FIGURE C Spatial typology of collective efficacy (CE) with homicide “hot” and “cold” spots.

neighborhoods of low collective efficacy with hot spots and neighborhoods of high collective efficacy with cold spots, the map also revealed a different kind of risk: neighborhoods with high collective efficacy that are in close proximity to high-risk areas have very high homicide rates themselves. Conversely, “spatially advantaged” neighborhoods (which border low-risk areas) have low risks of homicide even when they are low in collective efficacy.

“So even though I would like to argue that neighborhood effects matter,” Dr. Sampson said, “it is not just the neighborhoods but actually the embeddedness within the larger metropolitan context” that also matters.

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