three times in 3 months and communicating frequently by phone and e-mail. The panel drew on information provided by a number of briefings and from a variety of other sources as well as on the panel members’ own expertise; the panel’s contribution was crucial in the preparation of two chapters, “Energy Systems” and “Cities and Fixed Infrastructure.”

Briefings to the panel were made by Massoud Amin, Electric Power Research Institute; Harvey M. Bernstein, Civil Engineering Research Foundation; Laurence W. Brown, Edison Electric Institute; Lynn Costantini, North American Electric Reliability Council; Debra DeHaney, U.S. Conference of Mayors; Stephen Gehl, Electric Power Research Institute; Bobby R. Gillham, Conoco, Inc.; Miriam Heller, National Science Foundation; Larry Kezele, North American Electric Reliability Council; Fred Mower, University of Maryland; Sam Varnado, U.S. Department of Energy; and Joe Vipperman, American Electric Power Company, Inc.

PANEL ON BEHAVIORAL, SOCIAL, AND INSTITUTIONAL ISSUES

Chaired by STCT committee member Neil Smelser, the Behavioral, Social, and Institutional Panel consisted of 10 members and included scholars from the disciplines of anthropology, demography, economics, history, political science, psychology and sociology. Special areas of expertise of the panel members included the history of Muslim societies, the contemporary Middle East, the politics of the state, revolutionary social movements, deterrence and game theory, the cognitive structure of beliefs, disaster studies, the politics of diplomacy and peace-keeping, and social change. The panel met twice in Washington, D.C., read a variety of materials in the exploding literature on terrorism, and between the meetings exchanged materials and ideas by e-mail.

PANEL ON SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

Chaired by STCT committee member Vincent Vitto, the Systems Analysis and Systems Engineering Panel consisted of 13 members with areas of expertise in agent-based modeling, ergonomics and human factors, infrastructure modeling and interdependencies, modeling and simulation, operations research, risk modeling, systems analysis, systems dynamics, systems management, systems engineering, and threat analysis. The panel convened three times over a 2-month period and communicated by e-mail. During its meetings, the panel received briefings on systems analysis and systems engineering initiatives within the federal government, including the Department of Defense. Special thanks are due to Frank Dixon, Joint Program Office for Special Technology Countermeasures; Michael Evenson, Defense Threat Reduction Agency; and Miriam Heller, National Science Foundation.

In addition, panel members provided the panel as a whole with briefings on



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