Index

A

Age factors. 9

allergenicity and hypersensitivity, 68

animal wellbeing, 65, 101-102, 103

food safety, 9, 65, 70

Agricultural Research Service, 26

AI, see Artificial insemination

AIDS, see Human immunodeficiency virus

Allergenicity and hypersensitivity, 7-8, 61-62, 66, 67, 68-69

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 21

Animal health and welfare, 3, 4, 11-12, 13-14, 22-23, 42, 43-44, 62, 64-65, 93-107, 119-120

see also Ethical issues

age factors, 65, 101-102, 103

Army Corps of Engineers, 113

Artificial insemination (AI), 4, 9, 12. 19, 23-24, 65, 77, 93-96

Atlantic salmon, 21, 30, 39, 90-91, 113

Avian species

committee study at hand, methodology, 2, 3, 4, 32

farm animals, 93-94, 104

gene expression, 96-97, 98-99

genetic diversity, reduction of, 48-49

infectious disease, general, 22-23, 49, 107

insect-borne diseases, 88

international perspectives, 95, 105, 107

pigs, 97, 99, 100, 102, 103-104, 105

regulatory issues, 103-104, 112

viral vectors, 46, 47

Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory, 26

Animal Welfare Regulations Act, 112

Antibiotics, 17, 19, 23, 78

knockout/knockin techniques, 38

resistance to, 23, 44-45, 47, 52, 89

Aquatic organisms, 4, 11, 21

see also Fish;

Shellfish;

specific species of fish

see also Poultry and eggs

germline modifications, 35, 46, 47

viral vectors, 46, 47

B

Bacteria, 36-37, 78

feces, 7, 62, 65



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Animal Biotechnology: Science-Based Concerns Index A Age factors. 9 allergenicity and hypersensitivity, 68 animal wellbeing, 65, 101-102, 103 food safety, 9, 65, 70 Agricultural Research Service, 26 AI, see Artificial insemination AIDS, see Human immunodeficiency virus Allergenicity and hypersensitivity, 7-8, 61-62, 66, 67, 68-69 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 21 Animal health and welfare, 3, 4, 11-12, 13-14, 22-23, 42, 43-44, 62, 64-65, 93-107, 119-120 see also Ethical issues age factors, 65, 101-102, 103 Army Corps of Engineers, 113 Artificial insemination (AI), 4, 9, 12. 19, 23-24, 65, 77, 93-96 Atlantic salmon, 21, 30, 39, 90-91, 113 Avian species committee study at hand, methodology, 2, 3, 4, 32 farm animals, 93-94, 104 gene expression, 96-97, 98-99 genetic diversity, reduction of, 48-49 infectious disease, general, 22-23, 49, 107 insect-borne diseases, 88 international perspectives, 95, 105, 107 pigs, 97, 99, 100, 102, 103-104, 105 regulatory issues, 103-104, 112 viral vectors, 46, 47 Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory, 26 Animal Welfare Regulations Act, 112 Antibiotics, 17, 19, 23, 78 knockout/knockin techniques, 38 resistance to, 23, 44-45, 47, 52, 89 Aquatic organisms, 4, 11, 21 see also Fish; Shellfish; specific species of fish see also Poultry and eggs germline modifications, 35, 46, 47 viral vectors, 46, 47 B Bacteria, 36-37, 78 feces, 7, 62, 65

