Index

A

Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration program in DARPA, 117

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 352

Advanced Technology Program (ATP) in NIST, 117, 359

Aerospace Corporation, 345

Afghanistan campaign, 28–29

Agricultural systems. See Human and agricultural health systems;

Food distribution systems

Aircraft as weapons, 6, 42, 47, 50, 60, 91, 210, 253, 256, 259–260

Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), 352

Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), 352

Al Qaeda, 26, 28

American Medical Association, 103

American Red Cross, 94, 280

American Society for Microbiology, 68

American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 258

American Water Works Association, 250

Ammonium nitrate, 122

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) in USDA, 77–78, 93

Animal models, 81, 88, 101, 131, 355

Annual Report to Congress on Combating Terrorism, 347, 350, 358n

Anthrax, 65–66, 72, 76, 85, 102, 254, 258, 358

Anthrax attacks, 7, 25, 27, 62, 66, 94–95, 109, 118, 270, 275, 285

Antibiotics, 81–82, 85–87, 88, 99–100, 102

Antitrust regulations, 102, 184, 204, 360, 362–363

Army Corps of Engineers, 252

Army Research Laboratory (ARL), 352

Army Research Office (ARO), 352

Attribution, 28, 113, 146–147, 230–231, 323–324

bioforensics (microbial forensics), 8, 70, 82–84,

of nuclear and radiological attacks, 5–6, 59–60

Aum Shinrikyo attack, 111

Authentication, 149–151, 156–157, 329, 361

Aviation and Transportation Security Act, 211, 231

Aviation security, 52, 114, 142, 166, 211, 212, 215, 219–221, 226, 231, 319–320

B

Bayh-Dole Act, 359

Behavioral and social issues. See Response of people to terrorism;

Human factors



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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism Index A Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration program in DARPA, 117 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 352 Advanced Technology Program (ATP) in NIST, 117, 359 Aerospace Corporation, 345 Afghanistan campaign, 28–29 Agricultural systems. See Human and agricultural health systems; Food distribution systems Aircraft as weapons, 6, 42, 47, 50, 60, 91, 210, 253, 256, 259–260 Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), 352 Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), 352 Al Qaeda, 26, 28 American Medical Association, 103 American Red Cross, 94, 280 American Society for Microbiology, 68 American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 258 American Water Works Association, 250 Ammonium nitrate, 122 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) in USDA, 77–78, 93 Animal models, 81, 88, 101, 131, 355 Annual Report to Congress on Combating Terrorism, 347, 350, 358n Anthrax, 65–66, 72, 76, 85, 102, 254, 258, 358 Anthrax attacks, 7, 25, 27, 62, 66, 94–95, 109, 118, 270, 275, 285 Antibiotics, 81–82, 85–87, 88, 99–100, 102 Antitrust regulations, 102, 184, 204, 360, 362–363 Army Corps of Engineers, 252 Army Research Laboratory (ARL), 352 Army Research Office (ARO), 352 Attribution, 28, 113, 146–147, 230–231, 323–324 bioforensics (microbial forensics), 8, 70, 82–84, of nuclear and radiological attacks, 5–6, 59–60 Aum Shinrikyo attack, 111 Authentication, 149–151, 156–157, 329, 361 Aviation and Transportation Security Act, 211, 231 Aviation security, 52, 114, 142, 166, 211, 212, 215, 219–221, 226, 231, 319–320 B Bayh-Dole Act, 359 Behavioral and social issues. See Response of people to terrorism; Human factors

