tise in the areas of chemistry, chemical engineering, sensors, chemical weapons, industrial chemistry, dispersion modeling, pharmaceutical manufacturing, food safety, and water supply. In addition, William F. Brinkman, a member of the STCT committee, provided helpful input.

The panel met twice, in January and February, and then communicated by a series of conference calls and e-mail exchanges. The first meeting was held at Irvine in conjunction with the Workshop on National Security and Homeland Defense hosted by the NRC Board on Chemical Science and Technology. At the workshop the panel heard military, industrial, and civilian perspectives on security by David R. Franz (Southern Research Institute), Scott D. Cunningham (DuPont), and Richard L. Garwin (IBM). At the second meeting, in Washington, D.C., the panel heard a presentation by David Kontny, the Canine and Explosives Program manager at the FAA. The panel was also supplied with numerous publications to serve as background and to inform its work.

PANEL ON NUCLEAR AND RADIOLOGICAL ISSUES

Chaired by STCT committee member William Happer, the Nuclear and Radiological Panel consisted of eight members with expertise in nuclear weapons design, capabilities, and use; nuclear weapons and materials protection, control, and accounting; nuclear material detectors and sensors; conventional weapons capabilities; and reactor safety. The panel met four times and communicated by e-mail and conference calls over a 3-month period. During its meetings, the panel received briefings from representatives of several agencies and organizations, including the Central Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense, Department of Energy and its national laboratories, Federal Aviation Administration, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Nuclear Energy Institute, and NAC International. More details on speakers and topics are provided in the classified annex to this report.

PANEL ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Co-chaired by John L. Hennessy (STCT committee member) and David Patterson, the Information Technology Panel consisted of 16 members with expertise in computer, information, Internet, and network security; computer and systems architecture; computer systems innovation, including interactive systems; national security and intelligence; telecommunications, including wireline and wireless; data mining, fusion, and information management; machine learning and artificial intelligence; automated reasoning tools; information processing technologies; information retrieval; networked, distributed, and high-performance systems; software; and human factors. The panel met three times over 2 months and communicated by e-mail and conference calls during the project. During its meetings, the panel heard from experts in cybersecurity and national security and



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