the United States, and Future Biotechnology on the International Space Station, an examination of the plans for cellular biology and protein crystal growth research on the space station. Her regular position is with the Board on Assessment of NIST Programs, which produces an annual report evaluating the broad array of research programs at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. She holds a B.A. in physics and mathematics from Swarthmore College and a Ph.D. in computational physics from the University of Chicago.