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism Bin Laden, Osama, 295 Biometrics, 217, 226, 320, 329–330, 361 Bioterrorism, 7-8, 32, 65-67, 84-85, 104, 315-316. See also Human and agricultural health systems BLASTEX software, 255–256 Bomb Data Registry (FBI), 253, 257 Border Patrol, 213n Bremer Commission, 336–337 Buildings, major and monumental, 252–258. See also Cities and fixed infrastructure Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF), 121, 253, 257 Bureau of Reclamation, 252 Bush, George W., 1, 211, 281, 339 C Catastrophic terrorism, 26–27 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 67–68, 75–77, 79–81, 85, 90, 101–102, 276, 354 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 318 Chemical agents. See also Toxic chemicals and explosive materials approximate toxicity of selected chemical agents, 110 explosives, 49, 60, 112–113, 247, 257, 263 explosives detection, 114, 206, 228, 361 industrial chemicals, 111–112, 121–122, 128, 205, 211, 248 military chemical weapons, 109–111 sensors of, 113–117, 321 treatment of injuries that result from, 129–131 Chemical/Biological Incident Response Force (CBIRF), 129 Chemical Weapons Convention, 110–111 Cities and fixed infrastructure, 16–17, 31, 35, 238–266 electrical supply interruptions, 252 emergency operations centers, 239–245 information technology systems and communications, 252 major and monumental buildings, 252–258 stadiums and other places for large public gatherings, 258–261 transportation and distribution systems, 252 underground facilities, including tunnels, 262–265 water supply and wastewater systems, 245–252 Civil liberties. See Privacy and civil liberties Coding issues. See Computer code Cold War, 5, 29, 59, 283, 338, 370 Collaboration, cross-agency, 331–332, 338–339, 350 Command, control, communications, and information (C3I) systems, 11, 146, 148, 158–166. See also Communications for first responders ad hoc interoperability, 159–160 communications during an emergency, 160–163, 165–166 Commercial value for counterterrorism technologies and dual-use strategies, 23, 33, 132, 334, 360–362 in the bioterrorism area, 67–68, 97, 131 information technology, 149, 361 sensors, 117, 132, 361 transportation systems, 220–223, 232, 361 Commission on Aviation Safety and Security in the White House, 219n, 221n, 227n Committee on Science and Technology for Countering Terrorism, 3, 183n Communication with the public, 17, 62, 93–94, 162–163, 275–276 Communications for first responders, 2, 11, 137, 144, 146, 158–166, 172, 174, 230, 241, 243, 245, 258, 277 Complex and interdependent systems, 18–19, 31, 35, 287–312. See also Systems analysis and systems engineering counterterrorism threat modeling, 294–300 implications for education, 309–310 infrastructure modeling, 300–305 modeling challenges for counterterrorism, 305–309 systems approach to counterterrorism, 288–290 systems management issues, 290–294 Computer code, improving, 154–155, 367 Computer Emergency Response Team, 145 Congress, 339–340, 342, 345–350, 354, 363 Congressional Budget Office (CBO), 350 Congressional Research Service (CRS), 350, 370 CONWEP software, 255–256

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism Cooperation between federal, state, and local governments, 22, 38, 92, 127–128, 145, 232, 241–243, 252, 277–278, 333–334, 357–359. See also Cross-agency collaboration Critical Infrastructure Information Security Act, 363n Cross-agency collaboration, 331–332, 338–339, 350 Crosscutting challenges and technologies, 19–20, 33, 35, 313–334 autonomous mobile robotic technologies, 325–327. See also Robotic technologies biometrics, 329–330, 361 controlling access to physical and information systems, 329–330. See also Authentication coordination of crosscutting technologies, 331–332, 338 human and organizational factors, 330–331, 336. See also Human factors integrated data management, 317–320. See also Data mining; Information fusion SCADA systems, 327–328. See also Supervisory control and data acquisition systems sensors and sensor networks, 320–325. See also Sensors and sensor networks systems analysis and modeling, 315–317. See also Systems analysis and systems engineering; Modeling and simulation Cultural memory, normalization and, 284–286 Customs inspections, 56, 216, 319. See also U.S. Customs Service Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT), 219n, 319 Cyberattacks, 136–144. See also Information technology Cybersecurity, 10–12, 147–157, 361, 367. See also Information technology for energy systems, 182, 187–188, 190, 203–204, 208. See also Supervisory control and data acquisition systems D Data integration. See Data mining; Information fusion ; Standards for data integration and database interoperability Data management. See Data mining; Information fusion Data mining, 2, 117, 167–168, 170–171, 217, 225–226, 318–320. See also Information fusion Decision-making support, 80, 128–129, 162, 165, 230, 251, 291–293, 296–298, 316, 343–346 Decontamination, 2 of chemical agents, 9–10, 115, 118–120, 130 of human and agricultural systems, 8, 78, 94–96 of IT systems, 153–154 of radiological material, 51, 58–59 robotics for, 120, 230, 326 of water supplies, 9, 125–126 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), 11, 116, 120, 168, 287, 309, 325–326, 338, 352–353, 355 Defense Modeling and Simulation Office in DOD, 287, 302 Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), 5–6, 57, 60, 63, 93, 129, 309, 316, 353 Denial-of-service attacks, 137, 149n, 153 Department of Commerce (DOC), 122, 348–349, 350 Department of Defense (DOD), 52–53, 57, 63, 68, 76, 80, 90, 92, 96, 145, 194, 230, 242, 287, 331, 350, 353–355 Department of Energy (DOE), 11–13, 45n, 52–54, 57, 63–64, 68, 90, 116, 188, 190–195, 207, 313, 320, 331, 338, 348–350, 352, 355, 358n Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), 8, 75, 91–92, 94, 96, 102, 355, 358n Department of Homeland Security, 21–22, 68, 339, 342, 345, 349 Department of the Interior, 138 Department of Justice (DOJ), 242, 245, 250 Department of State, 26n, 52, 54, 193, 255 Department of Transportation (DOT), 14–15, 122, 200, 213n, 232, 265, 351, 358 Detection, 28, 166, 228–229, 314, 330. See also Sensors and sensor networks use of information technology in detecting attacks, 146–147, 149–151, 166, 187, 207 Deutch Commission Report, 349n

