A number of federal agencies in addition to DOE give polygraph screening examinations. These include the Air Force, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the Drug Enforcement Administration, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the National Reconnaissance Office, the National Security Agency, the Naval Criminal Investigative Service, and the Secret Service. Each has its own practices regarding the groups of people given polygraph examinations and the purposes of those examinations (e.g., preemployment screening, employee screening). In addition, test formats and polygraph equipment vary, as do the ways the agencies use the polygraph examination and its results. The following brief descriptions of the use of polygraphs by these agencies suggests this variation.

The Air Force trains polygraph examiners through its Office of Special Investigations (see http://www.af.mil/news/factsheets/Air_Force_Office_Special_I.html), as part of a professional investigative service to commanders of all Air Force activities, primarily in criminal and fraud and counterintelligence investigations, and also in counterespionage and intelligence operations (see Dohm and Iacono, 1993).

At the Central Intelligence Agency (see wysiwyg://71/http://www.cia.gov/cia/employment/before.htm), each applicant for a position must undergo a thorough background investigation examining his or her life’s history, character, trustworthiness, reliability, and soundness of judgment, among other personal characteristics. The polygraph is used to check the veracity of this information. The agency also has a security reinvestigation program that includes the use of the polygraph (personal communication, William E. Fairweather, chief, Polygraph Division).

Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) employees may be subject to initial and periodic Counterintelligence Scope Polygraph testing (see http://www.dia.mil/Careers/Instructions/conditions.html). DIA polygraph examiners use polygraph techniques to aid in determining attempts at deception by individuals involved in personnel security, criminal, fraud, and counterintelligence investigations and operations (personal communication, Jerry Craig, chief, Security Investigations and Polygraph).

Drug Enforcement Administration special agent applicants and intelligence research specialist applicants must complete a polygraph examination and an exhaustive background investigation. A diversion investigator applicant may be subject to a polygraph examination and an exhaustive background investigation. Not all postings require a polygraph examination (personal communication, Jeffrey Behrmann, polygraph program manager).

At the Federal Bureau of Investigation (see http://www.fbi.gov/em-

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