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Animal Biotechnology: Science-Based Concerns feral species, 87 food safety, 62 inserts, 45 marker genes, 44-45 pathogens, 7, 19, 23, 37, 44-45, 56, 62, 65 xenotransplantation, 56 Beef and dairy cattle, 7, 8-9, 12, 16-17, 19, 20, 24, 39, 63-64, 70-71, 83 animal health and welfare, 94, 95 bovine somatotropin (BST), 28, 109 bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), 37, 63 bovine spongiform encephalopathy, 37 embryo splitting (EMS), 63-64 genetic diversity, 49 immunodeficiency virus, 53 knockout techniques, 37 milk and milk products, 5, 7, 8, 12, 16-20 (passim), 24-28 (passim), 34, 51, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 70, 71, 81, 85, 102, 109, 113 nuclear transfer, 40, 63-64 regulatory issues, 62 steroids, 27 Bioactivity, 7, 66, 69-71 Biomedical applications, see Medical Applications Birds, see Avian species; Poultry and eggs Blastodermal cells, 35 Blastomere nuclear transfer (BNT), 8, 18, 25-27, 31, 63-64 Boiler chickens, see Poultry and eggs Bovine somatotropin (BST), 28, 109 Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), 37, 63 Breeding, conventional, 3, 23-24, 26, 80, 104 animal health and welfare, 93-95 artificial insemination (AI), 4, 9, 12. 19, 23-24, 65, 77, 93-95 food safety, 65 genetic diversity, 48-49 germline modification and, 42 historical perspectives, 4, 20-21 marker-assisted selection and, 28-29 C Cancer, 43-44 leukemia, 46, 47, 52-53 Cats, 10, 46, 53, 83, 87 Cell cultures, 35 animal health and welfare, 94-96 knockout/knockin techniques, 38 marker genes, 45 nuclear transfer, 40 pharmaceuticals, 52 transposons, 37 xenotransplantation, 55-56 Cellular biology, general, 6, 31, 35, 69 see also DNA; RNA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 113-114 Center for Veterinary Medicine, 114, 114 Chickens, see Poultry and eggs Chromosomes, 35, 48, 95 see also DNA Cloning, 12, 15, 25-27, 31 animal health and welfare, 100-102, 104-105, 107 blastomere nuclear transfer (BNT), 8, 18, 25-27, 31, 63-64 committee study at hand, methodology, 2, 4, 8-9 defined, 18 embryo splitting (EMS), 8, 26, 63-64 food safety, 61, 63-65 genetic diversity reduced through, 48-49 somatic cell nuclear transfer, 5, 18, 39-40, 47-49, 61, 64, 100-102

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Animal Biotechnology: Science-Based Concerns Coho salmon, 16, 91 Conventional breeding, see Breeding, conventional Cost factors, 5, 31, 35 animal health and welfare, 106-107 Cultural issues, see Political issues; Social issues Cut-throat trout, 82 D Dairy cattle, see Beef and dairy cattle Definitional issues, 18 cloning, 18 environmental concerns, 73-75, 85-86 harm, 2, 8, 33, 74-75 hazard, 32, 33 risk analysis and assessment, 2-3, 15, 33, 73-75 Department of Agriculture, 26, 63, 113 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 21 Department of Health and Human Services, see Food and Drug Administration Department of the Interior, see Fish and Wildlife Service DNA, 42, 48, 96, 99 see also Chromosomes; Inserts concerns about manipulation of, 42-43 knockout techniques, 38 methylation, 41, 42, 43-44, 48, 96, 101 microinjection, 35, 38, 96-97, 99 pharmaceuticals, 52 proviruses, 41-42, 43, 52-53, 59-60 scientific uncertainty, 110 sequencing, 3, 4, 6, 18, 36, 38, 45 enhanced existing traits, 79-80 feral species, effects on, 4, 10, 11, 33, 81-92, 113-115 fitness, 77-78, 80-81 insects, 1, 4, 80, 81, 83, 87-89 transfection, 5, 35-36, 38, 39 transposons, 5, 36-37, 46-47 xenotransplantation, 59-60 Dogs, 20, 83, 87 Dose-response assessment, 75 Drosophila, 34, 36-37 Drugs, see Pharmaceuticals E Ecologic hazards, see Environmental concerns Economic factors, 20, 33, 69, 104, 116, 117 animal health and welfare, 106-107 avian leukemia, 47 cost factors, 5, 31, 35, 106-107 Eggs, see Poultry and eggs Electroporation, 35 Embryos and embryonic tissue, 5, 8, 24-26, 34, 41 animal health and welfare, 93-94, 96, 97 blastomere nuclear transfer, 8, 18, 25-27, 31, 63-64 embryo splitting (EMS), 8, 26, 63-64 food safety, 8, 24-26, 63-65 knockout techniques, 38 nuclear transfer, 35, 39, 48, 63 stem cells, 5, 34-36, 38, 39-40 Endangered Species Act, 113 Environmental concerns, 3, 5, 9-11, 19, 21, 47, 62-63, 73-92, 113, 117 adaptability, 78 aquatic organisms, 4, 11, 21; see also Fish committee study at hand, methodology, 1, 3, 4, 9-11, 32, 73-74 definitional issues, 73-75, 85-86 international perspectives, 87 regulatory issues, 87-92, 113, 114-115 Environmental Protection Agency, 113