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism Dirty bombs. See Radiological dispersion devices Distributed denial-of-service (DDOS) attacks, 137, 149n, 153 DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), 74, 83, 87, 98, 322 Domain Name System (DNS), 138 Dual-use strategies. See Commercial value for counterterrorism technologies E Economic aspects of recovery, 282–284 Electric power, 180–195 extra-high-voltage transformers, replacements for, 188–189 intelligent, adaptive power grid, 192–193, 366–367 implementation of existing technology for mitigating vulnerabilities, 183–188 interruptions in, 252 interdependence with other systems, 301–302 recovery from outages, 185–186, 191–192 representative vulnerabilities, 180–183 research and development priorities and strategies, 188–195 Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 12, 60, 187, 190–195, 198 Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attacks, 182, 190 Emergency medical response, 90–93, 129–131, 240–241 Emergency operations centers (EOCs), 16–17, 239–245 communications and information technology, 144, 158–159 recommended requirements list, 241 vulnerability of EOC sites and facilities, 241–242, 243 Emergency response. See First responders Energy systems, 12–13, 31, 34, 177–209 cybersecurity, 182, 187–188, 190, 203–204, 208. See also Supervisory control and data acquisition systems electric power, 180–195 oil and natural gas, 196–208 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 9, 68, 90, 96, 112, 121, 126–128, 213n, 248, 250, 252, 287, 358n, 360 Executive Office of the President (EOP), 347–349 Exercises, 28n, 36, 59, 127–128, 130, 159, 344, 354. See also Training Explosives, 49, 60, 112–113, 247, 257, 263 detection of, 114, 206, 228, 361 Extra-high-voltage (EHV) transformers, 13, 188–189 F Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), 14, 52, 211, 213n, 220, 226n, 229, 303 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 58, 93, 121, 127, 318, 355 Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 245 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), 17–18, 59, 62, 92, 121, 127, 129–130, 233, 241–244, 276, 350, 354, 357, 358n Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), 185–187, 194 Federal government’s program of science and technology for countering terrorism, 21–22, 35, 335–356 Congressional capabilities for supporting, 349–350 current situation, 338–339 essential partners in, 22–24, 35, 357–371. See also Industry in partnership with government; States and cities in partnership with government; Universities in partnership with government need for analytical capabilities to support decisions about, 343–346 need for coordination, 338–348 role of the federal agencies, 350–355 roles of OHS, OSTP, and OMB, 340–348 Federal Highway Administration, 14, 235n Federally funded research and development centers (FFRDCs), 345. See also Homeland Security Institute Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan, 5, 58–59 Federal Response Plan, 94 Filters, 2, 10, 89–90, 118–120, 126, 247, 254–255, 258, 260, 361 Financial systems, 108, 135, 139, 287

