The failure to establish truth independently and the consequent reliance on the easy cases can lead to seriously distorted inferences.

We provide an example to show how this might occur. Suppose, for instance, that in a certain city (a) the polygraph correctly detects deception in two-thirds of guilty suspects; and (b) due to belief of both police and suspects in the polygraph’s accuracy, police are three times as likely to elicit a confession from guilty suspects who appear deceptive on the polygraph as from those who appear truthful. For instance, suppose that of 300 guilty suspects, 200 fail the polygraph and 100 pass it, and that 30 percent of guilty suspects who fail the polygraph confess, compared with only 10 percent for guilty subjects who have passed. Then 10 percent of the 100 passing suspects, or 10 suspects, would be expected to confess, as would about 30 percent of the 200 failing suspects, or 60 suspects. If none of the remaining 230 guilty suspects is definitively proven innocent or guilty, only the 70 confessed suspects enter the population of a case-control study as guilty cases. Although only 67 percent of all guilty suspects appeared deceptive on the polygraph, the case-control study would show that 60 out of 70, or 86 percent of the guilty cases confirmed by confessions, had given deceptive polygraph results. A validity study that uses cases confirmed by confession would therefore estimate a sensitivity of 86 percent, while the sensitivity under actual field conditions is only 67 percent. If, instead of 67 percent, we suppose that the polygraph has a sensitivity of 80 percent, a similar calculation shows that the case-control study would include 78 guilty suspects and would overestimate the sensitivity as 92 percent. A similar bias could exaggerate the test’s specificity and any other measures of polygraph accuracy estimated from the case-control sample.

In summary, we were unable to find any field experiments, field quasi-experiments, or prospective research-oriented data collection specifically designed to address polygraph validity and satisfying minimal standards of research quality. The field research that we reviewed used passive observational research designs of no more than moderate methodological strength, weakened by the admittedly difficult problem that truth could not be known in all cases and by the possible biases introduced by different approaches to dealing with this problem. In addition, because field examiners normally have background information about the examinees before the test begins, there is the possibility that their expectations have direct or indirect effects on the polygraph test data that cannot be removed even if the charts are independently scored. Thus, field studies contain a bias of potentially serious magnitude toward overestimating the accuracy that would be observed if the truth were known for everyone who took a polygraph test.

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