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Animal Biotechnology: Science-Based Concerns Enzymes, 37, 69, 103 Ethical issues, 116, 118, 119-121 animal health and welfare, 3, 4, 11-12, 13-14, 22-23, 93, 104, 116, 118 committee study at hand, methodology, 2, 3, 4, 32 conventional breeding vs biotechnology, 3, 104 religious concerns, 23-24, 116, 118 European Union, steroids, 27 Exogenous pig viruses, 55-58 Exposure, 33, 75, 76-77 human health, 6-7, 61 F Farm animals, general, 4, 11, 12, 16, 17, 19, 23, 25, 30, 79 see also specific species animal health and welfare, 93-94, 104 historical perspectives, 20, 21, 22, 23-24 small-scale farms, 13 FDA, see Food and Drug Administration Feces, 7, 62, 65 Federal government, 4, 112-115 see also Food and Drug Administration; Legislation; Regulatory issues Army Corps of Engineers, 113 Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 113-114 Center for Veterinary Medicine, 114, 114 Department of Agriculture, 21, 26, 63, 113 Environmental Protection Agency, 113 Fish and Wildlife Service, 113 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 114 Feral species, effects on, 4, 10, 11, 33, 81-92, 113-115 see also Aquatic organisms; Environmental concerns fish, 83, 84, 89-92, 109 Fertility and fertilization, 5, 9, 24-25 animal health and welfare, 99 artificial insemination (AI), 4, 9, 12. 19, 23-24, 65, 77, 93-96 germline modification, 34 sterility, 29-30, 88 Fish, 7, 11, 16, 19, 21, 29-31, 39, 70-71 allergenicity and hypersensitivity, 68 animal health and welfare, 98-99 feral species, 83, 84, 89-92, 109 monosex fish, 30-31 shellfish, 7, 11, 16, 21, 29-31, 39, 68, 70-71, 92 transfection, 36 transposons, 37 Fish and Wildlife Service, 113 Food allergies, see Allergenicity and hypersensitivity Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 1-3 (passim), 23, 31, 63, 64, 111, 113-114 bovine somatotropin, 28 conventional breeding vs biotechnology, 3 food safety, historical perspectives, 62, 70-71 xenotransplantation, 59 Food and food safety, 6-9, 16-17, 18-19, 61-72, 111, 117 see also Beef and dairy cattle; Fish; Milk and milk products; Poultry and eggs age factors, 9, 65, 70 allergenicity and hypersensitivity, 7-8, 61-62, 66, 67, 68-69 committee charge and methodology, 1, 2, 6-9, 13, 61, 73 embryos, 8, 24-26, 63-65 ethical issues, 61, 63-65 gene expression, 64-65, 66, 67, 69 historical perspectives, 3, 5, 62, 70-71 international perspectives, 62, 69 labeling, 118

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Animal Biotechnology: Science-Based Concerns regulatory issues, 62, 65-66, 70-71, 111, 113-114, 118 Foreign countries, see International perspectives G Gene expression, 8-9, 18, 41-42, 43, 78-79, 80, 91 animal health and welfare, 96-97, 98-99 food safety, 64-65, 66, 67, 69 pharmaceuticals, 52, 67, 69 randomly inserted genes, 41-42 somatic cell nuclear transfer (SNT), 5, 18, 48 viral vectors, 41-42, 47, 60 Germline modifications, 2, 5, 34-50 avian, 35, 46, 47 insects, 36-37 mammals, 34-35 transposons, 5, 36-37, 46-47 Goats, 10, 12, 39, 53, 83, 87, 102 Growth hormone (GH), 28, 70-71, 90-92, 99-100 H Harm, general, 10, 30, 32 see also Risk analysis and assessment, general defined, 2, 8, 33, 74-75 Hazard, 3-4, 11, 14, 15, 21 see also Risk analysis and assessment, general defined, 32, 33 Historical perspectives, 1, 3-4, 5-6, 18-20, 23, 31, 34, 116-117 bovine somatotropin, 28 breeding, conventional, 4, 20-21 farm animals, 20, 21, 22, 23-24 food safety, 3, 5, 62, 70-71 hormones, 27 reproductive system, 25-26 risk analysis, 74-75 xenotransplantation, 56 HIV, see Human immunodeficiency virus toxicity, 7, 61, 65, 66, 71-72 Hormones, 27, 79 bovine somatotropin (BST), 28, 109 growth hormone (GH), 28, 70-71, 90-92, 99-100 IGF-1, 28, 71, 109 monosex fish, 30-31 pharmaceutical production, 51, 53 Horses, 83 Human health concerns, 42, 44, 49, 88, 103, 113, 116-117 see also Food and Drug Administration; Food and food safety; Medical science; Pharmaceuticals Human immunodeficiency virus, 41-42, 46, 59 Hypersensitivity, see Allergenicity and hypersensitivity I IGF-1, 28, 71, 109 Immune system, 78 see also Infectious disease allergenicity and hypersensitivity, 7-8, 61-62, 66, 67, 68-69 animal immunodeficiency viruses, 53 human immunodeficiency virus, 41-42, 46, 59 xenotransplantation, 37, 44, 55, 103 Infectious diseases, 6 see also Viruses animal health, 22-23, 49, 107 bacterial, 7, 19, 23, 37, 44-45, 56, 62, 65 genetic diversity and, 49, 107 vaccines, 51-52, 56, 65 xenotransplantation, 55, 56-60 Insects, 1, 4, 10, 21, 80, 81, 83, 87-89 Drosophila, 34, 36-37 mosquitoes, 39, 88, 89 parasites, 88, 89 transposons, 5, 36-37