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism First responders, 33, 127–129, 145–146, 158–166, 241–245, 276–278, 354, 357. See also Communications for first responders Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 8–9, 88, 100–101, 123–125 Food distribution systems, 77–79, 93, 122–124, 133–134, 354, 361. See also Human and agricultural health systems Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), 77, 85, 95 Forensics. See Attribution Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), 184, 204 Funding and costs, 37–38, 186–187, 284, 347–348, 357, 359 G Gas systems. See Natural gas systems General Accounting Office (GAO), 66, 340n General principals and strategies for using science and technology to counter terrorism, 4, 33 Gilmore Commission, 294, 336, 343 Global Emerging Infectious Diseases program in DOD, 75 Global Public Health Information Network, 75 Government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO) facilities, 100 Guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) systems, 326–327 H Hart/Rudman Commission, 336–337, 347n, 349n, 363n Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) technology in FDA, 9, 123 Hazardous chemicals. See Toxic chemicals and explosive materials HAZMAT (hazardous materials) teams, 127–128 Health Effects Institute, 360 Health systems. See Human and agricultural health systems Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, 16, 89, 254–255, 257, 259, 261 High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, 89, 118, 258 Highly enriched uranium (HEU), 39–40, 49–50, 55, 57, 322–323 Homeland Security Council (HSC), 342, 346, 348 Homeland Security Institute, 21, 236, 242, 244, 293, 314, 344–346 Human and agricultural health systems, 7–8, 31, 34, 65–106, 365. See also Food distribution systems antimicrobials and antivirals, 85–87. See also Antibiotics bioterrorism and biological threats, 7–8, 32, 65–67, 84–85, 104, 315–316 communicating risks and responses to the public, 93–94 decontamination protocols, 94–96. See also Decontamination defining whether infectious agents and diseases are bioterrorist threats, 84–85 human resources needed, 80, 96–97 identification of biological agents in the environment, 71–73 Internet resources on bioterrorism, 104 involving the S&T and public health communities in intelligence and prevention, 69–71 microbial forensics and analysis of trace evidence, 82–84 personal protective equipment, 89–90. See also Protective equipment for individuals regulatory reform for drug development, 100–102 response and recovery, 79–80, 90–93 standards and standardization, 97–98. See also Standards surveillance and diagnosis of infection and disease, 73–79. See also Surveillance treatment protocols, 94, 129–131 understanding the effects of biological weapons, 80–82 vaccine development, 87–89, 98–100. See also Vaccines Human factors, 15, 33, 147, 157, 224, 226, 234, 314, 330–331, 366 Human resources, 80, 96–97, 174, 368–369 HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning). See Ventilation systems I Immediate applications for existing technologies, 2

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), 213n, 233, 350 Improvised nuclear devices (INDs), 39, 49, 51–52, 55, 57, 322 fabricated from stolen or diverted special nuclear material, 40–41, 44–45 Indemnification. See Liability and indemnification Independent system operators (ISOs) of electric power systems, 185, 188, 195 Individual rights. See Privacy and civil liberties Industrial chemicals, 111–112, 121–122, 128, 205, 211, 248 Industry in partnership with government, 359–364 antitrust exemptions, 362–363 commercial value for counterterrorism technologies, 360–362. See also Commercial value for counterterrorism technologies and dual-use strategies government procurement and acquisition rules, 363–364 indemnification, 362 Infectious Diseases Society of America, 68 Influenza, 65, 76, 84, 94 Information fusion, 11–12, 136, 146–149, 166–170, 173, 318, 366. See also Data mining; Standards for data integration and database interoperability Information technology (IT), 10–12, 31, 34, 135–176, 355, 367. See also Cybersecurity; Cyberattacks defensive strategy in protecting, 150 implementation, 172–175 information and network security, 147–157 information fusion, 166–170. See also Information fusion IT and C3I for emergency response, 158–166. See also Communications for first responders long-term recommendations, 146–170 planning for the future, 171 privacy and confidentiality, 170–171 research in, 146–170 short-term recommendations, 144–146 taxonomy of priorities, 148–149 threats associated with IT infrastructure, 136–144 Infrastructure modeling, 300–305, 315–317, 338–339, 344 infrastructure interdependencies, 13, 19, 300, 303, 315–317, 338–339 energy systems, 184–185, 191, 194, 206–207 Institute for Defense Analyses, 345 Intelligence gathering, 20, 29, 52, 70–71, 136, 148, 157, 166, 169, 267, 294, 299, 318, 325, 366 Intelligent information units (IUs), attaching to railcars, 264–265 Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance, 86 Interdependent systems. See Complex and interdependent systems International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 52, 54 International Civil Aviation Organization, 233 International Maritime Organization, 233 International Organization for Standardization, 303 Internet, 135, 137–143, 146, 150, 161, 164, 171, 203, 302 Investigational new drug (IND) status, 100, 102 J Joint Services Chemical and Biological Defense Program, 353 L LD50 (lethal dose at which 50 percent of the exposed subjects die), 81, 126 Liability and indemnification, 88, 99, 101–102, 184, 204, 249, 360, 362 Liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities, 196, 200–201 Local distribution companies (LDCs) for natural gas distribution, 198–200 M Marsh Commission, 336–337 Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) program in Russia, 53–54 McCarthyism, 282 Media, the, 62, 275–276 Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, U.S. Army, 353 Metadata, 19, 303–305. See also Standards for data integration and database interoperability

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism Metropolitan Medical Response System, 91–92 Microbial forensics. See Attribution MITRE Corporation, 345 Modeling and simulation, 19–20, 287–288, 305–309, 315–318, 366. See also Infrastructure modeling; Risk modeling and risk assessment of disease spread, 75, 79–81, 315–316, 322 for exercises, training, and decision making, 17, 21, 80, 92, 95, 242–244, 251, 316, 344 of specific systems, 129, 251, 255, 257, 273, 285, 315, 328 Monumental buildings, 252–258 Murrah Federal Building attack, 112, 122, 253, 259, 271 N National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 287, 331, 333, 352, 355 National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC), 186–187, 195 National Defense Education Act (NDEA), 368 National Disaster Medical System (NDMS), 92 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 16, 257–258, 358 National Guard, 127–128, 145, 280 National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center, 191, 193, 207 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), 68, 76, 97 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 11, 16, 98, 120, 126, 145, 257–258, 260, 344, 348, 350, 352 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 68, 76, 80–81, 97–98, 131, 234, 244, 350, 352 National Medical Response Teams for Weapons of Mass Destruction, 91 National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), 57, 62–64, 348 National Science and Technology Council (NSTC), 22, 332, 342, 347 National Science Foundation (NSF), 11, 18, 116, 120, 168, 234, 304, 308–309, 331, 333, 338, 350, 352, 355, 369 National Security Agency (NSA), 242, 318 Natural gas systems, 196–201, 204–208 implementation of existing technologies for mitigating vulnerabilities, 204–205 liquefied natural gas, 200–201 physical vulnerabilities of the natural gas infrastructure, 197 pipelines, 198–200 research and development priorities and strategies, 205–208 Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), 352 Nerve agents, 108–111, 115, 129, 131 Network security, 147–157, 172–173 authentication, detection, and identification, 149–151 containment, 152–153 principles of defensive strategy, 150 recovery, 153–154 research issues, 154–157 Normalization and cultural memory, 284–286 North American Electric Reliability Council, 195 Nuclear and radiological threats, 4, 5–6, 31, 34, 39–64 homeland security challenges, 49–51 improvised nuclear devices (INDs), 40–41, 44–45, 49–50, 51–57 nuclear and radiological threat matrix, 39–49 nuclear power plants (NPPs), 6, 41–44, 46, 50–51, 60, 182 nuclear weapons and weapons components, 39–40, 42–43, 49–50, 51–57 radiological dispersion devices, 48, 49, 51, 58, 61–62 reducing vulnerabilities, 51–62 Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), 42 Nuclear Posture Review, 53 Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectrometry, 114 Nuclear Regulatory Commission. See U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission O Office of Emergency Preparedness, 92 Office of Homeland Security (OHS), 17, 21–22, 62–64, 94, 121, 145, 186, 188–189, 195, 211, 241–242, 245, 250, 258, 265, 290, 293–294, 319, 339–347, 350, 354, 358n, 360, 371 Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 145, 332, 340–343, 347–350, 358n Office of Naval Research (ONR), 326, 352