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Animal Biotechnology: Science-Based Concerns Inserts, 4, 11, 12, 16, 35, 41-42, 99-100, 115 animal health and welfare, 99 undesired, 45 Institutional factors, 13-14, 112-115 see also Federal government; Regulatory issues; specific federal agencies International perspectives animal health and welfare, 95, 105, 107 environmental concerns, 87 food safety, 62, 69 steroids, European Union, 27 xenotransplantation, 56, 103 In vitro culture, 12, 19, 25, 40 K Knockout/knockin technologies, 1, 12, 37-38, 45 L Labeling, 118 Legislation, 4, 113-115 Animal Welfare Regulations Act, 112 antibiotics, 17, 19, 23, 44-45, 47, 52, 78, 89 environmental concerns, 81-86 food safety and, 62-63 Methylation, 41, 42, 43-44, 48, 96, 101 Mice and rats, 5, 10, 12, 17, 33, 39 animal health and welfare, 97, 99 endogenous proviruses, 41-42, 43 endogenous retroviruses, 46 feral species, 83, 84, 87 knockout techniques, 37, 38, 45 novel genes, general, 34 pharmaceuticals, 52-53 xenotransplantation, 59 Microinjection, 35, 38, 96-97, 99 knockout/knockin technologies, 1, 12, 37-38, 45 pharmaceuticals, 52 Endangered Species Act, 113 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 114 National Environmental Policy Act, 113 see also Regulatory issues Leukemia, 46, 47, 52-53 Livestock, see specific varieties of livestock M Marker-assisted selection, 28-29, 35-36, 44-45 Meat and bone meal, 63, 65 Meat and meat products, general, 64, 67 see Beef and dairy cattle; Poultry and eggs Medical applications, 1, 4, 7, 17, 19, 33, 51-60 see also Food safety; Pharmaceuticals; Xenotransplantation animal health and welfare, 102-104 Milk and milk products, 5, 7, 8, 12, 16-20 (passim), 24-28 (passim), 34, 51, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 70, 71, 81, 85, 102, 109, 113 see also Beef and dairy cattle Monosex fish, 30-31 Mosquitoes, 39, 88, 89, 116-117 Mutations, 10, 20, 38, 80 animal health and welfare, 97-98 concerns about, 43-44 knockout techniques, 38 sheep, 17 N National Environmental Policy Act, 113 National Marine Fisheries Service, 113