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), 22, 242, 340–342, 344, 346–350, 359, 363, 371. See also President’s Science Advisor Oil and refined products, 201–208 command, control, and communications, 203 implementation of existing technologies for mitigating vulnerabilities, 204–205 oil system vulnerabilities, 202 pumping stations for crude oil and refined products, 203 refineries, 201–202 research and development priorities and strategies, 205–208 Oklahoma City attack, 112, 122, 253, 259, 271 Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), 110 P Panic and fear, 61, 143, 259, 261, 274-275 Pathogens, 2, 84–85, 365. See also Human and agricultural health systems Pentagon attack, 25, 255, 283 Political aspects of recovery from a terrorist event, 281–282 President’s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCIP), 141, 193, 242, 337, 355 President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), 342, 346, 363 President’s Science Advisor, 62–64, 337, 341n, 347n Prioritization, 3, 33, 36, 293, 294, 299, 314, 335, 337, 339, 343–346 of counterterrorism efforts for transportation systems, 224 of factors in security of energy systems, 183 by individual social units (cities, etc.), 271 of nuclear counterterrorism activities, 63–64 a taxonomy of priorities for IT research, 148–149 Privacy and civil liberties, 15, 18, 29, 170–171, 175, 183, 226, 276, 281, 320, 329, 330–331, 361 Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach, 257 Project Air Force, 345 Protective equipment for individuals, including first responders, 2, 22, 59, 89–90, 98, 120, 127–128, 276, 354, Public health systems, 31, 66–67, 74–77, 90–93, 94, 102–103, 320. See also Human and agricultural health systems Q Quality analysis/quality control (QA/QC) programs, 123 R Radiological dispersion devices (RDDs), 48, 49, 51, 58, 61–62. See also Nuclear and radiological threats RAND Corporation, 345 “Reachback” capabilities, 129 Recovery, 28. See also Decontamination economic aspects of, 282–284 from a catastrophic energy system shutdown, 186, 205 in network security, 153–154 political aspects of, 281–282 sensors and sensor networks in, 323 of transportation services, 230 Regional transmission operators (RTOs), 185, 188, 195 Regulations and rules, possible adjustments to, 359–364 antitrust regulations, 102, 184, 204, 360, 362–363 for information technology products, 145, 173 pharmaceutical-related, 100–102, 124–125, 131, 362–363 for specific systems, 122, 186, 227 tightening of nuclear and radiological regulations, 52, 61 Response of people to terrorism, 17–18, 31, 35, 267–286 anticipation and preparedness, 271–272 goals of different types of terrorist attacks, 268 institutional, group, and political vulnerability, 268–270 long-term recovery processes, 281–286 occurrence of attack, 274–279

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism short-term recovery processes, 279–280 universality of human responses, 270–271 warnings, 273, 277, 280 Response to terrorism, phases of, 27–28 Ridge, Tom, 277, 319, 341n, 342, 358n Risk modeling and risk assessment, 95, 250, 257, 290, 294–300, 306–308, 317 Robotic technologies, 20, 72, 95, 120–121, 164, 206, 230, 244, 314, 325–327, 333, 367 Russian nuclear materials and weapons, 5, 40–41, 42–45, 49–50, 52–54 S Sandia National Laboratories, 42, 60 Sarin gas attack in Japan, 111, 118 SCADA systems. See Supervisory control and data acquisition systems Sensors and sensor networks, 2, 314, 320–325, 338, 350, 361, 365. See also Detection deployment of, 19, 55–57, 117, 225, 323–325, 365 for detecting and characterizing biological and chemical agents and explosives, 7, 9, 71–73, 77, 98, 113–117, 228–230, 250–251, 260–261, 321–322, 324, 361 for detecting nuclear and radiological materials, 51, 55–57, 322–323, 354, 361 for first responders, 16, 163, 244 intrusion detection and monitoring, 189, 206–207 standards for and testing of, 10, 98, 117, 324–325 for water systems, 126, 250–251 September 11 attacks, 7, 16, 20, 25, 58, 60, 64, 102, 121, 161, 211, 219–220, 224, 231, 235, 253, 260, 271, 279, 282, 285, 288, 335 Shipping containers, 2, 14, 216–218, 361 Simulation. See Modeling and simulation Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) programs, 117, 359 Smallpox, 65, 84–86, 101 Special nuclear material (SNM), 39–41, 49–50 detection and interdiction of, 55–57, 322 need to inventory, 54 Spokespersons. See Trusted spokespersons Stadiums and other places for large public gatherings, 258–261 Standards, 21, 22, 337, 339, 344, 348, 358, 359–360, 364 for biological detection and diagnosis, 7, 71–72, 76, 97–98 for buildings, 2, 16, 255–258 for communications for first responders, 2, 158–159, 245 for data integration and database interoperability, 19, 20, 303–305, 314, 320 for decontamination, 2, 10, 96 for emergency response protocols and equipment, 8, 22, 89, 120, 241, 244 for energy systems’ control systems, 187, 204, 328 for filters, 2, 10, 89–90, 258 for sensors, 10, 325 for transportation systems and related equipment, 217, 232–233, 235 States and cities in partnership with government, 357–359. See also Cooperation between federal, state, and local governments Stolen nuclear weapons and improvised nuclear devices. See also Nuclear and radiological threats detection and interdiction, 55–57 protection, control, and accounting for, 52–55 Strategic research and planning for the Transportation Security Administration, 231–235 Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, 13, 19–20, 33, 122, 135, 139–141, 178, 194, 208, 327–328 attacks on, 139–140, 199 strengthening, 187, 190, 314, 361 vulnerabilities of, 141, 152, 203, 293 Surgeon General, 62, 276 Surveillance, 2, 27 biological, 7, 68, 73–79, 97–98, 321–322, 354 physical, 13, 120–121, 189, 207, 222, 263, 323, 325–326, 331 Systems analysis and systems engineering, 19, 31, 36, 233, 287, 293–294, 308–310, 314–317, 344, 351, 366. See also Complex and interdependent systems Systems expertise for the OHS, 293–294, 343–346 Systems management issues, 290–294