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Animal Biotechnology: Science-Based Concerns Novel environmental hazards, see Environmental concerns Novel genes, 7, 16, 34-37, 66-67, 85 blastomere nuclear transfer (BNT), 8, 18, 25-27, 31, 63-64 somatic cell nuclear transfer, 5, 18, 39-40, 47-49, 61, 64, 100-102 O Oocytes, 5, 24-25, 31, 35, 64 knockout/knockin techniques, 38 nuclear transfer, 40-41, 64 P Parasites animal health and welfare, 105 insect, 88, 89 food safety, 62 xenotransplantation, 56 Pathogens, 6, 49 see also Infectious diseases antibiotic resistance, 23, 44-45 bacterial, 7, 19, 23, 37, 44-45, 56, 62, 65 feces, 7, 62, 65 food safety, 7, 62, 65 exogenous pig viruses, 55-58 feral species, 83-84, 87 knockout techniques, 37, 38 nuclear transfer, 40 porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs), 6, 52, 59-60 xenotransplantation, 17, 37, 44, 55-60, 103-104 Political issues, 13-14, 23-24 see also Regulatory issues religious concerns, 23-24 scientific uncertainty, 13, 14, 110, 111-112 Polymer chain reaction, 59 Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs), 6, 52, 59-60 Novel proteins, 7, 16-17, 66-71, 81, 85, 102, 103 Nuclear transfer insects, 21 pharmaceuticals, 52-53 viral, 6, 19, 47, 52-53 xenotransplantation, 55-60 PERVs, see Porcine endogenous retroviruses Pharmaceuticals, 12, 51-54, 65, 85 animal health and welfare, 102 antibiotics, 17, 19, 23, 78 knockout/knockin techniques, 38 resistance to, 23, 44-45, 47, 52, 89 committee study at hand, methodology, 1, 4, 6, 7, 31-32 food safety and, 62-63, 67 gene expression, 52, 67, 69 hormones, 51, 53 poultry and eggs, 51, 52, 53, 81 regulatory issues, 52, 111, 113, 114 vaccines, 51-52, 56, 65 Pigs, 10, 16, 39, 117 animal health and welfare, 97, 99, 100, 102, 103-104, 105 Poultry and eggs, 7, 8, 10, 16, 20-21, 39, 66, 117 allergenicity and hypersensitivity, 68 animal health and welfare, 105 avian leukemia, 47 feral species, 83 pharmaceutical production, 51, 52, 53, 81 steroids, 27 viral vectors, 46, 47, 52, 53 Primordial germ cells, 35 Proteins, 7, 12, 78 allergenic, 67, 68-70 food safety, 66-71 insects, 21 knockout techniques, 38 novel proteins, 7, 16-17, 66-71, 81, 85, 102, 103 pharmaceuticals, 51, 67

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Animal Biotechnology: Science-Based Concerns xenotransplantation, 44 R Rabbits, 7, 39, 53, 83, 87 Rainbow trout, 21, 30, 82 Ralgro, 27 Regulatory issues, 13-14, 22, 108-109, 113-115, 120 see also Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 21 animal health and welfare, 103-104, 112 biopharm animals, 54 committee study at hand, methodology, 1, 3, 4, 31-32 environmental concerns, 87-92, 113, 114-115 food safety, 62, 65-66, 70-71, 111, 113-114, 118 labeling, 118 pharmaceuticals, 52, 111, 113, 114 scientific uncertainty, 111-113, 114 steroids, 27 xenotransplantation, 55-56, 59, 60, 65, 103-104 Religious concerns, 23-24, 116, 118 Reproductive system and processes, 23-27, 77 see also Embryos and embryonic tissue; Fertility and fertilization artificial insemination (AI), 4, 9, 12. 19, 23-24, 65, 77, 93-94 porcine endogenous, 6, 52, 59-60 vectors, 45, 46, 47, 52 Risk analysis and assessment, general, 13-14, 92 see also Dose-response assessment; Environmental concerns; Exposure; Food safety; Human health concerns; Pharmaceuticals; Xenotransplantation committee charge and methodology, 1, 2-3, 13-14, 33 definitional issues, 2-3, 15, 33, 73-75 RNA, 36 see also Retroviruses animal health and welfare, 93-94, 99 oocytes, 5, 24-25, 31, 35, 38, 40-41, 64 sperm and semen, 5, 19, 22, 31, 32, 34, 35, 63 sterility, 29-30, 88 Research methodology, 34-50 see also Definitional issues; Risk analysis and assessment; Theoretical issues animal models, 5 committee study at hand, 1-3, 13, 14-15, 31-33, 34, 51, 61, 73 animal health and welfare, 2, 3, 4, 32 environmental concerns, 1, 3, 4, 9-11, 32, 73-74 ethical issues, 2, 3, 4, 32 pharmaceuticals, 1, 4, 6, 7, 31-32 regulatory issues, 1, 3, 4, 31-32 risk analysis and assessment, 1, 2-3, 13-14, 33 directed genetic manipulation, 37-38 novel genes, 34-37 nuclear transfer, 39-40 scientific uncertainty, 2-3, 9, 13, 14, 15, 32, 35, 73, 87, 108-110 Retroviruses, 5, 6, 36, 47, 78 concerns about, 43 endogenous, 6, 46, 47, 52, 47, 56, 59-60 exogenous, 47, 56-58 human immunodeficiency virus, 41-42 marker genes, 45 pharmaceuticals, 52 S Salmon, 10, 11, 16, 31, 90-91, 99-100 Atlantic, 21, 30, 39, 90-91, 113 coho, 16, 91 Scientific uncertainty, 2-3, 9, 13, 14, 15, 32, 35, 73, 87, 108-110 Scrapie, 37 Sheep, 19, 26, 27, 37, 39, 53, 70, 83 animal health and welfare, 94 nuclear transfer, 39

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Animal Biotechnology: Science-Based Concerns Shellfish, 7, 11, 16, 21, 29-31, 39, 68, 70-71, 92 Social issues, 13, 14, 93, 116 see also Animal health and welfare; Ethical issues scientific uncertainty, 110 political issues, 13-14, 23-24 scientific uncertainty, 13, 14, 110, 111-112 see also Legislation; Regulatory issues religious concerns, 23-24, 116, 118 Somatic cell nuclear transfer, 5, 18, 39-40, 47-49, 64 animal health and welfare, 100-102 food safety, 61 Sperm and semen, 5, 19, 22, 31, 32 food safety, 63 germline modification, 34 transfection, 35 Stem cells, 5, 34-36, 38, 39-40 Sterility, 29-30 insects, biocontrol, 88 Steroids, 27 T Theoretical issues, 6, 15-16 see also Definitional issues; Research methodology committee study at hand, methodology, 4, 32 scientific uncertainty, 2-3, 9, 13, 14, 15, 32, 35, 73, 87, 108-110 Tissue, 1, 6 see also Embryos and embryonic tissue pharmaceuticals, 52 transcription, 41 xenotransplantation, 6, 54-60 Toxicity, 7, 61, 65, 66, 71-72 Transcription, 36, 41 Transduction, 6, 52, 52 Transfection, 5, 35-36, 38, 39 Transgenesis, 8, 34-50 pharmaceuticals, 52-53 Transgenic animals, 6, 9-10, 12, 16, 22, 25, 32, 34-50 see also Environmental concerns animal health and welfare, 94-107 fish, 11, 17, 30, 31 insects, 21, 36 food safety, 61, 65-72 pharmaceuticals, 52, 53-60, 61 Transplant technology, see Xenotransplantation Transposons, 5, 36-37, 46-47 Triploidy, 30 U Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society, 74-75 The Use of Genetically Modified Animals, 105 V Vaccines, 51-52, 56, 65 Vectors, 4, 6, 9, 15, 50 insect, 39, 88, 89, 116-117 marker genes, 44-45 pharmaceuticals, 52 viral, 5, 35, 39, 41-42, 45, 46, 47, 52-53 gene expression, 41-42, 47, 60 poultry and eggs, 46, 47, 52, 53 retrovirus, 45, 46, 47, 52 Viruses, 6, 44, 88 see also Retroviruses animal health, 22-23 endogenous proviruses, 6, 41-42, 43, 52-53, 59-60 exogenous pig viruses, 56-58 feral species, 87 food safety, 67 pathogens, 6, 19, 47, 52-53 transfection, 5, 35-36, 38, 39

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Animal Biotechnology: Science-Based Concerns vectors, 5, 35, 39, 41-42, 45, 46, 47 gene expression, 41-42, 47, 60 poultry and eggs, 46, 47, 52, 53 retrovirus, 45, 46, 47, 52 xenotransplantation, 56 Vitamins, 8, 67 W Wildlife, see Feral species World Health Organization, 69 X Xenotransplantation, 6, 10, 12, 17, 44, 51, 54-60 animal health and welfare, 103-104 food safety and, 63, 65-66 infectious diseases, 55, 56-60 immune system, 37, 44, 55, 103 international perspectives, 56, 103 knockout techniques, 37 pigs, 17, 37, 44, 55-60, 103-104 regulatory issues, 55-56, 59, 60, 65, 103-104

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