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism T Technical Support Working Group, 359 Telecommunications, 138–139, 143, 150, 302, 316, 361 Terrorism defined, 26–27n. See also Catastrophic terrorism Threats associated with IT infrastructure, 136–144. See also Cyberattacks disproportionate impacts, 141–142 IT attack as an amplifier of a physical attack, 137 likelihood and impact, 142–144 possibilities for attack using IT, 137–140 security vulnerabilities of SCADA systems, 141. See also Supervisory control and data acquisition systems Toxic chemicals and explosive materials, 8–10, 31, 34, 107–134. See also Chemical agents; Industrial chemicals chemicals as weapons, 108–113 mitigating vulnerabilities, 113–127 responding to attacks, 127–131 Training, 79, 103, 130, 272, 316. See also Exercises for first responders, 62, 127–128, 242–244, 300, 354 Transportation Security Administration (TSA) in DOT, 14–15, 211, 231–235, 319, 350–351, 354 Transportation systems, 13–15, 31, 35, 210–237 aviation systems. See Aircraft as weapons; Aviation security common characteristics of, 212–214 considerations for security strategies for, 214–223 disruption of, 139, 196, 279, 315 human factors, 15, 224, 226, 229, 232, 234 industrial chemicals, transport of, 112, 121–122 layered security systems, 214–220 managing research and development activities, 224, 233–235, 351, 354, 358 railcar and container contents, 263–265 research and technology needs, 223–231 shipping container threat scenario and security strategy, 216–218, 361 strategic research and planning advice for the TSA, 231–235 Trusted spokespersons, 2, 6, 17, 62, 276 Tunnels. See Underground facilities Tylenol-poisoning incident, 124 U Unabomber case, 271 Underground facilities, including tunnels, 113, 230, 262–265 Undersecretary for Technology in Department of Homeland Security, 22, 342–343, 346 Underwriters Laboratories, 16 Universities in partnership with government, 364–371 balancing security needs with the requirements for research, 370–371 critical long-term research needs, 365–367 investing in research in a variety of disciplines, 332–333, 369–370 sustaining the nation’s scientific and engineering talent base, 368–369 Urgent research opportunities, 2 U.S. Army, 45n, 114, 188 U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 246 U.S. Coast Guard, 96, 121, 233, 343, 350 U.S. Conference of Mayors (USCOM), 238–239, 262, 265, 358 U.S. Customs Service, 213n, 216, 219, 233, 319, 350 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 68, 76–79, 93, 96, 128, 213n, 354 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), 6, 41–42, 44n, 47–48, 50, 54, 60, 63, 182 U.S. Postal Service, 109, 214 USS Cole incident, 271 V Vaccines, 8, 80–82, 85–89, 97, 98–101, 355, 362–363 Ventilation systems, 2, 10, 16, 89–90, 113, 119, 230, 243, 254–255, 257–258, 260–261, 263–264, 361 Veterans Administration (VA), 92 Volpe National Transportation Systems Center in DOT, 15, 233 W Warnings, effectiveness of, 17, 162–163, 273, 277, 280 Water supply and wastewater systems, 125–127, 245–252

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism Weapons of mass destruction (WMD), 1, 31, 63, 91, 93–94, 128, 321. See also Bioterrorism; Chemical agents; Nuclear and radiological threats; Catastrophic terrorism West Nile virus outbreak, 66 World Customs Organization, 233 World Health Organization (WHO), 75 World Organisation for Animal Health, 77 World Trade Center (WTC) attacks, 16, 25, 236, 241, 253–254, 258, 271, 283, 285, 323 World Wide Web, 141

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